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在敏感的三八线上建一座浴场?第1张图片

这个在韩国边界的地下浴场挑战建筑在地缘政治张力中的作用
This Underground Bathhouse on the Korean Border Questions Architecture's Role in Geopolitical Tension

由专筑网张敏,韩平编译

自1953年以来,照朝鲜停战协定,位于朝鲜半岛上邻近北纬38度的三八线两侧长约160英里(260公里)的地带已成为南北朝鲜之间的一个非军事区。这个区域不仅仅是国界;这是两国之间严密守卫,近四英里(6公里)的缓冲区。每个军人都驻守在自己国家边界的最边缘,随时等待着冲突的发生。进入该地区的内部,本身就是受到限制的。除了地雷和巡逻部队外,这个区域还拥有蓬勃发展的自然生态系统。这些生态系统是研究在没有人类接触的情况下允许野生动物繁荣发展状况的极好研究对象。

在一个竞赛中,参与者被要求在开城工业园区附近设计一个地下浴场。开城工业园区是一个(目前暂停的)由朝韩双方共同经营的合作经济项目,聘用了来自朝鲜和韩国的工人。研究计划Arch Out Loud想到了一个适合非军事地区的架构,但通常并不适用在这种敏感和紧张的地区。而最终获奖的Studio MRDO和Studio LAM提出利用浴场的建筑形式,浴场仿若一个表演舞台,游客既是观众,也是演员,从而解决了地缘政治,周边环境以及两方访客间紧张的情绪和关系。

Since 1953, the 160-mile (260 kilometer) strip of land along the Korean Peninsula's 38th parallel has served as a Demilitarized Zone between North and South Korea. The DMZ is more than a border; it's a heavily guarded, nearly four-mile-wide (6 kilometer) buffer zone between the two countries. Each military stays behind its own country's edge of the zone, perpetually awaiting potential conflict, and access to the interior of the zone itself is unyieldingly limited. Apart from the landmines and patrolling troops, the interior of the DMZ also holds thriving natural ecosystems that have been the subject of studies on what happens when wildlife is allowed to flourish in the absence of human contact.
In a competition that asked participants to design an underground bathhouse near the Kaesong Industrial Park, a (currently suspended) cooperative economic project that employs workers from both North and South Korea, research initiative Arch Out Loud imagined a DMZ that accommodates non-military structures that are typically seen as out of place in areas of such sensitivity and tension. The winning proposal by Studio M.R.D.O and Studio LAM utilizes the performative element of a bathhouse, where visitors are both audience members and actors, to the address the tensions—both geopolitical, from its surrounding environment, and personal, from the related emotions visitors carry with them—between both groups.

在敏感的三八线上建一座浴场?第2张图片
Courtesy of Studio M.R.D.O.

从刚进入到浴场的空间体验来说,朝鲜和韩国的游客就像穿过朝鲜半岛的方式一样穿过浴场:完全分离。 访客通过两个不同的入口进入浴场的一块狭小的地上部分,这两个入口分别位于三八线的两侧。 在进入时,他们可能会瞥见另一边来的访客,但立即会转移到独立的更衣室,在那里他们穿上不同的长袍。

From the beginning of the experience, visitors from North and South Korea move through the bathhouse in the same way they move through the Korean Peninsula: separately. Visitors enter the small above-ground portion of the bathhouse via two different entrances that correspond to their respective sides of the 38th parallel. While checking in, they may catch a glimpse of a visitor from the other side, but immediately move to separate changing rooms where they put on contrasting robes.

在敏感的三八线上建一座浴场?第3张图片
Courtesy of Studio M.R.D.O.

进入后,他们开始绕过浴室的地下圆顶结构,沿着一组两个螺旋形斜坡下降。 当他们走路时,三八线两侧的游客仍然在他们的独立的路上。 南北近乎相遇,两条斜坡交叉,彼此相望。 这个过程实际上是面对每个参与者自己的忧虑,使他们足够接近触摸另一边,然后把它们分开,并重新回到观众和观众的角色。

After entering, they begin a winding journey down the bathhouse's underground dome structure, descending down a set of two spiraling ramps. As they walk, visitors from each side of the DMZ remain on their separate paths. North and South nearly meet, where the two ramps cross, and view each other from across the space at others. The process physically confronts each participant with their own apprehensions, bringing them close enough to touch the other side before pulling them apart and back into the role of spectator and spectacle.

在敏感的三八线上建一座浴场?第4张图片
Courtesy of Studio M.R.D.O.

在敏感的三八线上建一座浴场?第5张图片
Courtesy of Studio M.R.D.O.

在底部,经过冥想和心里指导,每一方的游客都进入到浴池中。心中摆动的情绪将通过沉静的水流慢慢消散,南北的紧张关系也会融化并和解。

At the bottom, after being guided through an exacting and meditative experience, visitors from each side join in the waters of the bath. The emotions that have been conjured and processed on the walk down dissipate through the liquid, and tensions from North and South blend and drift away.

在敏感的三八线上建一座浴场?第6张图片
Courtesy of Studio M.R.D.O.

这个空间通过身体的运动创造了自己的叙述,一个违背三八线区域之外的叙述。 它不是忽视或驱赶游客从外界带来的不可避免的心里芥蒂,而是利用更佳实际的手段来探索它们。它包容着朝鲜半岛的个体们倾诉关于两方的各种复杂的情感:也许是家庭成员被困在三八线的另一边,也许是曾经的一个国家被一分为二的分离感,甚至一方对另一个国家的鄙视。这家公司的效果图集中在表达老一辈朝鲜韩国民众的情感,他们在战争中度过童年之后,又经历了国家的分裂,冲突,三八线以及战争更能引起他们的情感波动与共鸣。

The space creates its own narrative through the movement of bodies, one that defies the parallelism of the DMZ outside. It makes no attempt to ignore or chase away the nerves that visitors will inevitably carry with them from outside, but rather provides a physical means by which to explore them. It speaks to the intensely personal component that the conflict carries for many Koreans: family members trapped on one side of the 38th parallel, a feeling of loss in the separation of a country that used to be one unit, or even general disdain for the other side. The firm's renderings focus on the older generation of Koreans, who are perhaps closer to the emotional fallout from the split and continued conflicts after having spent their childhoods in and out of war.

在敏感的三八线上建一座浴场?第7张图片
Courtesy of Studio M.R.D.O.

Studio M.R.D.O和Studio LAM致力于为朝韩两国游客创造这种叙事体验,但对于有其他不同环境背景的访客,比如说其他国家的人来说该项目并不成功。先不提在三八线附近建设文化项目的可行性,这个场地依然存在着一个关键的问题。不像博物馆或纪念碑拥有为参观者提供分享空间的能力,浴室依赖于某种团结的期望,即使是来自共同的不和谐的意愿。虽然三八线区域是该地区游客访问量最大的地区之一,但浴室设计的空间体验在心理上几乎完全无法允许非朝鲜半岛的游客的进入。这个决定是一个政治化的决定:为一个文化团体腾出空间,把当地人的需求放在首要地位?还是优先考虑巨大的旅游收入?浴室的提议只对接近于它核心内容的这些对两国历史与文化有深切情感的人提供了全包围式的服务和表达。

Studio M.R.D.O and Studio LAM's commitment to creating this narrative experience for Korean visitors also makes the project unsuccessful for visitors who bring a different background to the space. To put aside for a moment the feasibility of building a cultural project in the DMZ, there remains one key issue with the site. Unlike the ability of a museum or monument to provide viewers with a shared context, the bathhouse relies on the expectation of a certain unity—even if it is one that comes from disunity. Although the DMZ is one of the most heavily visited destinations for tourists in the area, the spatial experience of the bathhouse as it was designed is, psychologically, almost entirely inaccessible to foreigners. This decision is a politicized one: what does it mean to make space for one cultural group, to prioritize the needs of locals over the potential for colossal tourist revenue? The bathhouse proposal is humbly unapologetic in setting its scope to fully encompass only the people closest to its context, and is all the more poignant because of it.

在敏感的三八线上建一座浴场?第8张图片


出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。

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