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新型城市标志:“纪念碑谷”第1张图片

民主纪念碑:一种市中心的新型标志
The Democratic Monument: Adam Nathaniel Furman's Manifesto for a New Type of Civic Center

由专筑网李韧,韩平编译

一般来说,纪念建筑既严肃又吓人。它们通常代表权威,从古典建筑语言中我们可以了解它代表着政治权力、政府和公民的形象。一位来自伦敦的建筑师和思想家Adam Nathaniel Furman,为英国城市设计了一个全新的市中心(“市政厅”)。该方案目前正在格拉斯哥展出。

“这是将城市功能进行重新分组之后成为统一的视觉符号的建筑构成形式”,整体的装饰形式与“大都市的城市地位有关”,总之,Furman指出,“民主纪念碑代表了城市的荣耀、情绪以及建筑的复杂性”,但同时它也是附近的一个灯塔。

Civic buildings are, as a rule, both austere and intimidating. They are often designed to represent authority above all, taking cues from Classical architectural language to construct an image of power, dominance, and civic unity. Adam Nathaniel Furman, a London-based architect and thinker, has at once eschewed and reengaged this typology in order to propose an entirely new type of civic center ("Town Hall") for British cities. The proposal is currently on display at the 2017 Scottish Architectural Fringe in Glasgow.
By "re-grouping various civic functions into one visually symbolic composition of architectural forms," references and types of ornament and allusions have been configured "depending on the metropolitan area within which it is situated in and embodies." In short, Furman states, the Democratic Monument "is an expression of urban pride, chromatic joy, and architectural complexity" which has universal symbolism but remains a beacon to its vicinity.


“市政厅的名字、形式、形态,以及相关的公众人物与城市,在几个世纪以来发生了巨大的变化,每一次的变化都能有不断的创新,为未来的发展积累了许多的经验教训。”

“What Town Halls are, their names, their forms, their programs, and the way they relate to the public and the city has changed dramatically over the centuries, with each new incarnation absorbing lessons from the last, and building up a rich legacy full of successes and lessons that can be brought forward into future manifestations.”


新型城市标志:“纪念碑谷”第2张图片
© Adam Nathaniel Furman

新型城市标志:“纪念碑谷”第3张图片
© Adam Nathaniel Furman

民主纪念碑/ Adam Nathaniel Furman

19世纪是戏剧性变化的时代,动荡的社会、英国城市的活力和骄傲,所有的一切都源于维多利亚市政厅的管理,全国各地的市长带头进行改革,大规模的城市改造改变了居住在新城市的人们的生活。资源由地方政府公开支配,其中市政大厅则占据了一半,除了指导公共条件的改善、建立更好的学校、提升基础设施和住房项目,地方政府的自身建筑也成为各自城市的象征。它们雄伟的外表代表了市民的自豪感、人们的共同目标、区域的经济实力和艺术气魄。其内部包含的多功能厅让宫殿般的建筑看起来十分有趣,其中进行的活动和会议的目的是通过公共艺术和民主思维来追求更好的发展。

19世纪二战后的自由主义先驱改革之中,英国成为了一个更加平等的国家,这里有了更多的发展机遇。这里有广阔的共和罗马庙宇,也有英国新巴洛克风格,纪念性建筑具有了更多的普世价值,这时的建筑师运用了更现代、通用的设计语汇,市政厅变得更加华丽,室内装饰变得闪亮,玻璃同钻石般耀眼,图书馆、体育中心、大学、政府机关等都经过精心策划围绕着广场空间,从而远离城市世俗,成为一个完美的公众聚集地。

随着经济全球化以及欧盟等各项政策的发展,建筑再次承担了城市变革的主要角色,民营企业与国家产业共同为未来提供了丰富多彩的发展空间,其中包括消费、教育、金融与法规,成为社会和市场之间历史性妥协的典范。市政机构的存在感逐渐降低,单一功能的标志性建筑物,如图书馆、美术馆和音乐厅等,分别与私有化相结合,形成新的城市环境,这样才符合日益增长的国力和文化底蕴。

我们很快进入另一段深刻的变革,这时的社会复兴了,城市再次具有自我恢复能力,这时,国家逐渐形成更多样化的形式,并且为人们提供更多的机会,因为此时的人们已经逐渐厌倦了华丽的空虚感,此时的政府与人民是相互脱离的状态。当前的国家在以前所未有的速度迅速发展,市长和议会同样呼吁下放自主权利,这对于城市结构来说是很好的改变机会,同时,这又是通过改革来稳定城市扩张与社会发展的一大支点,这体现了共同的进步意识、历史历史,以及民族缩影。

现在的市政厅在人们心中的概念就如同一座民主纪念碑。那么它需要些什么呢?

Democratic Monument / Adam Nathaniel Furman
The 1800s was an era of dramatic change, tumultuous growth, vigour, and pride for British cities, all of which was anchored and guided by the Victorian Town Hall. Liberal Mayors across the country spearheaded reforms, and massive urban improvements that transformed the lives of those living in the new metropolises. Huge resources were funnelled through local government, with half of all national public spending being dispensed from Town Halls. As well as directing public improvements, better schools, infrastructural provision and housing programs, these homes of local government themselves became symbolic embodiments of their respective cities. Their eloquent facades spoke of civic pride, communal purpose, economic strength, and artistic verve. Their interiors contained multipurpose halls, whose size and opulence made Buckingham Palace seem twee and quaint, and which were used for events and meetings whose purpose was the pursuit of public betterment through the spectacle of public art and democracy, rather than the pageantry of an isolated monarchy.
After the second World War, in a national equivalent of the pioneering reforms of the great Liberal mayors of the 19th Century, Britain was reconfigured into a nation that designed itself into a more equal and opportune disposition, in which infrastructure and opportunity were crafted by the public purse, for the broadest possible demographic. Gone were the vast republican roman temples competing with the beautiful behemoths of British Neo-Baroque, the people palaces of competing virtual city-states, and in came Modernity, a universal design language that spoke of a shared future, and universal values. The distinctly monumental Town Hall became the Civic Complex, and the deliciously florid interiors of pomp-for-the-people became the shining, diamond-cut glass, and rough-hewn concrete collected forms of libraries, sports centres, polytechnics and municipal offices, all carefully orchestrated around and within plazas, spaces slightly removed from the profane life of the city, elevated and set apart as glimpses of an organised, perfected collective destiny.
As globalisation, deregulation, and the European dream reached their respective zeniths in the 2000s under "New Labour," architecture once again took on a starring role in the perpetual transformation of our cities. Private capital mingled with state funding to deliver colourful new spaces which mixed consumption and education, and profit and provision, in an apotheosis of an historical compromise between society and the market. The presence of municipal bodies and of the state was reduced, modified, and rebranded within the context of leisure and shopping, of pleasure and experience. Single function iconic architectural objects, libraries, galleries and music halls, were inserted into the partially-privatised, super-slick new urban environments in a manner that sutured the feeling of growing wealth and cultural expansion, with the idea of an otherwise visually retreating state.
We are fast moving into another period of profound change in which society is resurgent, cities are once again looking to govern themselves, and there is an expectation that the state will return in a novel and more varied form to give sustenance to a population that has grown tired of the empty calories of shopping, and their sense of separation from the centres of bureaucratic power. Our cities are expanding at a rate not seen in a century, and as Mayors and city councils with muscle and financial independence begin to return to regions clamouring for devolved autonomy, there is an opportunity to reconfigure the balance of our cities. Through reforms and muscular policy agendas these political units will need to reinvigorate the agency of civic authorities, while at the same time there is an opportunity to anchor our expanding urban areas with symbolic social fulcrums that embody a shared sense of progress, of cultural production, of history, and of democratic projection.
It is time for the Town Hall as Democratic Monument. So what would it entail?

新型城市标志:“纪念碑谷”第4张图片
© Adam Nathaniel Furman

建筑集中的形体将分散的功能结合起来,置于这样一个奇特的建筑形体之中,基于整个国家的复杂环境中,并以文化和经济领域作为其美学出发点。

Density and concentration, both pragmatically and representationally, are to cohere currently hidden and separate functions into singular, iconographically loaded architectural compositions, in a complex owned and run by the state, but utilising aesthetic and formal tools gathered from across the cultural—and economic—spectrum.

新型城市标志:“纪念碑谷”第5张图片
© Adam Nathaniel Furman

建筑将市政办公室、会议室、市长办公室、图书馆(或其他任何类似功能)、公民馆、市美术馆,和公共庆典的礼仪空间等功能纳入一个紧密的体量中,面向其周围的城市所开放,创造具有内涵的内部环境。

Municipal bureaucratic offices, council chambers, mayors’ executives, libraries (or whatever mix of functions one prefers to call a safe space for individual learning), civic halls, city galleries, and ceremonial spaces for public celebration and protest are brought into a tight and manifold unity which both opens itself up to the urban sprawl around it, and creates an elevated internal environment of reflection and engagement.

新型城市标志:“纪念碑谷”第6张图片
© Adam Nathaniel Furman

组成建筑体量的每个元素都采用一种独特的建筑表达,形成整体与部分之间形态上的碰撞,象征了人民共同需求与共同价值观之间自由民主的永恒的对话,其中还包括少数民族的重要节日庆典,这些元素共同构建了建筑多元化。

Within the image of a unified entity, each element is articulated as a distinct architectural expression, generating a tension between the whole and its parts which embodies the perpetual dialogue in our Liberal democracy between the need for consensus and shared values, and the vital fostering and celebration of minority needs and interests. Architectural plurality in compositional unity.

新型城市标志:“纪念碑谷”第7张图片
© Adam Nathaniel Furman

民主纪念碑的正立面形象十分重要,比起其他的建筑类型,例如商业建筑、私人住宅、公共建筑、社会基础设施等,民主纪念碑的立面形象要更吸引人、更加正式,它是城市的重要代表。

对于工艺、设计,亦或是城市艺术,再到现有技能,这些都是巨大的艺术挑战,建筑华丽的外立面,成为城市现代的数字信息与“官僚主义”的标志。

A civic façade whose emblematic role is to speak louder, more eloquently, with greater garrulousness and verbosity than any of the other buildings, commercial, private, public, infrastructural, or otherwise, in the city, takes up its place at the most prominent side of the Monument’s plot.
These are to be giant frameworks for craft, design, and art from the city, utilising the entire panoply of available skills and technology. Permanent outdoor exhibitions of urban finery, that provide an "unmissably" iconic foundation for the ephemeral and digital initiatives and events that occur within the complex.

新型城市标志:“纪念碑谷”第8张图片
© Adam Nathaniel Furman

大型多功能的室内空间并没有遵循灵活的中性美学,运用的是完全充满装饰的设计方案,代表了人民共同的骄傲和自信。民主机制的辩论、投票,委员会的竞选活动,都更加透明地呈现在公众眼前,市政办公的整个过程成为值得公众参与与尊敬的事件。

在这里,市领导与各个团体一起办公,如LGBT团队、工会、贸易团体、音乐团体等,此时市政厅的室内空间再也不像以往那样单调无趣。

Large, multipurpose indoor spaces eschew the neutral aesthetics of flexibility, and are entirely suffused with decorative schemes that imprint a shared pride and confidence into the very walls of the rooms. The mechanics of democracy, debates, votes, committees, and hustings, are not only to be accessible and transparent, but are to be framed and presented in the most spectacular light, as awesome processes worthy of participation and respect.
Council leaders and mayors will time-share the same halls of state with LGBT groups, unions, trade bodies, music festivals and faith events, all within interiors that make the shopping centres of a generation before seem dull, meaningless, and unadventurous.

新型城市标志:“纪念碑谷”第9张图片
© Adam Nathaniel Furman

这里的楼梯是一个重要空间,既是各种庆典的必经流线,也是人群的短暂逗留区域,然而,建筑主立面前的小广场则扮演了传播重要信息的角色,这里是城市的地标,发行商将它印入明信片作为宣传、游客在这里拍照留念,这里同样也成为室内良好的景观视角,而在室内,一切政治事务又在有条不紊地进行。

A city staircase acts as a stage for events, a route for ceremonies traditional and invented, and a place to linger, while a small square in front of the civic façade acts as a backdrop for broadcasts, postcard opportunities and tourist photographs, and a raised plaza forms an outdoor city room, from where the urban landscape can be observed from a slight remove, meetings can occur with officials housed in the municipal offices at whose feet it sits, and protestations can be registered in a sanctioned space.

新型城市标志:“纪念碑谷”第10张图片
© Adam Nathaniel Furman

随着市政厅的形象变得充满活力,这是不断发展的自由民主的巨大体现,建筑师运用丰富的建筑语言将其一一表达,甚至包容并缓解了国家与市场、少数民族与大众之间的紧张关系。

整个建筑为分散的社会与城市赋予了新的象征,这种象征既不会加剧意识上的差异,也不会过分强调社会任何团体的均衡,但建筑的仪式感与趣味性降低了社会矛盾的存在感,并且逐渐将社会团体凝聚起来。

The next incarnation of the Town Hall is to be a monumental embodiment of our evolving Liberal democracy as it moves into another new phase of energetic activity and robust intervention, in which architectural language and expression can both embody, and reconcile, the perpetual tensions between market & state, and minority and majority.
In which a fragmenting society and a diffuse urban realm is given new symbolic anchors that neither ignore the deep veins of difference, nor impose an arbitrary uniformity, but celebrate the constant tensions, debates and engagement that keep any one aspect of society from eclipsing the others.

新型城市标志:“纪念碑谷”第11张图片
© Adam Nathaniel Furman

人们正经历着几代以来最严重的社会危机,这意味着,这是建立社会重生纪念碑的最佳时刻。危机是社会进步的最大机会。民主纪念碑是进步的象征、壮丽的风景,这不仅仅是针对整个国家,还针对每个城市和我们每个人。

该项目是由模型制造商lee3d赞助。

We are living through what is perceived to be one of our democracy’s most intense crises in generations, which means it is in fact the perfect moment to build Monuments to its rebirth. In crisis lies the greatest opportunity for reinvention. In each island of progress may their rise Democratic Monuments of symbolic sustenance, and practical pageantry, for our sprawling cities, for our expanding towns, for the many, and for the few; beauty, but for everyone.
This project was sponsored by model-makers Lee3d.

新型城市标志:“纪念碑谷”第12张图片
© Adam Nathaniel Furman

新型城市标志:“纪念碑谷”第13张图片
© Christabelle Lee

新型城市标志:“纪念碑谷”第14张图片
© Christabelle Lee

新型城市标志:“纪念碑谷”第15张图片
© Christabelle Lee

新型城市标志:“纪念碑谷”第16张图片
© Christabelle Lee

新型城市标志:“纪念碑谷”第17张图片
© Christabelle Lee

新型城市标志:“纪念碑谷”第18张图片
© Christabelle Lee

新型城市标志:“纪念碑谷”第19张图片
© Christabelle Lee

新型城市标志:“纪念碑谷”第20张图片
© Christabelle Lee


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