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“建筑应该保持村庄的历史延续性”丨伊朗农村住宅第1张图片

Bam Architects在伊朗农村住宅的墙体上喷涂色彩
Sprayed render covers walls of rural Iranian house by Bam Architects

由专筑网李韧,曹逸希编译

当地建筑事务所Bam Architects在伊朗的一个村庄建造了住宅,建筑墙体由沙子和稻草制成的灰泥建造而成。

A plaster made of sand and straw has been sprayed across the walls of this house, which was built in a village in Iran by local firm Bam Architects.

“建筑应该保持村庄的历史延续性”丨伊朗农村住宅第2张图片

Bam Architects建筑事务所的这个项目是为一个退休男性而设计的,他原本生活在伊朗中部城市伊斯法罕,他厌倦了这里的忙碌生活,因此,他打算定居在Parvaneh附近的一个村庄,在2006年的人口普查中,这里的居民只有202人。

Bam Architects designed the residence for a retired man who wanted to escape the busy life in Isfahan – the capital city of Iran's central Isfahan Province. He chose to settle in Parvaneh, a nearby rural village reported to have just 202 residents in the 2006 census.

“建筑应该保持村庄的历史延续性”丨伊朗农村住宅第3张图片

这些伊斯法罕的建筑师用沙子、水泥、石灰石、稻草,再加上当地的石粉,经过一个星期的不断调制,最终制成了符合要求的石膏,然后再将这些石膏涂抹在住宅的墙体上。

在许多十八世纪新古典主义的乡村建筑中,常常能够看到类似的手法,因此建筑师也模仿了这种设计方式,从而让建筑具有地域气息。

The architects, who are based in Isfahan, developed the plaster from a mix of sand, cement, limestone, straw and a local stone powder. Quantities were tested for one week on site before it was sprayed across the walls of the house.
Having seen many of the new builds in similar rural villages copying 18th-century neoclassical architecture, the studio chose the finish to provide in the likeness of the village's vernacular .

“建筑应该保持村庄的历史延续性”丨伊朗农村住宅第4张图片

灰泥的粗糙质地类似土坯,是最早的建筑材料之一,这是一种用稻草和动物粪便做成的材料,在当地的运用十分广泛。因此,这让建筑不仅看起来能够与周围的建筑具有相似性,而且还与周围环境的沙漠色调相呼应。

The rough texture of the plaster mimics adobe – one of the earliest building materials – is made of straw and dung. As a result, it features similarities with neighbouring structures, which appear to be run down, as well as the hues of the surrounding sandy-coloured desert stone.

“建筑应该保持村庄的历史延续性”丨伊朗农村住宅第5张图片

“我们希望让这座住宅能够具有地域性。”建筑师Babak Payvasteh告诉Dezeen记者,“我们告诉业主,建筑应该保持村庄的历史延续性,否则农村的伟大建筑遗产将永远成为历史。”

"We wanted something more local for him," architect Babak Payvasteh told Dezeen. "We told him that we should keep on historical continuity in the villages, otherwise we will lose our great architectural heritages in villages."

“建筑应该保持村庄的历史延续性”丨伊朗农村住宅第6张图片

建筑平面为U形,中央布置有一个中心花园,因此名叫花园住宅。建筑布局参考了伊朗传统的庭院住宅,这种布局形式让建筑在沙漠气候中能够具有良好的采光和自然通风。

为了充分利用这些自然因素,庭院周围的墙体上都装有大窗户,而顶部则开有矩形开口,从而进行空气流通。

The U-shape floor plan of the residence wraps a central garden, so it was named Through Gardens House. The layout references the traditional courtyard houses of Iran, providing benefits of extra daylight and natural ventilation in the desert climate.
To make the most of these, the walls around the courtyard are fitted with large windows, while the tops are punctured with rectangular openings to bring in fresh air.

“建筑应该保持村庄的历史延续性”丨伊朗农村住宅第7张图片

“虽然使用庭院是伊朗住宅建造的基本策略,但在近期的建筑中,它的运用并不是很广泛。”工作室负责人说,“我们想要用历史的手段来表达现代形式。”

砖砌踏步将人们从室内引导向庭院空间,并且还形成花园长椅,供居住者小坐休憩。建筑师还用砖砌成一个大花坛,里面生长有树木。

大多数居住空间位于一楼,可以欣赏庭院美景。卧室和浴室则位于一侧,大厅连接开放式厨房,起居室和餐厅则在另一侧。

"Although using a courtyard is a fundamental solution to Iranian architecture, recently many people neglect it," said the studio. "We tried to use a historical content into the contemporary form."
Brickwork steps wrap the gravelled yard to lead down from inside the house, as well form benches for the resident to sit in the garden. Bricks also form a wall for a large planter where trees are grown.
The majority of the residence is located on the ground floor overlooking the courtyard. Bedrooms and the bathroom are situated on one side, with a hall connecting to the open-plan kitchen, living and dining room on the other.

“建筑应该保持村庄的历史延续性”丨伊朗农村住宅第8张图片

厨房岛台和柜台的底座是由砖砌成的,这是为了向外面的砖砌建筑致敬。厨房的另一面釉面墙则通向狭窄的露台,后面有烤肉架。

在一楼的另一间房间的两侧都有台阶踏步。

The base of the kitchen island and counter are made of bricks, as a nod to the brickwork outside. A glazed wall on the other side of the kitchen opens to a narrow terrace with a barbecue at the rear of the residence.
Another room on the first floor is flanked on either side by terraces.

“建筑应该保持村庄的历史延续性”丨伊朗农村住宅第9张图片

室内设计中除了运用了砖石元素,其余部分的色彩非常单调,目的是与室外的色彩形成对比。

瓷砖覆盖的地板和砖壁都为浅色系。其他的墙体也由白色涂料粉刷而成,整个住宅的背景洁白而纯粹。

厨房台面和楼梯下方的柜子上建筑师运用了少量黑色色彩。卧室和浴室都放置于院子的另一侧。

Aside from a few touches of brick, monochrome finishes are used to provide a contrast to the colours and textures outside the house.
Pale finished include the tiles covering the floor and the white-painted brickwork walls. Other walls are covered in a white stucco that offers a blank backdrop for the resident's artwork.
Touches of black are provided by the kitchen counter tops and the a cupboard built under the staircase. The bedroom and the bathroom are placed on the other side of the courtyard.

“建筑应该保持村庄的历史延续性”丨伊朗农村住宅第10张图片

Payvasteh告诉Dezeen记者,其大部分项目同样位于城市之外的农村地区。

去年,伊朗建筑业蓬勃发展,在解除了严重的经济制裁后,当地的建筑师变得更加富有创意性。其中的一些典型案例包括一个有波浪形砖立面的办公室,和一个小型住宅,它由倾斜向不同方向的白色盒子组成。

摄影:Tahsin Baladi

Payvasteh told Dezeen that most of its projects are similarly located in villages just outside of the city.
Last year saw a boom in Iranian architecture, as local architects became more adventurous after the lifting of crippling economic sanctions. Some of the best examples include an office with a wavy brick facade and a house comprised of a stack of white boxes angled in different directions.
Photography is by Tahsin Baladi.


出处:本文译自www.dezeen.com/,转载请注明出处。

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