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建筑师的脑洞有点大,没想到它们也是可持续材料第1张图片

八种你没有意识到的可持续材料
8 Common Materials You May Not Have Realized Are Sustainable

由专筑网李韧,韩平编译

“可持续性”这个词对我们来说实在太熟悉了,这个词几乎要贯穿我们建筑师的整个职业生涯。我们有责任与义务为子孙后代保护赖以生存的家园,因此建筑师尝试过各种各样的材料与策略,例如太阳能电池板、三层玻璃窗户等。

事实上,在设计方案初始阶段的各项思考都能决定建筑是否具有可持续性能,尤其是材料的选择,这有着巨大的影响。随着新技术的出现,通过许多方法可以将各种材料结合到建筑表皮中,从而节约建筑能耗,提升建筑性能。

在接下来的文章中,我们列出了8种众所周知的材料,这些东西也许在一开始你不会将其与可持续发展联系在一起,但经过思考,你会发现它们的独到之处。

Sustainability. A word that, for many of us, has been driven into our minds from the very start of our careers as architects. We have a responsibility to the planet and future generations to design buildings that are socially conscious—from solar panels to triple-glazed windows, we have tried it all.
Ultimately, whether our designs are sustainable comes down to the early decisions we make for the building, with our choice of materials having a huge effect on the overall carbon footprint. With new technologies come new ways of incorporating abundantly found materials into the skin of the building that could reduce the building's embodied energy and enhance the structure's properties.
In this article, we have compiled a list of 8 familiar materials that you wouldn't initially associate with sustainability but which you might consider for your next design.

建筑师的脑洞有点大,没想到它们也是可持续材料第2张图片
Image © Alex Sparrow

亚麻

亚麻主要用于自然、透气墙体,同时也是一种被称为“Hempcrete”的绝缘材料。Hempcrete通过亚麻与石灰参水混合,既可现浇,也可预制。Hempcrete的碳排放量呈负数,而亚麻本身也是一种可再生资源,其生长所需的水、化学品及肥料都极少。

Hemp
Hemp is used in a natural, vapor-open walling and insulation material known as Hempcrete. Hemp hurd is wet-mixed with lime to make hempcrete for cast-on-site, or pre-cast, applications. Hempcrete has negative carbon emissions as a material and hemp itself is a renewable resource, grown worldwide with little demand on water, chemicals or fuel.

建筑师的脑洞有点大,没想到它们也是可持续材料第3张图片
Image © Wai Ming Ng

软木

软木是一种新兴材料,也是一种天然的建筑材料。它通过剥落的树皮加工而成。随着树皮的生长与脱落,让软木成为了可再生资源,具有防水、防火、吸声、绝缘的特性。

Cork
Cork is an emerging material that could be nature's solution to many of our environmental concerns. It is harvested by stripping the bark off of cork oak trees to be compressed and heated to become the cork we recognize as bottle stoppers and now cladding. The bark regrows, making cork a completely renewable material that is waterproof, an acoustic insulator and fire resistant.

建筑师的脑洞有点大,没想到它们也是可持续材料第4张图片
Flickr user JMacPherson licensed under CC BY 2.0

循环塑料

循环塑料有点类似Hempcrete,人们可以筛选出不需要的部分,将剩余部分留下用作混凝土中的骨料,这样能够有效缓解垃圾填埋场的压力,也能够作为常规开发骨料的替代物。

Recycled Plastic
Much like in Hempcrete, recycled plastic can be ground up in concrete to reduce the material's overall weight while remaining just as strong. Using waste as an aggregate in cement thus prevents landfill clogging and can replace the conventional aggregate that would need to have been mined.

建筑师的脑洞有点大,没想到它们也是可持续材料第5张图片
Image Courtesy of Martine Berendsen, Bart van Hoek, and Attika Architekten

茅草

茅草是传统的建筑材料,在近期运用较为广泛,尤其是在斯堪的纳维亚。秸秆内部的空气存储空间让茅草具有保温的性能,让建筑冬暖夏凉。同时,这也是一种可生物降解的材料,并且易于生长。

Grass
Thatch is one of the oldest building materials known, however it is recently seeing a revival, particularly in Scandinavia. The air pockets within the straw are responsible for its insulation qualities, ensuring the building is warm in the winter and cool in the summer. At the same time, thatch is a biodegradable material that is easily harvested and grows plentifully.

建筑师的脑洞有点大,没想到它们也是可持续材料第6张图片
Image © David Stone

钢铁灰

如果愿意多花费一点时间成本,人们甚至可以运用钢铁灰抹来制造混凝土,这种材料具有更好的强度,并且也普通水泥更加灵活,甚至具有一定的抗震能力。这种材料已受专利保护,其另一个优点是它能够有效吸收二氧化碳,从而碳排放量呈负值。

Steel Dust
Giving another lease of life to what would have been otherwise wasted, steel dust can be used to create a concrete that can withstand more compression before breaking and is much more flexible than standard cement, potentially allowing it to resist earth movements caused by earthquakes or industrial activity. Patented by IronKast as Ferrock, another advantage of the material is its ability to absorb and trap carbon dioxide while it dries, resulting in a carbon negative process.

建筑师的脑洞有点大,没想到它们也是可持续材料第7张图片
Flickr user GrahamPics1 licensed under CC BY 2.0

羊毛

人们在海藻中添加羊毛和其他天然聚合物,从而形成绝缘材料,人们也在粘土中加入羊毛,从而将粘土砖的强度增强37%。运用羊毛制成的粘土砖较硬,不需要通过普通砖的烧制过程,从而节省了大量的能源。但也有人认为,这些粘土砖更适合寒冷潮湿的英国。

Wool
Used traditionally as insulation in the construction industry, adding wool and a natural polymer found in seaweed, to the clay of the brick increases the brick's strength by 37%. These bricks dry hard so there is no need to be fired like traditional bricks, reducing the embodied energy. Despite what may be thought, these bricks are more resistant to cold wet climates often found in Britain.

建筑师的脑洞有点大,没想到它们也是可持续材料第8张图片
Flickr user Monica McGivern licensed under CC BY-ND 2.0

粉煤灰

混凝土的另一个替代物是粉煤灰(AshCrete),这是一种烧煤所产生的副产品,可以用于取代传统的水泥。这种材料的97%都是由可回收材料制成,大大节约了生产成本。而粉煤灰的运用有能提升混凝土的强度和耐久性,降低其渗透性,从而成为一种耐磨材料。

Ash
Another concrete alternative uses fly-ash (AshCrete), a by-product of burning coal, to replace traditional cement; this can create a concrete made up of 97% recycled materials and cuts costs dramatically. The addition of fly-ash into the mixture improves the strength and durability of the concrete while decreasing permeability, resulting in a long-wearing material.

建筑师的脑洞有点大,没想到它们也是可持续材料第9张图片
Image Courtesy of StAndré-Lang Architectes

让人惊喜的材料:玉米

来自St Andre-Lang Architectes事务所设计的生态亭以其玉米填充的墙体而闻名。虽然这不是最有效实用的解决措施,但它表达了一种思路,那便是备选材料也具有无限可能。

Bonus Material: Corn
Used in the Ecological Pavilion by St Andre-Lang Architectes, the well-known vegetable fills the inside of the walls to act as insulation. Though this may not be the most practical solution, it demonstrates the possibilities that alternate materials can offer when a little imagination is used.


出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。
        
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