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全民节能风气好,环保材料早知道第1张图片

建筑师应当知道的8种环保材料
8 (New) Energy Efficient Materials Architects Should Know

由专筑网李韧,杨帆编译

无论建筑师是否能够完成2030年建筑挑战,亦或是追求自己的节能目标,他们都应该在建筑设计中充分考虑限制碳排放量,来应对不断变化的气候环境。

为了实现这些目标,市面上出现了越来越多的创新材料,建筑师们将这些材料运用于建筑中进行推广。从先进的绝缘泡沫板到多层覆板技术,新一代的高性能材料将有助于加速建筑节能的发展。

下面让我们来具体了解一下这些高性能的建筑材料。

Whether architects are trying to meet the Architecture 2030 Challenge or pursuing their own mission to save energy, they have an opportunity to design buildings that can limit carbon emissions and be resilient against changing climate conditions.
To help architects meet their goals, a new wave of chemistry and material science is bringing innovative materials and building systems to the marketplace. From advanced insulation foams to multiwall cladding, this next generation of high-performing materials will help accelerate energy-efficient design.
Learn more about some of the high performing materials of today and tomorrow.

全民节能风气好,环保材料早知道第2张图片
Image Courtesy of 3M

1、结合纳米技术的智能窗口

普林斯顿大学研究者表明,未来的智能窗口能够有效节省大约40%的能源消耗。研究者甚至开发出一种全新的智能窗口技术,它能够有效控制进入建筑的光和热,并自身通过太阳能电池供电,这种技术将运用于玻璃薄膜之中。另外,研究者正在开发一种更加灵活的应用模式,使它能够更加普遍地推广。通过这项技术,业主和项目管理人员能够通过手机应用程序来调节进入室内的光通量,最终达到节约能源的目的。

1. Smarter windows power up with nanotechnology
Princeton University researchers predict that futuristic smart windows could save up to 40 percent in energy costs. The researchers developed a new type of smart window that controls the amount of light and heat entering the building and is self-powered by transparent solar cells in the window itself. The technology is deposited on a glass as a thin film, and the researchers are working to develop a flexible version that could be easily applied to existing windows. Eventually, homeowners and building managers could use an app on their phone to adjust the amount of sunlight passing through a window throughout the day to help save on heating and cooling costs.

全民节能风气好,环保材料早知道第3张图片
Image Courtesy of Hexion

2、达到新高度的工程木材

在运用混合木材之前,建筑中常常运用的是高大的弯曲横梁。交叉层压木材面板(CLT)作为一种新型材料,可以很好地实现这些设计目标。相比起传统木材,CLT具有多项能源优势,它的跨度能够达到10英尺(约3米),长度达40英尺(约12米),厚度甚至能够超过1英尺(约0.3米)。这种材料的木质纤维可以使木材更加得坚韧,其程度甚至能超过可回收塑料。另外,在其外部增加塑料层可以让木材保存得更加长久。研究得出,若是将一棵树制作成传统木材,这棵树的使用率只能达到63%,但制成复合板材,其使用率能高达95%。

2. Engineered wood products reach new heights
Think impressive, dramatic curving beams in homes and taller-than-ever before mixed wood buildings. Cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels are a relatively new material for architects that can be used to help meet these design goals. CLT offers certain advantages in terms of energy efficiency when compared to wood. CLT can also be made in dimensions up to 10 feet wide, 40 feet long and more than a foot thick. With engineered wood products, the wood fibers reinforce the lumber, making it potentially stronger than 100 percent recycled plastic. Furthermore, plastic functions as an outside barrier protecting the wood from rotting. Compared to only approximately 63 percent of a tree that can be used in solid lumber, composite panels can allow for more than 95 percent of the tree to be used.

全民节能风气好,环保材料早知道第4张图片
Image Courtesy of BASF

3、结构绝缘板(SIPs)

结构绝缘板(SIPs)的主要成分是泡沫和定向刨花板(OSB),相比起其他建筑结构系统,这种材料所消耗的能源非常少。建筑专业人员甚至已经将SIPs用作一种常规的节能材料,进一步提高整个建筑围护层的绝缘性能。例如,一些制造商通过绝缘石墨聚苯乙烯(GPS)来生产这种材料,让其具有独特的灰色,还能够有效提升面板的R值。在一些情况下,建筑专业人员和建筑师们甚至可以指定更薄的面板,来满足不同的能耗需求。SIPs能够满足建筑LEED白金认证和被动式建筑标准。

3. Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs) go gray
The major components of SIPs, foam and oriented strand board (OSB), take less energy and raw materials to produce than other structural building systems. And while building professionals already rely on SIPs for energy efficiency, new advances in the panels will further enhance insulation throughout a building envelope. For example, some manufacturers are now producing panels with graphite polystyrene (GPS) insulation, easily recognized by its gray color, and which helps boost the panel’s R-values even higher—sometimes more than 20 percent higher. In some cases, building professionals and architects can specify thinner panels while still meeting energy code requirements. SIPs may also aid architects in achieving LEED Platinum certification and Passive House standards.  

全民节能风气好,环保材料早知道第5张图片
Image Courtesy of Dow Corning

4、为迷你住宅带来巨大优势的真空保温板(VIP)

当前趋势表明,美国许多的住宅规模越来越迷你,而真空保温板(VIPs)能够有效地节省空间。VIPs包含有密闭的多孔材料,空气被储存在这些密闭空间里,然后通过抽至真空将其封闭。其内部材料能够有效地保护这种保温面板,以免它在抽真空的过程中产生裂痕。加拿大国家研究委员会(NRC)曾经对这种材料进行了长达5年的监控与分析,最后得出结论,这种VIPs材料能够在长达30年的时间里保存大约80%的热能。

4. Vacuum insulation panel (VIP) provide benefits to smaller homes and tiny houses
Trends are showing that U.S. homes are getting smaller and VIPs can offer one effective and space-saving solution for insulation. VIPs comprise a porous core material encased in an airtight envelope. The air trapped in these layers is evacuated and the envelope is then heat-sealed. The core material prevents the insulation panels from crumbling when air is removed. The National Research Council of Canada (NRC) has monitored and analyzed these roofing insulation panels for five years at the NRC facility, finding that some VIPs are predicted to maintain more than 80 percent of its thermal performance after 30 years.

全民节能风气好,环保材料早知道第6张图片
Image Courtesy of SABIC

5、采光技术的有效提高

墙面覆盖层是建筑表现的重要组成部分,同时建筑热桥也是造成建筑能源损耗的一大主要因素。为了满足日间的采光需求和能源效率,例如,在半透明墙体和新型多覆层墙体系统中可以运用填充有纳米凝胶的聚碳酸酯面板。另外,用于制作聚碳酸酯面板的能源消耗只是制作玻璃的一小部分。聚碳酸酯面板的耐冲击性能甚至比玻璃多约250次,其测试耐受温度的范围是-40℃至120℃(-40℉至240℉),因此它能够承受诸多例如暴风雨、暴风雪、冰雹等极端天气。聚碳酸酯面板主要运用了绝缘纳米凝胶,再结合其他材料聚合而成,相比起传统的单层玻璃,这种面板能够节约大概50%的能源。

5. Daylighting gets an efficiency boost
Wall cladding is an important part of a building’s visual impact and also its environmental footprint—thermal bridging is one of the primary causes of energy loss in a building. To achieve both daylighting needs and energy efficiency, for instance, nanogel-filled polycarbonate sheets can be used on translucent walls and ceilings in a new type of multiwall system. Additionally, the energy used to extrude polycarbonate sheets is generally a fraction of that to manufacture glass. Polycarbonate sheets are also durable—250 times more impact-resistant than glass and virtually unbreakable; they are tested to perform from −40 to 120 C (−40 to 240 F) and can withstand more extreme weather such as windstorms, hail, or snowstorms. The insulating nanogel that is used to fill the polycarbonate sheets consists of synthetic polymers or biopolymers that are chemically or physically crosslinked to aid in energy efficiency, which may give a building up to 50 percent energy savings compared to monolayer glass.

全民节能风气好,环保材料早知道第7张图片
Image Courtesy of Covestro

6、新一代节能墙板

建造一座新建筑需要大量的材料,其中许多材料的使用率都不高,那么必定会有废物产生。新一代墙体框架面板很好地解决了这个问题,相比起传统的木材框架,这些墙体面板能够减少大约40%的木质产品,并且减少98%的废弃物。这种新型预制墙体由外部聚异氰脲酯绝缘板和墙壁内部的喷涂聚氨酯泡沫(SPF)组成,这两种材料都可以通过拼板装置安装完成。有着绝缘接头的绝缘板也具有抗风化的作用,这使得建筑不需要额外的外部覆层。

6. Next-generation wall panels save energy
Building new homes requires a multitude of materials, many of which will not be completely used, and will require waste disposal. A new generation of panels for component-framed homes potentially offers an example of a more energy efficient solution. These panel alternatives may require 40 percent less wood product than stick-framing and can potentially generate 98 percent less waste. This new type of panelized wall replaces traditional exterior sheathing with a combination of polyisocyanurate (polyiso) continuous insulation on the exterior and spray polyurethane foam (SPF) in the wall cavity, both of which are installed at an offsite panelization facility. The continuous insulation, with taped joints, also functions as a weather-resistant barrier, which can eliminate the need for certain materials like house wrap.

全民节能风气好,环保材料早知道第8张图片
Image Courtesy of Sika

7、绿色屋顶

许多建筑师都了解绿植屋面系统能够减少建筑雨水的流失,缓解城市下水道系统的压力,并减少城市河流的污染。那么这种屋面系统是否能够延长屋面的使用寿命、提升能源效率呢?绿色屋面系统运用的是PVC防水膜,可以为建筑抵挡部分紫外线辐射和过度的太阳直射,因为这些高温因素会导致屋面的膨胀或收缩。根据“建筑设计指南”上的说明,现存的绿色屋顶已经有约30年的使用历史。一个大型城市绿植屋面能够为城市有效舒缓17000加仑(约64352升)的暴雨降水量,或者是1819000加仑(约6885664升)的常规降雨量。这些雨水可以用于植物的浇灌,从而减少50%的额外人工浇灌量。

7. Vegetative roofing systems (also known as “green” roofs) offer long-term resilience
Many architects are aware that vegetative roofing systems can keep water out of a building, reduce stormwater run-off, reduce stress on urban sewer systems and decrease run-off related pollution in waterways. Perhaps what is less widely known is how certain systems can extend a roof’s longevity and in turn, increase energy efficiency year after year. How? Waterproofing membranes used in green roofing systems incorporate PVC material science shielding a roof from the effects of ultraviolet rays and temperature extremes that normally cause a roof system to contract and expand. Many of these green roofs have now been in place for more than 30 years, according to Whole Building Design Guide. A new large, urban vegetative roof can potentially capture up to 17,000 gallons of stormwater per storm event, or 1,819,000 gallons annually. The rainwater captured can then be used to water the plants, reducing irrigation needs by up to 50 percent.

全民节能风气好,环保材料早知道第9张图片
Image Courtesy of TuDelft and the Spong3d project

8、提升热学性能的新型3D打印技术

不久前,建筑外部元素实现了通过大型3D打印技术来打印完成。荷兰研究人员近期测试了一种猜想,使用3D立面打印系统来优化建筑的热学性能。该系统名为“Spong3D”,有着轻盈的建筑品质。研究者认为,配合全年不同的气候环境,这种新材料集合了多种优化热学性能的功能。其工作原理是将空气密闭空间结合外部热隔绝通道,从而存储更多的移动热量。虽然目前还处于概念阶段,但Spong3D系统仍具有实现的可能。

越来越多的建筑师在为节能设计而努力着,化学制造工业的研究者们也将持续对高性能材料进行深入研究。

8. Innovative 3D printing improves thermal performance
One day soon, elements of building exteriors could be printed by large-scale 3D printers to maximize efficiency. Dutch researchers recently tested this idea; using a 3D printed façade system to optimize a building’s thermal performance. This system is known as Spong3D, and it is stiff, yet lightweight. The researchers believe the new material integrates multiple functions to optimize thermal performance according to different climate conditions throughout the year. It works by integrating air cavities for thermal insulation and channels in the outer surfaces of the facade that store movable thermal mass. Spong3D is in the stage of proof of concept and the research is promising.
As architects strive for a more energy-efficient future, the chemical manufacturing industry will continue to innovate high-performing materials to meet demand. To learn more about how chemistry contributes to innovative materials, visit the American Chemistry Council website.


关于作者

Todd Sims是美国化学委员会(American Chemistry Council ,简称ACC)的主要负责人员,他负责管理建筑与建造部门的外联工作,从而建造出安全、高效、可持续发展的建筑。同时他也是高性能建筑核心小组(High-performance Building Caucus)的主要成员,Sims曾经在市场转型研究所(Institute for Market Transformation,简称IMT)任职,在那里他开发了多项建筑节能策略,同时他也是56位州长任命的代表人,负责建筑能耗的相关事宜。如果想要联系Sims,可以发送邮件至todd_sims@americanchemistry.com。

About the Author
Todd Sims is the director of value chain outreach at the American Chemistry Council (ACC), where he manages outreach to the building and construction sector in support of safe, efficient, sustainable, and resilient buildings. An active member of the High-performance Building Caucus, Sims worked previously at the Institute for Market Transformation (IMT), where he developed building energy policies; he also represented the 56 governor-designated state energy officers’ interests in all matters of building energy policies before the federal government, industry stakeholders, and the utility sector at the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO). Sims can be reached via e-mail at todd_sims@americanchemistry.com.


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