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世界上没有通用的设计策略,住宅亦是如此第1张图片

Image © Iwan Baan

从纽约经济适用房设计准备中学到的7个要点
7 Lessons from New York's New Affordable Housing Design Guide

由专筑网李韧,曹逸希编译

当说到美国的公共住宅,人们常常会联想到一个巨型砖石方盒子,毫无审美特征。但是,对于居住在那里的人们来说,标准化高层建筑明显更具有吸引力。地理学家Rashad Shabazz在著作《Spatializing Blackness》中回忆起他小时候曾经住在芝加哥的某座住宅之中,成排的栅栏、视频监控、金属探测器等设施让他感觉这就像是一座监狱,丝毫没有家的温暖。过于封闭、后期维护效率低等问题是这些公共住房的通病。

但美国的公共住房不见得就此落寞,纽约公共设计委员会(New York City Public Design Commission——PDC)与纽约艺术联邦(The Fine Arts Federation of New York)、美国建筑师学会纽约分会(American Institute of Architects New York Chapter)共同合作,出台了一系列纽约公共住房设计准则,这些准则也许会打开纽约经济适用房的新篇章。

When we think of public housing architecture in the United States, we often think of boxes: big, brick buildings without much aesthetic character. But the implications of standardized, florescent-lit high-rises can be far more than aesthetic for the people who live there. Geographer Rashad Shabazz, for one, recalls in his book Spatializing Blackness how the housing project in Chicago where he grew up—replete with chain link fencing, video surveillance, and metal detectors—felt more like a prison than a home. Accounts of isolation, confinement, and poor maintenance are echoed by public housing residents nationwide.
But American public housing doesn’t have to be desolate. A new set of design standards from the New York City Public Design Commission (PDC)—in collaboration with The Fine Arts Federation of New York and the American Institute of Architects New York Chapter—hopes to turn over a new leaf in affordable housing architecture.

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Image © Bruce Damonte

在本月早些时候,一篇文章“纽约设计:经济适用房的品质(Designing New York: Quality Affordable Housing)”的作者讨论了规划设计经济适用房的通用策略,同时也提供了许多经适房的成功案例,这些项目都由诸如Ennead、 SHoP Architects等知名事务所而设计。虽然这些文件只是“纽约市政人员的参考讯息,同时也是当前急需的经适房的设计标准”,这些准则的语言通俗,目前已经公开发表,目的就是希望“居民和当地社区能够拥有高品质的经济适用房”。

Released earlier this month, “Designing New York: Quality Affordable Housing” discusses general best practices in planning affordable housing and provides case studies of successful affordable housing projects already completed in New York, many of which were designed by high-profile firms like Ennead and SHoP Architects. While the document serves as “a reference for New York City agencies and their applicants seeking guidance on affordable housing design,” it’s written in language accessible to people outside of design professions and has been publicly released with the goal of empowering “citizens and community organizations to demand design excellence in affordable housing projects in their neighborhoods.”

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Image © Tom Powel Imaging

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Image © Tom Powel Imaging

Mayor Bill de Blasio于2017年11月发表了一份报告,他描述到,到了2026年,他将建造和维护至少300000座经适房单元,他的规划是2014年规划的更新版,这个版本将会提前完成,他希望能够“保留180000座现有公寓单元,同时再建造120000座新单元”。

几年来,建筑师在设计住宅单元时常常会参考设计准则,因此世界各地的建筑师也能够从中得到一些灵感。那么,小编将一些关键信息总结给大家:

The report comes six months after Mayor Bill de Blasio announced in November 2017 that he would build and preserve 300,000 affordable housing units by 2026. His plan—which is an updated version of a 2014 plan set to be finished ahead of schedule—will “preserve the affordability of 180,000 units of existing apartments and build 120,000 new ones.”  
Architects designing those new units over the next few years will take cues from the design guide. But architects worldwide can learn from the document, too. Here are some key takeaways from Designing New York:

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Image Courtesy of MAP Architects

1、兼具功能、品质、规模的创意设计

几十年来,美国公共住房的体量都是又高又大,而这份设计准则则建议将建筑打碎,让同一个居住区内拥有不同规模与创意的住房单元。位于纽约北端布朗克斯区的Creston Avenue住宅区则有着不寻常的尺度,同时呼应整个街区规模,因为这里大多数都是5层高的公寓,另外将居住单元的数量最大化。而在Magnusson Architecture & Planning事务所设计的一个项目中,街道面向“相邻的老式住宅楼,并且缩小尺度,其建筑立面的中央区域覆盖着金属面板,而在入口部分稍稍后退,形成入口空间。

1. Be creative with massing and respectful with scale
Deviating from big-block high-rises that dominated American public housing for decades, Designing New York recommends breaking up massing within a building to allow variation in units and creativity within the zoning code. The Creston Avenue Residence in the Bronx uses unconventional massing to match neighborhood scale (mostly five-story apartments buildings) while maximizing the number of units offered. In that project by Magnusson Architecture & Planning, street frontages “align with adjacent older residences and echo their smaller scale, while the center portion, clad in metal panels, pulls back to create a generous covered entrance."

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Image Courtesy of MAP Architects

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Image © Bruce Damonte

2、整合附属设施

事实上,低收入社区的附属设施十分有限,例如超市、健身房、公园等等,因此在经适房的设计中,建筑师可以有意识地通过设计来改善这些问题,从而促进居民的身体健康。同样位于纽约北端布朗克斯Morrisania社区的Arbor住宅,建筑师就运用了宽大的楼梯来引入自然采光,这样能够鼓励居民们尽量使用楼梯而非电梯,另外,绿植屋顶花园也能够满足居民的需求。

2. Design with the neighborhood in mind by integrating absent services
When low-income neighborhoods lack supermarkets with healthy options and venues for physical activity (like parks and gyms), consciously-designed public housing can fill in some of these gaps to improve the health of building residents. At Arbor House in the Morrisania neighborhood of the Bronx, wide stairwells are designed with natural light to encourage use; likewise, an on-site hydroponic rooftop garden meets residents’ produce needs.

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Image Courtesy of Brooks + Scarpa

世界上没有通用的设计策略,住宅亦是如此第9张图片

Image Courtesy of MAP Architects


3、不要让经适房看上去太像经适房

通常情况下,公共住宅和商品房之间的区别就在于其视觉效果。因此说到经适房人们的印象普遍认为很一般,甚至有时会带有贬义的意味,例如周边的环境不好,邻里关系紧张等等。创意经适房的倡导者、Blue Sea开发公司的联合创始人Les Bluestone说:“通过设计的方式,我们能够让经适房看上去同样高大上,这能够促进社会的发展与社区的和谐。”

3. Don’t make affordable housing “look” like affordable housing
Too often, the divisions between public housing and market-rate housing are made clear by visually differentiated structures. When affordable housing is marked with pejorative architecture, residents can become stigmatized or ostracized from the broader neighborhood. Les Bluestone, an advocate of innovative affordable housing and co-founder of Blue Sea Development Company says, “The best role that design can play is to not define buildings as affordable housing. Anything that we can do to get away from that helps the community.”

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Image © Iwan Baan

4、结构创新能够克服场地劣势

在诸如纽约这样的城市中,许多经适房项目都位于城市的边缘地带,例如纽约布鲁克林威廉斯堡的Frost Street公寓就位于Brooklyn-Queens高速公路旁边,这是一条六车道的公路。为了减少噪音对公寓的影响,Curtis + Ginsberg Architects事务所则采用了“高性能窗户和厚重砖石混凝土结构”。

同样地,布鲁克林区Boerum Hill的Schermerhorn住宅区也毗邻两条地铁线路,根据经适房设计准则,“场地的下方有地铁线路,如果需要在其上方建造住宅,那么可以使用桁架和悬臂结构,但这会花费大部分的施工费用”。曾经就有109个住宅单元专为流浪人员和艾滋病患者而设置,这些建筑就建造于劣势场地之中。

4. Structural innovation can overcome a difficult site for the benefit of residents
In a city as built-out as New York, many new affordable housing projects occupy odd parcels of city land. Frost Street Apartments in Williamsburg, Brooklyn, for example, sits adjacent to the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway, a six-lane highway. In order to mitigate noise disturbance in the apartments, Curtis + Ginsberg Architects employed “high-performance windows and a heavy masonry and concrete structure.”
The Schermerhorn in Brooklyn’s Boerum Hill offered similarly difficult conditions, sitting atop two subway lines. According to Designing New York, “building…over the two subway lines that run below the site required a truss and cantilever structure that took up the majority of the construction budget.” The result of building on a difficult site, though, is 109 units for formerly homeless people and people living with HIV/AIDS.

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Image © Tom Powel Imaging

5、可持续发展不只是绿色建筑的唯一要求

说道传统的庭院公寓,Navy Green则采用了不同的建筑形式,其中有别墅,也有规模不一的高层建筑,这些建筑环绕中央庭院而设置。使用者们可以通过窗户充分地感受新鲜空气、自然采光、绿色空间,这并不是某些单元的专属,而是大家所共享的条件。

5. Green building is about more than just sustainability
Reminiscent of the vernacular courtyard apartment, Navy Green employs varied building forms (townhouses and high rises of varying sizes) around a central courtyard. Residents, in turn, have access to fresh air, natural light, and green space outside their window, regardless of their unit’s location in the complex.

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Image © Iwan Baan

6、设计并不能解决所有问题

“纽约设计”的提出的设计准则中表示希望能改变经适房的模式,将其从原始的封闭空间转化成为现代的社区建筑,但更重要的是,这些设计良好的公共住房并不能解决纽约所有的住房危机。城市的住房问题仍然存在,但能有改善,因为这大部分还是取决于纽约人民的平均收入。纽约住房保护与发展部门(The Department of Housing Preservation and Development)也在本月向居民公开了住房政策。在纽约,无家可归者的人数每天都在上升,这个数量相对庞大,因此基本问题不解决,再好的设计准则都无法彻底解决问题。

6. Design won’t solve everything
The Designing New York report offers a promising paradigm shift away from confining architecture and towards community-building architecture, but it’s important to remember, in all of this, that well-designed public housing will help, not solve New York City’s housing crisis. The city continues to struggle with its definition of affordability, which relies on skewed median incomes for the New York area. The Department of Housing Preservation and Development has also come under scrutiny this month for their policy on resident selection. And as low-income New York City residents are pushed out of their homes every day, even a substantial commitment from the city to build new units will likely be unable to keep pace with displacement.

世界上没有通用的设计策略,住宅亦是如此第13张图片

Image Courtesy of Brooks + Scarpa

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Image © Bruce Damonte

7、设计策略因国家地区而异

纽约为低收入人群所提供的经适房策略很值得其他国家的参考,但是从历史发展规律来说,公共住宅的解决策略无法通用。例如柯布西耶的法国马赛公寓,和位于圣路易斯的Pruitt-Igoe住宅项目就形成鲜明对比,这说明不同地区需要不同类型的公共住房,《纽约设计报告》的设计准则也说明了这一要点,因此报告中建议根据特定的地点来建造住宅。因此,即使布鲁克林区的Frost Street公寓十分成功,但这种做法也不应在全球全面普及,建筑师所要学习的应该是这些成功住宅设计中的主要策略。

7. Different cities (and countries) need their own design solutions
While we should admire New York City’s attempt to provide dignified housing for low-income residents, architectural history shows us that public housing can’t follow a one-size-fits-all model. If the success of Le Corbusier’s Unité d’habitation in Marseille, France in contrast with the similar (but failed) Pruitt-Igoe Housing Project in St. Louis, Missouri is any indication, different regions need different kinds of public housing. The Designing New York report is conscious of this fact, encouraging site-specific, resident-specific projects. Let’s remember that even if the Frost Street Apartments are great for Brooklyn, they shouldn’t be plopped down anywhere in the world. The lessons we learn from these projects’ attention to residential needs, however, should be broadly applied.

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Image Courtesy of OFIS Arhitekti

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Image Courtesy of OFIS Arhitekti


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