网站地图关于我们

查看相册 View Gallery
城市无障碍与可负担设计,更加人性化的未来第1张图片

Image © EFFEKT Architects for SPACE10

适用于无障碍、可负担城市的10项技术
10 Technologies for Accessible, Affordable Cities

由专筑网小R,王雪纯编译

许多大城市都面临着危机,据联合国估计,到2050年,居住在城市的残疾人数量将达到10亿,是城市总人口数量的15%。而对于残障人士来说,城市里的那些不易于到达的地铁站、商店等等公共区域,才是所面临的主要挑战。另外,大部分城市目前都在努力给人们提供足够的经济适用房,其租金大约为收入的一半。世界经济论坛近期警告,如果城市中只有少部分人能够承担住房压力,那么可持续发展原则将得不到平衡和满足。

未来城市愈发地依赖于新技术,而这些新技术能够提升使用者的日常生活品质,所以建筑师与城市规划者必须要明白,智能城市既应该是无障碍城市,又同时是可负担城市。人们常常都会讨论到,真正做到无障碍的城市的意思是,不同能力、收入、种族、性别、宗教的人们都可以在城市环境中美好地生活。

但是这并不意味着技术将无计可施,事实上,建筑师与使用者都面对着各式各样的智能创新,从而推进设计行业的发展,其中有专为轮椅使用者服务的导航系统,也有针对于大多数人群的经济适用房。

Major cities are facing major crises. The United Nations estimates that by 2050, almost one billion people with disabilities will live in cities, representing 15% of total city dwellers. With urban landscapes awash with inaccessible subways, shops, and bathrooms, the UN has declared that poor accessibility represents a major challenge for cities. At the same time, most cities around the world are struggling to provide safe, respectable, affordable housing for their citizens, with rent accounting for more than 50% of some incomes. The World Economic Forum recently warned that “a world in which only a few can afford housing is not sustainable.”
At a time when the future of urbanism is increasingly being defined by new technologies designed to enhance the everyday life of the user, architects and urbanists must remember that a smart city is an accessible city, and also an affordable city. As discussed at the beginning of our monthly study on accessibility, it is important to note that a truly accessible city is one where people of all abilities, incomes, races, genders, and religions, can live and thrive in an urban environment centered on the human experience.
This is not to suggest that technology does not have a role to play. In fact, as we are about to see, both architects and end-users are being exposed to a wide variety of smart innovations to further advance the cause of universal design, from navigating the city for a wheelchair user, to building homes in urban centers for an affordable housing market.


无障碍

城市无障碍与可负担设计,更加人性化的未来第2张图片

Image © AccessMap

AccessMap - 无障碍路线地图

地图的应用对城市而言已经不是新鲜事了,但是,在诸如西雅图这样的多山地区,许多通向社区的道路都有着一定的坡度,华盛顿大学因此而研发了一款应用,专为轮椅或是拐杖使用者绘制了无障碍路线地图,这些地图依据使用者的需求,避开了许多陡坡道路,引导其走上了平坦的道路。

Accessibility
AccessMap - Accessibility for Mobility

Mapping apps are not a new phenomenon for cities. However, in the hilly city of Seattle, where many neighborhoods have no pavements and 10% to 20% slopes, the University of Washington has developed an app allowing pedestrians with limited abilities such as wheelchair or crutches to map accessible routes. AccessMap can be programmed to avoid steep inclines, and instead seek even terrain with crossings, to the user’s preference.

城市无障碍与可负担设计,更加人性化的未来第3张图片

Image © Brokenlifts.orgLicensed under CC BY 2.0

Wheelmap - 大众的可达性

AccessMap主要专注于西雅图地区,由专业的团队设计与开发,而另一款应用Wheelmap也采用了相同的原则,为轮椅使用者创建了全球性开放平台。该地图类似于维基百科,人们可以根据不同的颜色来标记公共空间,其中绿色代表完全可进入,黄色代表部分可进入,而红色则代表不可进入。该平台以OpenStreetMap为基础,展示了场地的157种类型,并且有25种语言。该项应用既服务于网站,同时也可应用于智能手机。

Wheelmap - Crowdsourced Accessibility
Where AccessMap focuses on Seattle, developed and maintained by a dedicated team, Wheelmap takes the same principle and creates a worldwide, open-source platform for wheelchair accessibility. The map works similar to Wikipedia, where anybody can contribute and mark public spaces according to criteria of Green (fully accessible), Yellow (partly accessible), and Red (not accessible). Using OpenStreetMap as a base, the platform shows 157 types of places, and is available in 25 languages. The service is available as a web application, and for smartphones as an app.



BlindSquare - 提升视障人士的可达性

AccessMap与 Wheelmap的目的是给那些行走不便的人带来便利,让他们能够自如地在城市中活动,而BlindSquare这一应用则是专注于视觉障碍人士。该程序使用GPS定位系统,收集使用者周边的环境信息,并且通过语音发出指令,帮助视障人士更好地活动,还可以进行公共交通定制服务,明确指出站点以及街道的交叉路口。

BlindSquare - Accessibility for the Visually Impaired
While AccessMap and Wheelmap aim to make cities accessible to those with mobility issues, BlindSquare seeks to accomplish the same goal for the visually-impaired. The app uses GPS to locate users, and gathers information about their surroundings. Activated through voice commands, the app helps the blind and visually-impaired to navigate cities, find cafes, and can also be tailored for public transport to highlight next stops and street crossings.

城市无障碍与可负担设计,更加人性化的未来第4张图片

Image © Avanti Avanti Studio & Design for All Foundation

Reading Madrid - 无障碍标识

世界许多城市都采用了无障碍标识系统,例如Legible London、WalkNYC、 Rio on Foot等等。Reading Madrid是一种新趋势,该系统在Dimas García的指导下,由Applied Wayfinding和西班牙当地公司Paisaje Transversal、Avanti Avanti Studio、Urban Networks、Paralelo 39共同设计研发,其目的是通过寻路模块系统和战略性交互式装置来提升城市的安全性与可达性。

Reading Madrid - Accessible Signage
Cities across the world are embracing accessible signage, with initiatives such as Legible London, WalkNYC, and Rio on Foot. Furthering this trend is Reading Madrid, a combined effort by Applied Wayfinding and local Spanish firms Paisaje Transversal (urban strategy), Avanti Avanti Studio (Design for All), Urban Networks, and Paralelo 39 (urban designers and architects), under the guidance of Dimas García. The project aims to improve legibility, safety, and autonomy in cities through a system of wayfinding cubes, and strategically-placed interactive fixtures. Read more from our in-depth analysis here.

城市无障碍与可负担设计,更加人性化的未来第5张图片

Image © Eric Bronson/Michigan Photography

Stretch | Color -孤独症谱系障碍患者的可达性

建筑师兼教授Sean Ahlquist与MSU剧作者Dionne O’Dell共同合作,为孤独症谱系障碍患者设计了感官戏剧体验,其目的是提高此类患者与周围世界的互动。最新的版本改编于最初的2D项目“Stretch|Color”,新版本结合了3D开发结构,成为O’Dell剧作的一大亮点。研究者相信,该体系在感官表现领域能够有全新的可能性,提升使用者在学校、博物馆等公共场所的各项体验。

Stretch|Color - Accessibility for Autism Spectrum Disorder
Architect and professor Sean Ahlquist, along with MSU playwright Dionne O’Dell, has created a sensory theater experience for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) challenges, designed to enhance the ability of those with ASD to interact with the world around them. Emerging from an initial 2D project titled Stretch|Color, the latest adaption features a 3D developed structure serving as a focal point for a play written by O’Dell. The creators believe it holds new possibilities in the realm of sensory performance, enhancing the user's experience of schools, museums, and public places throughout cities. Read our article on the project here.


可负担性



PRISM - 住宅建造应用程序

Bryden Wood、Cast以及伦敦市长共同推出了这款全新的应用程序,目的是加速城市的住宅建设。这款程序名为“PRISM”,能够针对高品质工业化住宅进行设计与施工,满足使用者的大规模需求。而伦敦也将成为世界上第一座使用此类免费应用程序的城市,充分利用了精准的住宅信息和革新技术。设计师们相信,通过应用程序能够促进更大范围的合作,并且也会进一步地发展社区。

Affordability
PRISM - Housebuilding App

Bryden Wood, Cast, and the Mayor of London have launched a new app to speed up the capital’s homebuilding. The freely-available app, titled PRISM, is aimed at the design and construction of high-quality, factory-built homes to address the current demand of 50,000+ houses per year. London will be the first city in the world to make use of a freely-available app of this kind, sharing precision housing knowledge and leveraging technology to revolutionize the design process. The designers believe that making the app opensource will encourage greater collaboration, and will allow this innovation to be used and further developed by the global community. Read more about the technology from our previous article here.



Vulcan -3D打印住宅

3D打印能够为城市住宅的未来发展节约能源,提升经济效益。德克萨斯州奥斯汀的一家施工公司ICON近期与非盈利住房机构New Story共同合作,开发了一款3D打印机,这款名为“Vulcan”打印机能进行住宅的施工,它能够在12到24小时之内打印面积为650平方英尺的单层住宅。

Vulcan - 3D Printed Housing
3D printing offers tremendous economic and efficiency savings for the future of housing in cities. ICON, a construction company based in Austin, Texas, has recently partnered with New Story, a non-profit focusing on housing, to create a 3D printer that can build houses for $4000. The printer, called the Vulcan, is capable of printing a 650sqft, single-story home out of cement in 12-24 hours. Learn more about the project here, or read our in-depth analysis in 3D printing as a solution to affordability in cities here.

城市无障碍与可负担设计,更加人性化的未来第6张图片

Image © EFFEKT Architects for SPACE10

宜家城市乡村项目- 预制住宅

宜家的家具设计精致且简约,该公司目前也将这种DIY家具模式扩大到住宅与城市规模之中。“民主设计日(Democratic Design Days)”是宜家公司一年一度的活动,今年的主题是“城市乡村”项目,该项目是宜家公司与SPACE10、EFFEKT Architects共同合作,目的是从诸多方面来提升人们的生活品质。共享社区给不同类型的家庭与生活环境带来了多种选择,其中既适用于单人,也适用于团队,同时再到多代家庭。住宅应用了适应性模块建设系统。

IKEA's Urban Village Project - Prefabricated Housing
Known for simple, well-designed, flat-pack furniture, IKEA is proposing expanding their DIY-model to a much larger scale: entire city centers. Democratic Design Days is an annual event where IKEA introduces its upcoming brands and collaborations, this year featuring The Urban Village Project, a collaboration between SPACE10 and EFFEKT Architects. With an overarching goal of improving our quality of life, The Urban Village Project includes a multi-faceted approach. Shared living communities provide a variety of options for different types of families and living situations: from a single person, to a group of roommates, to multi-generational families, the housing is designed to be adaptable within a modular building system. Learn more from our article on the project here.

城市无障碍与可负担设计,更加人性化的未来第7张图片

Image © iBuild

iBuild - 强大的自我建设者

iBuild是一款以使用者为核心的应用程序,它专注于住宅的自我建设过程。世界银行强调说明,该应用程序能够解决诸如印度尼西亚等新兴国家的经济适用房的建设问题,承包商可以通过这款应用来了解项目报价、材料采购、以及项目进度。其目标是让使用者能够自发地控制施工过程,提升施工的透明性,并且以数据为基础,提升准确性。

iBuild - Empowering Self-Builders
iBuild is a citizen-centric app that facilitates the home self-construction process. Highlighted by the World Bank as a potential solution to affordable housing in emerging countries such as Indonesia, the technology sources contractors to get quotes for projects, purchase materials, and track the progress of construction projects. The goal of the app is to empower citizens to take control of the construction process, improve transparency, and collect data to inform policymaking.

城市无障碍与可负担设计,更加人性化的未来第8张图片

Image © Pushish Images / Shutterstock

IBM Blockchain - 分散化建筑

世界银行同样认为Blockchain能够解决经济适用房的问题,同时这几乎成为了未来的商业发展趋势。该系统能够安全、透明、高效地完成土地所有权过程,并给土地的转让提供了防篡改保障。大约20%的城市贫民窟居民都没有正式的房屋使用权,也无法改善住房的资金模式,而Blockchain则为社区工作者网络带来了透明、分散、高效的方式来明确土地及其所有权的各项信息。

本文信息来源于United Nations、The World Economic Forum、The World Bank、The Guardian、The Atlantic、Medium。

IBM Blockchain - Decentralized Building
Also identified by the World Bank as a disruptive technology with the potential to address housing affordability, Blockchain has been touted as the future of business. A secure, transparent, efficient digital ledger has the potential to streamline the land titling process, and provide a tamper-proof method of documentation for the transfer of land. With almost 20% of urban slum dwellers having no formal tenure on their homes and no way for finance for home improvement, Blockchain offers the potential for networks of community workers to survey and map land/property ownership in a transparent, decentralized, cost-effective way.

This article uses information sourced from the United Nations, The World Economic Forum, The World Bank, The Guardian, The Atlantic, and Medium.
        
【专筑网版权与免责声明】:本网站注明“来源:专筑网”的所有内容版权属专筑网所有,如需转载,请注明出处

专于设计,筑就未来

无论您身在何方;无论您作品规模大小;无论您是否已在设计等相关领域小有名气;无论您是否已成功求学、步入职业设计师队伍;只要你有想法、有创意、有能力,专筑网都愿为您提供一个展示自己的舞台

投稿邮箱:submit@iarch.cn         如何向专筑投稿?

扫描二维码即可订阅『专筑

微信号:iarch-cn

登录专筑网  |  社交账号登录:

 匿名

没有了...
评论加载中,请稍后!

技术 (31 articles)


新技术 (7 articles)


城市设计 (67 articles)


无障碍 (8 articles)


人性化设计 (8 articles)


未来 (19 articles)