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新建筑5要点之自由平面的典型代表第1张图片

图跟哈特别墅(密斯·范·德·罗)|Villa Tugendhat / Mies van der Rohe. © Alexandra Timpau

开放楼层平面的6大典型案例
Learn About Open Floor Plans Via These 6 Iconic Residences

由专筑网李韧,吴静雅编译

勒·柯布西耶的“新建筑5要点”在20世纪成为了现代主义建筑的设计指南,因此对于后人们理解现代主义设计作品也具有很重要的作用。水平开窗、自由立面、自由平面、屋顶花园、底层架空,每一点都至关重要,自由的平面形式也几乎成为了这位法籍瑞士建筑师的代表。在实际建筑项目中,这个要点也意味着独立的结构和外观,这让墙体的分隔不仅仅只运用于功能的区分。

住宅项目的内部划分与家庭形式息息相关,而在当代环境中,这一项内容似乎被弱化,由于一些全新的空间形式,建筑变得更加灵活。

为了更好地理解现代住宅空间,小编们收集了一些极具代表性的住宅室内平面布局。

Le Corbusier's "Five Points of Architecture" functioned in the twentieth century as the go-to guide for architectural production; it is also a significant work in understanding the legacy of modern architecture. Horizontal windows, free design of the facade, pilotis, roof gardens, and perhaps the most significant point, free design of the ground plan form the Franco-Swiss architect's manifesto. In terms of design practice, this last point means distinguishing structure and wrapper, which allows the free disposal of dividing walls that no longer fulfill a structural function.
Residential projects were once characterized by a clear division of environments linked to domestic dynamics, now filtered by modern discourse, the house became flexible and capable of new spatial articulations.
To better understand the modern domestic space, we gathered some of the most emblematic examples of residences and their floor plans.


萨伏伊别墅

新建筑5要点之自由平面的典型代表第2张图片

Villa Savoye / Le Corbusier. © ángel Fernandez

柯布西耶的萨伏伊别墅就充分结合表达了新建筑的特征,建筑于1928年至1929年间建造于法国。与斯坦因别墅相类似的是,这两座建筑都严格遵守柯布西耶所提出的新建筑5要点。在地面层,萨伏伊别墅由立柱所制成,表达了房屋是住宅的机器这一要点。而平面布局则呼应了建筑的诸多功能,也表达了建筑师所提出的复杂性。

Villa Savoye
Considered the great manifesto for a new architecture, Le Corbusier's Villa Savoye was built between 1928 and 1929 in France. Together with Villa Stein (1926), both structures synthesized in a very rigorous way the implementation of the five points. As for the ground floor, Villa Savoye was structured from a modulation of pillars that are part of an independent structural system and proposes the residential unit as a living machine covered by the new technological advents of the time. The design of the horizontal plan responds to the diversity of demand for project uses and reveals the complexity of the relationships proposed by the architect.

新建筑5要点之自由平面的典型代表第3张图片

© Julia Brant

在这个案例中,比较值得注意的是建筑的竖向分隔,建筑的每个楼层都在强调着建筑师的理念,例如地面层主要用于停车,并且连接着服务设施,而中间楼层考虑住宅的私人和功能项目,在上部楼层设置有起居室和工作区,这些元素都通过走廊以及竖向交通体而连接在一起。

In this case, it is worth highlighting the division of the programs vertically, since each floor tries to reinforce the ideas put forward in the architect's speech: the ground floor, designed from the perspective of the arrival of the car, receives programs linked to services; the intermediate floor contemplates the private and functional programs of the residence; while the upper floor receives the living space and the visual delight of the constructed work itself, all linked by the elements of circulation that promote the idea of the promenade.

新建筑5要点之自由平面的典型代表第4张图片

© Julia Brant


库鲁切特住宅

新建筑5要点之自由平面的典型代表第5张图片

Casa Curutchet / Le Corbusier. © ARQ+HIS

业主Pedro Domingo Curutchet在委托一位阿根廷专业人士进行住宅项目和医疗办公场所的设计之后,他委托柯布西耶进行La Plata地区的项目设计。这片场地还未经过开发,这也意味着另一位建筑师Amancio Williams为此做出了巨大的贡献。

而这个项目也直接地表达了自由平面,建筑的钢筋混凝土结构通过支柱支撑,而楼层中的功能则通过交通要素而连接,并且环绕内部庭院而排布。

Casa Curutchet
After an incessant search by Argentine professionals to carry out a residential project and medical office, its future owner, Pedro Domingo Curutchet, hired Le Corbusier to intervene in an area of La Plata. The site was never visited by the architect, which meant a great contribution on the part of another architect, Amancio Williams.
The result is a project that also directly expresses the premises of the free floor: its structure in reinforced concrete defined from the modulation of the pillars receives the programs in floors that are superimposed and articulated from elements of circulation around an inner courtyard and an access with pillars.

新建筑5要点之自由平面的典型代表第6张图片

© Julia Brant


法斯沃斯住宅

新建筑5要点之自由平面的典型代表第7张图片

Casa Farnsworth / Mies van der Rohe. © Tim Brown Architecture

法斯沃斯住宅的设计者是密斯·范·德罗,建造于1945年至1951年间,建筑位于伊利诺伊州普莱诺。建筑看上去如同一座展厅一样晶莹剔透,让自然元素直接与建筑内部流通,建筑墙体只有大面积的玻璃面板,而内部的布局也十分自由。

Farnsworth House
Farnsworth House was designed by Mies van der Rohe and built as a weekend home in Plano, Illinois between 1945 and 1951. Thought of as a ground floor pavilion that leaves the natural elements of the environment in direct contact with the interior of the house, delimited only by large glazed panels, the residence is an example of the free floor plan.

新建筑5要点之自由平面的典型代表第8张图片

© Matheus Pereira

整座建筑由8个工字型钢柱支撑,并且通过玻璃围合而成,是密斯“少即是多”理念的代表项目。而就平面布局而言,建筑室内空间一览无余,一些评论者们认为[1]这样的布局并不人性化,因为建筑师将自己的意愿强加给客户。

The structure consists of eight "I" profile steel pillars that support the slab and roof, while the glass panels delimit the project and are an irrevocable example of "less is more." In relation to the plan, its interior integrates all uses of domestic life, although some authors [1] consider this to be impersonal and imposed by the architect as a model for the everyday life of his client, Doctor Edith Farnsworth.


图根哈特住宅

新建筑5要点之自由平面的典型代表第9张图片

Villa Tugendhat / Mies van der Rohe. © Alexandra Timpau

这是密斯的另一个项目,业主是一对年轻夫妇,他们希望自己的住宅简约而宽敞,而这些需求也完全符合密斯的设计理念。在该项目中,建筑师仍然主要运用了钢与玻璃,并且呼应地形的变化。这座建筑位于捷克布尔诺,但是建筑的金属构件则在柏林生产,因为当时在住宅建筑中采用这种材料并不常见。

Villa Tugendhat
Another project by Mies van der Rohe, commissioned by a young couple who wanted the architect to propose a spacious house with simple forms, is directly aligned with the idea of the German-American architect's free plan. In this example, steel is also used as a structural element of the three-level volume that the program contemplates and is articulated based on variations in the slope of the terrain. In spite of being located in Brno, Czech Republic, the metal parts of the structure of the house were produced in Berlin, since at that time it was not common to resort to this type of material for residential constructions of the time.

新建筑5要点之自由平面的典型代表第10张图片

© Matheus Pereira

其钢结构仍然有着诸多优势,而这些优点在密斯的其他项目中也同样存在,例如建筑有着连贯性,同时平面形式也较为自由,可以根据特定的项目需求而设定。

Despite the effort, it was this metal structure that guaranteed a series of advantages explored by Mies in his projects, such as the possibility of lightening divisions and a free plan that could vary by level according to specific programs.


埃姆斯住宅

新建筑5要点之自由平面的典型代表第11张图片

Casa Eames / Charles e Ray Eames. © Flickr de rpa2101

建筑师Charles与Ray Eames设计的专题研究住宅项目由《建筑艺术》杂志进行推广,这座设计建造于1945年的住宅结合了二战期间开发的民用建筑新技术。建筑由两个体量通过庭院连接而成,并且运用了预制构件。

Eames House
Designed by architects Charles and Ray Eames as part of the Case Study Houses program, promoted by Arts and Architecture magazine, this 1945 house incorporates the new technologies that were available for civil construction developed during the Second World War. The two volumes articulated by the patio were designed from prefabricated elements.

新建筑5要点之自由平面的典型代表第12张图片

© Matheus Pereira

在该项目中,建筑师同样运用了自由平面形式,空间内的通道能够起到连接通高天花板的作用,同时形成更多的阅读空间。另外,独立的钢结构系统结合了半透明、全透明的彩色面板,从而在室内产生特殊的光线效果。

In the case of this project, resorting to the free floor plan allowed the pavements of the volumes to set up relationships of double ceiling eight in some moments, creating diverse compositions and possibilities of spatial reading. In addition, the independent structure of steel profiles allows the free disposal of opaque and translucent colored panels, that contribute to generating interesting light effects in the interior of the house.


乌德勒支施罗德住宅

新建筑5要点之自由平面的典型代表第13张图片

Residência Rietveld Schröder / Gerrit Rietveld. © Zasa Lein

该项目由里特维尔德设计,位于荷兰乌德勒支,这座住宅的内部空间可以根据家庭的需求而灵活改变。建筑师还运用了可移动墙体,从而在室内形成多样的变幻环境,并且让使用者的家庭生活不受束缚,满足日常活动需求。

Rietveld Schröder House
The residence designed by Gerrit Rietveld in 1924 in the Netherlands is an example of total flexibilization of domestic spaces from a plan whose partitions can be altered. This is possible thanks to the use of retractable walls that can be gathered by articulating various environments of the house and eliminating the notion of hierarchy between the rooms and the daily activities of the family.

新建筑5要点之自由平面的典型代表第14张图片

© Matheus Pereira

建筑师通过水平正交的各种形式,激发住宅的多种可能,该项目构思了建筑内部的动态元素,充分利用其结构优点。

By providing a variety of design possibilities from the same orthogonal envelope, this project reiterates the virtues of thinking about the autonomy of structural elements in relation to the dynamics of internal environments.

新建筑5要点之自由平面的典型代表第15张图片

© Matheus Pereira

新建筑5要点之自由平面的典型代表第16张图片

Casa Dino Zammataro / Rodrigo Lefèvre. © Flickr de Danilo Hideki

新建筑5要点之自由平面的典型代表第17张图片

Residência Oscar Americano / Oswaldo Bratke. © Nelson Kon

新建筑5要点之自由平面的典型代表第18张图片

Casa das Canoas / Oscar Niemeyer. © SkyscraperCity

新建筑5要点之自由平面的典型代表第19张图片

© Julia Brant

新建筑5要点之自由平面的典型代表第20张图片

© Julia Brant

新建筑5要点之自由平面的典型代表第21张图片

© Matheus Pereira

新建筑5要点之自由平面的典型代表第22张图片

© Julia Brant

新建筑5要点之自由平面的典型代表第23张图片

Residência Olivo Gomes / Rino Levi. © Nelson Kon


参考:

[1]:在《女性与现代住宅:2006年的社会和建筑史》一书中,Alice Friedman提出了这样一个问题,即如何在当代项目中,建立建筑师与客户之间的关系。

References:
[1]: In her book Women and the Making of the Modern House: A Social and Architectural History, of 2006, Alice Friedman raises the question of how the relationship between architect and client is set up in modern projects.

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