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在现代主义建筑成型之前,它们都有哪些特征?第1张图片


没有天生的现代主义:20世纪早期的建筑代表特征
No One is Born Modern: The Early Works of 20th Century Architecture Icons

由专筑网李韧,曹逸希编译

在建筑领域中,20世纪的作品大多有着类似的特征,一般来说,那便是现代主义。这些作品六十年来一直是业内讨论的主要话题,因为其中集结了许多关于现代主义背后的各种分歧。

有的人认为,一方面,就其起源来说,现代学校以建筑师的建议为基础,在第一次世界大战后的欧洲,以一种参与社会的方式来处理社会转型。而另一方面,一些人认为现代主义建筑风格非常关键。例如,现代建筑以某些明确的特征为导向,其中既有材质的表达,也有项目的类型,亦或是柯布西耶所谓的新建筑的5大基本特征。另外,也有人认为,现代建筑中的设计原则与19世纪中叶的社会生产运动息息相关,例如当时的工艺美术运动。

在当前市面上有许多关于此类运动的解读,但某些建筑师的作品同样毫无争议地成为现代建筑的代表。其中既有遵循普遍方法策略的设计方式,也有基于特定文脉与背景中心思想的设计措施,例如柯布西耶(Le Corbusier)、密斯·凡·德·罗(Mies van der Rohe)、赖特(Frank Lloyd Wright)、尼迈耶(Oscar Niemeyer)、Lúcio Costa,这些大师被公认为现代主义风格的代表,他们在美国、欧洲、亚洲、巴西都有着代表作品。

但实际上,这些建筑师在他们的职业生涯中并没有一贯地遵循某种风格。每位大师的项目都能代表着对某个历史时期的发展贡献,当然,这也与项目背景环境、相关利益者、不同地区的生产状况,以及国家的发展方略息息相关。因此,了解这些作品对于现代建筑风格的学习也至关重要。下面来看一些典型案例。

In the ambit of architecture, much of the twentieth century is marked by a production that reads, in general, as modern. The foundations of this work have been the subject of discussion for at least six decades, bringing together conflicting opinions about the true intention behind the modern gestalt.
On the one hand, it is argued that, at its origin, the modern school dealt with a perspective of social transformation based on the proposals of architects with a participatory social aspect of the craft during post-World War I Europe. On the other hand, some opinions frame modern architecture in a stylistic key. For instance, marked by formal characteristics that guide and create a set of production that deals with the expressiveness of materials, the type of design in the projects, and, above all, the consecrated 5 points of Le Corbusier's modern architecture. Moreover, there are also authors who argue that the principle of what would come to be modern architecture is related to the production of mid-19 century movements, such as the Arts and Crafts movement.
In spite of numerous readings about the movement, the work of some architects has become an unquestionable reference within the history of modern architecture. Either by inaugurating methodologies and proposals that guided generations that followed or by the skill and mastery of the management of the central points in question in this specific context of architectural production. Names such as Le Corbusier, Mies van der Rohe, Frank Lloyd Wright, Oscar Niemeyer, and Lúcio Costa have careers recognized in what is considered modern, with iconic designs in the US, Europe, Asia, and Brazil.
Despite this, the truth is that these architects did not have a homogenous style throughout their career. All of them have in their portfolios projects that disclose much of what is usually attributed to their contributions to the history of architecture. This may be related to the very time of maturation of the discourses, specific interests of the authors, in addition to the circumstances of production in each country and the national and international guidelines placed at the time. Also, perhaps to recognize the existence of these differing works is of fundamental importance for understanding influences and references. Learn some of these examples below.

在现代主义建筑成型之前,它们都有哪些特征?第2张图片

Haus Riehl, Mies van der Rohe. © Folkerts Architekten, via Wikimedia. License CC BY 3.0

柏林密斯·凡·德·罗住宅

德国建筑师密斯·凡·德·罗是现代主义建筑大师,其作品精致细腻,其名言“少就是多”值得永久品位。其作品的一大特征就是建筑的材质,这位建筑师深受1905年起欧洲先锋主义艺术的影响,同时精通玻璃与钢的运用,这些材质既沉稳又精致。

The Mies van der Rohe Houses in Berlin
The German architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe was a champion of the modern architecture strand that implemented the "less is more" mentality with great elegance and forcefulness. In his most recognized projects, in regards to materiality, the expressiveness of his works is thought of in glass and steel. It was to establish a stable characteristic, influenced by the artistic vanguards of Europe from 1905.

在现代主义建筑成型之前,它们都有哪些特征?第3张图片

Churchill Villa, Mies van der Rohe. © Heike Vogt, via Wikimedia. License CC BY 3.0

在其职业生涯的早期,这位建筑大师的作品还有着古典主义气息,而到了后来则愈发具有现代主义特色。早期在柏林时,密斯设计了一系列住宅,而到了1907年,这位当时年仅21岁的建筑师开始着手其第一个独立完成的项目“Haus Riehl”住宅,这座建筑至今一直坐落于城市郊区,直到1928年,密斯的作品都有着此类新古典主义特征。

His professional trajectory is characterized by a neoclassical origin of reference that evolves into an absolutely, modern reference. During his early years in Berlin, Mies van der Rohe designed a series of residences. In 1907, at the age of 21, he performed his first independent work, Haus Riehl, a building that stands to this day and is located on the outskirts of the city. He continued to build neoclassical houses in this style until 1928.

在现代主义建筑成型之前,它们都有哪些特征?第4张图片

Unity Chapel, Frank Lloyd Wright. © Teemu08, via Wikipedia. License CC BY-SA 3.0

在现代主义建筑成型之前,它们都有哪些特征?第5张图片

George Blossom Residence, Frank Lloyd Wright

赖特的早期作品

美国建筑师弗兰克·劳埃德·赖特在20世纪就拥有所谓的国际主义风格。其作品的特点在于与环境相互呼应,这也是他后来成名之后的一大作品特征。直到今天,赖特仍然是现代建筑风格的代表人物。

然而,其某些早期作品也具有一些历史影响,例如其自宅和一些位于芝加哥的教堂,还有著名的塔里艾森项目。

The Early Works of Frank Lloyd Wright
Frank Lloyd Wright was an American architect recognized for his residential projects forming the so-called International Style in the 20 century. His style interacts with its surroundings and is a trademark that continues to influence the work of architects after him. To this day, Wright is an icon of the contemporary architecture.
However, some of his early works also reveal older, historical influences. For example, some of his homes and churches in Chicago and also Taliesin.

在现代主义建筑成型之前,它们都有哪些特征?第6张图片

Villa Jeanneret-Perret, Le Corbusier. © Eveline Perroud, via Wikipedia. License CC BY-SA 3.0

提出“新建筑5要点”之前的柯布西耶

柯布西耶也是现代建筑的象征,但其作品中也曾经有着新古典主义的影子。在萨伏伊别墅项目开始之初,这位建筑大师提出了“新建筑5要点”,这也成为了柯布西耶建筑日后发展的方向。

Before Le Corbusier's 5 Points of Architecture
Even Le Corbusier, an icon of modern architecture, incorporated examples of neoclassical allusion into his work. The father of the Five Points of Modern Architecture, beginning with the project of Villa Savoye, is the author of projects that are shown as a counterpoint to what would later be implemented as a guideline for his proposals.

在现代主义建筑成型之前,它们都有哪些特征?第7张图片

Villa Favre Jacot, Le Corbusier. © Elleka, via Wikimedia. License CC BY-SA 3.0

其早期住宅项目位于法国和瑞士,例如Fallet别墅和Jeanneret-Perret别墅(也称作Maison Blanche),这些作品都明显受到了新古典主义的影响。

His early residences built in France, especially in his hometown, La Chaux-de-Fonds in Switzerland, such as Villa Fallet and Villa Jeanneret-Perret (also known as Maison Blanche) highlight a neoclassical influence.

在现代主义建筑成型之前,它们都有哪些特征?第8张图片

Villa Väinölä, Alvar Aalto. Via Pinterest

阿尔瓦·阿尔托

芬兰建筑大师阿尔瓦·阿尔托是现代主义运动中有机形式和自然材质的一大代表。

他的作品形式多变,在设计中,这位建筑师总是通过不断地钻研来完成设计方案。这也让其作品各不相同,但是其中的某些作品仍然受到了挪威古典主义风格的影响。

Alvar Aalto
Finnish architect Alvar Aalto has become one of the greatest international references to the Modern Movement in its practice with organic forms and natural materials.
His work was constantly marked by transformations. He relied on intensive research to continue updating his practice. This led to very diverse examples of architecture, some influenced by Norse classicist reference.

在现代主义建筑成型之前,它们都有哪些特征?第9张图片

Itaipava Castle, Lucio Costa and Fernando Valentim. © Marcio Sette, via Wikipedia. License CC BY-SA 3.0

巴西现代主义建筑风格的起源

这样的现象不仅仅发生在北美和欧洲。在巴西,两位现代主义建筑大师同样有着不同的风格和影响。

The Origins of Brazilian Modern Architecture
This phenomenon did not only occur with North American and European architects. In Brazil, two great modern architects also worked with differing styles and influences.

在现代主义建筑成型之前,它们都有哪些特征?第10张图片

Francisco Peixoto Residence, Oscar Niemeyer. © Pedro Vada

Lúcio Costa在巴西建筑和城市规划历史上有着诸多代表项目,例如巴西利亚1957年的规划项目,这便是巴西城市现代化的里程碑。而尼迈耶也在这个规划项目中起到了重要作用。

而许多人都不了解的是,这两位建筑师的项目都有着某些其他建筑的影子,尤其是在巴西殖民时期的建筑。在尼迈耶的作品中,位于巴西卡塔瓜西斯市的Francisco Peixoto住宅,还有Pampulha综合体项目以及巴西利亚的其他建筑,都有一些非现代元素。而科斯塔的Itaipava Castle项目也具有同样的特点。

Lúcio Costa is known internationally for devising one of the most important projects in the history of urban planning and architecture in Brazil, the 1957 Pilot Plan of Brasilia, a landmark of National Modernism. Oscar Niemeyer also played a significant role in Pilot Plan.
Unbeknownst to most, both architects designed projects that allude to other references, especially Brazilian colonial architecture. In Niemeyer's case, the Francisco Peixoto Residence in the city of Cataguases, the iconic projects of the Pampulha complex in Minas Gerais, among other buildings in Brasília point to non-modern references. In Lúcio Costa's case, the Itaipava Castle project in Petrópolis also highlights this point.

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