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漂浮大学,学到的不仅仅是知识第1张图片

© Victoria Tomaschko

柏林漂浮大学如何规划未来的建筑教育
How Berlin's Floating University Charts the Course for Future Architectural Education

由专筑网李韧,王帅编译

在Tempelhofer Feld的北侧、柏林南部一个由机场改造的公园里,流淌着一条大型沟水渠。其周围环绕有许多建筑,这座沟渠建造于19世纪,主要用于收集机场之中的雨水,随后将这些雨水排入柏林运河。

Raumlabor Architects事务所的Benjamin Foerster-Baldenius说:“我们了解,这是一片城市中心的‘秘密花园’。”

On the north side of Tempelhofer Feld, an airport-turned-park in southern Berlin, lays a large ditch. Surrounded by lots and bungalows and noticeable only to those in the know, this 19th century basin holds rainwater drained from the airport’s defunct runways before it is fed into Berlin’s canal network.
“We knew it was kind of a secret spot in the center of the city that nobody had on the map,” explains Benjamin Foerster-Baldenius of Raumlabor Architects. That is, until this summer.

漂浮大学,学到的不仅仅是知识第2张图片

© Daniel Seiffert

从4月至9月,这条沟渠旁搭建了一座滨水结构,该结构由脚手架和漂浮平台组成,其上部还有充气式屋顶和巨型轮子。它既像海盗船,也属于普林斯顿,同时也具有阿基格拉姆学派的特征和火人特点。这是一座漂浮大学,是Foerster-Baldenius与 Raumlabor的创意结晶,同时还具有建筑、教育等其他意义,这些都来源于这座漂浮式结构。

该项目由德国联邦文化基金会资助,同时也作为包豪斯百年庆典项目,这座大学由Raumlabor发起,是诸如Ruhr城市学校、Shabbyshabby酒店,以及近期伊斯坦布尔设计双年展的Making Futures等教育项目的延续。在这些前提下,Raumlabor采取了游戏式且注重过程的方式来扩大建筑与城市规划的思路,同时拓宽了具有硬性且排他特征的教育本质。

Foerster-Baldenius说:“我们都知道,学术界的许多人在解决实际生活问题时都运用了其他许多策略,人们聚集在一起共同构思,这样不仅能够解决许多校园问题,而且对于公共生活也大有益处。”

From April through September, the basin was occupied by a peculiar, offshore structure—a constellation of scaffolded volumes and floating platforms with inflatable rooftops and a large wheel. It was part-pirate ship and part-Princeton; part-Archigram and part-Burning Man. This was the Floating University, the brainchild of Foerster-Baldenius and Raumlabor, and the locus of a flurry of events—architectural, educational, and otherwise—that hopped aboard the floating structure.
Funded by the German Federal Cultural Foundation as part of its ongoing Bauhaus centenary celebrations, the university was initiated by Raumlabor as a continuation and expansion on its previous education experiments such as the Urban School Ruhr, Hotel Shabbyshabby, and Making Futures at the recent Istanbul Design Biennial. In these cases, Raumlabor has taken its playful and process-focused approach to architecture and urban planning to broaden the often-rigid or exclusionary nature of education.
“We know that there are lots of people around in academia that are looking for other ways of dealing with the real world,” explains Foerster-Baldenius. “Ways of getting together and finding things out together, not only within the campus, but also open more to the public.”

漂浮大学,学到的不仅仅是知识第3张图片

© Victoria Tomaschko

这种面向公众的方式让漂浮大学具有特定的建筑形式和真正独立的系列空间。通过一条满是灰泥的小路,参观者会从一扇小门来到一座金属楼梯上,这里建有俯瞰水渠的露台,让人们首次看到大学结构的真面目。再穿过一片番茄土豆菜地,参观者会通过一条滨水步道走近建筑,在充气屋顶的下方设置有100个座位的礼堂,这间礼堂有着独立的浮动式地板。

除此之外,建筑系学生和厨房工作坊的参与者共同设计一间模块化厨房。艺术家Katherine Bell设计了一套创新式水过滤系统,施工人员使用滑轮系统通过一系列相互连接的水缸来抽取水渠中的水,这些水缸中设置有诸如沙生物膜、蘑菇菌丝体、斑马贻贝等生物过滤器。

This public-facing approach gave the Floating University its architectural form and a truly unique series of spaces. From a dusty side road, a small gate led visitors onto a metal staircase with a balcony overlooking the basin, giving a dramatic first glimpse of the university structure. Through a thicket of tomato and potato planters, a waterside walkway led to the center of the structure. Here, a 100-seat auditorium (with a separate floating floor) sat beneath an inflated tarpaulin roof.
Elsewhere, a modular kitchen was designed by architecture students and other participants of a workshop on the socio-spatial history of the kitchen. An innovative water filtration system, designed by artist-in-residence Katherine Bell, used a wheel to draw the ditch water through a series of interconnected bathtubs containing biological filters such as sand-biofilm, mushroom mycelium, and zebra mussels.

漂浮大学,学到的不仅仅是知识第4张图片

© Daniel Seiffert

礼堂后方是手工操作的轮子,大约每隔小时操作一次,不断让人们感受整体环境。建筑作品的透明程度及其半自然周边环境是场所实验教育的核心部分,Foerster-Baldenius说:“保持严肃有些困难,因为你的周边有这样一个自然场景,它非常有趣。”

这个夏天,位于波哥大与巴黎的25所相关大学的学生都参与了本次实验学术工作坊之中,同时,一个公众项目也让柏林大众和游客加入到城市化、实验声音艺术、水资源消耗、包豪斯遗产的讨论之中。在某个周六的下午,孩子们会在沼泽地里走来走去,而其他参与者就在这旁边喝酒、用餐、美发,还可以听着来自Forensic Architecture事务所的Eyal Weizman的演讲,甚至还有其他城镇的人到此欣赏。

尽管这所大学已经在扩大设计教育和开放公众设置等方面取得了较大成就,但是项目资金已经用完,这座大学在9月份便已解散。

Located at the back of the auditorium, the manual operation of the wheel took place every hour, creating a constant reminder of the bizarre surroundings. The transparency of the workings of the structure and its semi-natural surroundings were a central part of the experimental education taking place on the site: “It’s really hard to stay serious because there’s this nature theater around you, which is just so funny,” says Foerster-Baldenius.
Over the summer, 25 affiliated universities—hailing from Bogotá to Paris—plugged into the structure for experimental seminars and workshops, while a parallel public program drew Berliners and visitors into discussions spanning urbanism, experimental sound art, water consumption, and the legacy of the Bauhaus. On a given Saturday afternoon one might find kids stomping around in the swamp (boots provided) while attendees joined a performance circling the ditch, enjoyed drinks at the bar, served lunch, got a haircut, listened to a lecture by Forensic Architecture’s Eyal Weizman—all at once, and while out-of-towners toured the site.
Despite the resounding success of the university in expanding design education and opening public infrastructure to new uses, the project’s funding ran out and the deconstruction of the university begun in September.

漂浮大学,学到的不仅仅是知识第5张图片

© Victoria Tomaschko

然而,这并不是故事的结局。

在这个过程中,项目获得了来自城市政治家、当地媒体的大力支持,并且由于漂浮式座谈会讨论了这座结构的未来发展,因此主办方计划在2019年再次举办此活动。

Markus Bader解释说:“漂浮大学是一个基于多个层次的实验项目,这个实验非常成功,许多人都期待着下一季的来临。”

This is not, however, the end of the story.
Over the course of its existence the project gained interest and support from city politicians, local media and, thanks to a final Floating Symposium (that ended, of course, on the floating dance floor) to discuss the future of the structure, plans are underway for it to float again in 2019.
As Markus Bader, also of Raumlabor, explains, “The Floating University is an experiment on many levels. As the experiment was so successful, many people are working on the possible next season.”

漂浮大学,学到的不仅仅是知识第6张图片


最初的讨论集中在不同大学发展的同步性,这样每个大学都能够在这个不断的发展过程中增加新东西。Bader说:“漂浮大学并不是项目的最终目的,更重要的是今年夏天所带来的集体主义精神。”

同样地,Foerster-Baldenius对于场地自身的未来发展持乐观态度,“这座城市正在景观化,同时也发展出一些新东西,我们希望用到‘发展’这个词,这座城市已经沉睡了50年,我们有责任将它唤醒。”

Initial discussions are centered around synchronizing the contributions of the different visiting universities, so that each one adds something new to the ever-evolving site. “The Floating University is not the object,” says Bader. “It’s the spirit and the amazing collectivity that was started this summer.”
Equally, Foerster-Baldenius is optimistic for the future of the basin site itself: “The city is dealing with the surrounding gardens to develop something new out of it and we would like to have a word in this development. We’ve opened up an area in the city that was asleep for 50 years, and now we have a responsibility for it.”

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© Victoria Tomaschko

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© Victoria Tomaschko

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© Victoria Tomaschko

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© Victoria Tomaschko

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© Victoria Tomaschko

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漂浮大学,学到的不仅仅是知识第13张图片

© Daniel Seiffert


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