网站地图关于我们

查看相册 View Gallery
聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第1张图片

Casa da Musica. Image © Philippe Ruault

聚焦:雷姆·库哈斯
Spotlight: Rem Koolhaas

由专筑网李韧,王帅编译

雷姆·库哈斯(1944年11月17日——)的OMA建筑事务所有许多传世佳作,因此人们好不夸张地将其称为当代建筑之父,库哈斯既是理论家也是设计师,在其40多年的建筑生涯之中,库哈斯改变了许多建筑师们对于空间与项目的概念,并且至今为止仍然坚持着建筑设计,将建筑业不断地推向高峰。

With the extensive list of acclaimed alumni of his firm, OMA, it is not a stretch to call Rem Koolhaas (born 17 November 1944) the godfather of contemporary architecture. Equal parts theorist and designer, over his 40-year career Koolhaas has revolutionized the way architects look at program and interaction of space, and today continues to design buildings that push the capabilities of architecture to new places.

聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第2张图片

© Strelka Institute for Media, Architecture and Design via Flickr licensed under CC BY 2.0

聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第3张图片

Maison Bordeaux. Image © Hans Werlemann, courtesy OMA


库哈斯出生于荷兰鹿特丹,在8岁的时候,库哈斯的父亲就职于印尼雅加达的一个文化项目管理岗位,随后他们一家便搬到了亚洲。三年之后,他们回到荷兰阿姆斯特丹,库哈斯后来在这里从事着电影制作行业,他也认为,这段职业生涯对他如今的工作有着巨大的影响,在1968年,他考入伦敦AA建筑学院,后来在康奈尔大学和纽约城市建筑研究所学习之后,库哈斯又回到了伦敦,和妻子Madelon Vriesendorp,以及Elia、Zoe Zenghelis共同创办了OMA建筑事务所。后来他曾经在母校担任教师,在此期间,他遇到了扎哈·哈迪德,扎哈很快便加入了OMA,并且合作了一系列概念项目,例如荷兰海牙议会大厦。

Remment Koolhaas was born in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. At the age of eight, Koolhaas’ father was given a position running a cultural program in Jakarta, Indonesia and subsequently moved his family to Asia. The family returned to Amsterdam three years later, where Koolhaas would later pursue filmmaking (a phase he believes still impacts his work today), until enrolling at the Architectural Association School of Architecture in London in 1968. Following continued studies at Cornell University and the Institute for Architecture and Urban Studies in New York City, Koolhaas returned to London to open his firm, OMA, alongside his wife Madelon Vriesendorp and Elia and Zoe Zenghelis. He also began teaching at his Alma Mater, during which time he met a young Zaha Hadid. Hadid soon joined OMA, and together the group began working on a series of highly conceptual, predominantly unbuilt projects, highlighted by the Dutch Parliament Building in The Hague.

聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第4张图片

Seattle Central Library. © Philippe Ruault

在这段时间里,库哈斯撰写了《疯狂的纽约》一书,其中表达了城市主义的宣言,这也奠定了未来的建筑发展基础。在这本书中,库哈斯将城市高密度的“拥挤文化”看作是文化发展的指引,在这里,各式各样的互动能够触发创新与创造,同样也是在这本书中,库哈斯提出了“交错置放”的概念,从而在不同类型的建筑之中加入不同的功能类型,例如大楼之中的通道。在此之后,同样的概念以各种形式出现在各个项目之中,例如西雅图中央图书馆中包含有流浪汉的医院单元。而这本书直到今天为止仍然被认为是建筑刊物中的杰作。

During this period, Koolhaas penned Delirious New York, an urbanist manifesto that would come to define his future architectural strategy. In the book, Koolhaas celebrates the city’s hyper-dense “culture of congestion” as a cultural incubator, a place where unprescribed interaction could lead to innovation and creativity. It was in this text that Koolhaas first proposed the idea of “cross-programming,” intentionally introducing unexpected program types within buildings of different typologies, such as running tracks within skyscrapers. The idea has since returned in various forms, such as in his unsuccessful proposal to include hospital units for the homeless within his design for the Seattle Central Library. The book is still considered today to be an essential piece of the architectural canon.

聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第5张图片

CCTV Headquarters. Image © Iwan Baan

在扎哈离开OMA之后,该事务所接受了荷兰海牙舞剧院的项目委托,该项目于1987年完工,这座建筑表达了《疯狂的纽约》之中的许多概念,设计方案将不同形式与材质结合在一起,形成全新的空间与视觉构图效果。该项目的成功给他们带来了极大的盛誉,同时OMA也获得了国际认可。

Following Hadid’s departure from the firm, OMA received its first major commission, the Netherlands Dance Theater in The Hague. Completed in 1987, the building was a manifestation of many of the ideas from Delirious New York; the design features volumes of varying form and materiality colliding in unique ways to create new types of space and a visually stimulating composition. The success of that building, as well as continued acclaim for their unbuilt competition entries, gave OMA increased international recognition.

聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第6张图片

Kunsthal. Image © Flickr user kleiobird licensed under CC BY 2.0

在上世纪90年代,OMA设计了一系列大型项目,其中有各式各样的建筑类型。这些项目中最为著名的便是1991年的巴黎Dall'Ava别墅和1999年的Maison Bordeaux。在这些建筑之中,库哈斯从现代主义经典作品中获取灵感,尤其是萨伏伊别墅(Villa Savoye)和范斯沃斯住宅(Farnsworth House),库哈斯将这些设计理念结合在作品之中,并且重新构思,从而满足客户的不同需求。Dall'Ava别墅有着屋顶游泳池和动态材质拼贴效果,地面的三层空间由细长的不规则支柱以及混凝土墙体支撑。私人公寓单元连接着下部共享玻璃起居空间和上部游泳池。Maison Bordeaux的设计包含了三个楼层,并且有着不同的透明度和功能类型,由大型电梯连接在一起,同时这也成为了一位轮椅使用者的办公室。

The 1990s saw projects of widely varying scale for Koolhaas and OMA, from city master plans, in Euralille, France, to the Rotterdam Kunsthal (1992) to residential projects. The most widely renowned of these residential projects were the Villa Dall’Ava in Paris (1991) and the Maison Bordeaux (1999). In these houses, Koolhaas took cues from Modernist classics, in particular Villa Savoye and the Farnsworth House, blowing their designs into parts and reassembling them to suit the unique needs of the clients. Villa Dall’Ava featured a rooftop pool and a dynamic collage of materials raised 3 stories above the ground by slender, irregularly placed columns and a poured-in-place concrete wall. Private apartment units were connected by a shared glass living space below and the pool above. The design of Maison Bordeaux contained three floors of varying opacity relating to program type, connected by an oversized elevator that doubled as an office for the husband, who was a wheelchair user.

聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第7张图片

Dee and Charles Wyly Theatre / REX | OMA. Image © Tim Hursley

接下来,在1999年OMA建筑事务所又成立了建筑研究小组AMO。AMO主要研究大面积的展览设计,其中包括时尚品牌普拉达的门店与展览。在本世纪,OMA建筑事务所的主要项目是2005年波尔图的Casa da Musica、2009年的达拉斯的Wyly剧场、2001年芝加哥的IIT-McCormick论坛中心,以及2004年的西雅图中央图书馆(Seattle Central Library)。而西雅图的这座图书馆对整个建筑行业都产生了巨大的影响,在这个项目中,建筑师应用了功能泡泡图的形式,这种方式后来风靡于建筑界。图书馆的平面布局突出了城市景观,也让人们更加相信,建筑的优雅形式可以来源于使用者的体验。

后来,库哈斯参与了世界各地的各项建筑设计,其中有北京中央电视台总部(CCTV Headquarters)、鹿特丹多功能大楼(mixed-use building De Rotterdam)、卡塔尔国家图书馆(Qatar National Library),以及米兰普拉达基金会新总部(the Fondazione Prada in Milan)。

The following decade saw a massive expansion within OMA, with the founding of architectural think-tank and research group AMO in 1999. AMO has since contributed to designs for numerous exhibitions and events, including stores and runway shows for fashion house Prada. Key buildings from OMA in the 2000s include the Casa da Musica in Porto (2005), the Wyly Theater in Dallas (2009), the IIT-McCormick Tribune Center in Chicago (2001), and the Seattle Central Library (2004). In particular, the Seattle Library has had a profound impact on architectural approach and diagramming in architecture—the word-bubble programmatic diagram used to outline spatial relationships has since been utilized by architects worldwide. The library’s pivoting planes highlighting views of the city have also convinced critics that elegant form can be derived from focusing on user experience.
Since then, Koolhaas has had a hand in designing buildings worldwide, including the CCTV Headquarters in Beijing, mixed-use building De Rotterdam, the Qatar National Library, and the Fondazione Prada in Milan.

聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第8张图片

De Rotterdam. Image © Michel van de Kar

近些年,库哈斯也进行了多次演讲,并且将建筑分解成各种元素,正如2014年威尼斯双年展展出的那样,另外还有智能城市、尼日利亚拉各斯的城市研究。同时他也不断研究各种观点,诸如他认为“任何物体都可以用于人类的居住,同时对待任何事他们也同样痛苦,也同样高兴。我愈发认为这些情绪都与建筑无关,但是这种想法既自由又无奈。”

In recent years, Rem Koolhaas’ discourse has ranged from breaking down architecture into its fundamental elements in his lauded directorship of the 2014 Venice Biennale, to the feasibility of smart cities, to studies on urbanization in Lagos, Nigeria. He has also often delved into the realm of skepticism, such as his claim that “people can inhabit anything. And they can be miserable in anything and ecstatic in anything. More and more I think that architecture has nothing to do with it. Of course, that's both liberating and alarming.”

聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第9张图片

Shenzhen Stock Exchange HQ. Image © Philippe Ruault

这些看法也让库哈斯成为建筑界较为受争议的人物,亦或是“反建筑”的称号,但是这些看法都无法阻止他的前行,也无法阻止他的想法。另外他也不断地辅助Bjarke Ingels、Ole Scheeren、Farshid Moussavi、Jeanne Gang、Winy Maas等人,库哈斯也许从中发现了另一种思考方式,那便是塑造未来。

These claims have led to Koolhaas’ being called “the most controversial figure in architecture” and “an anti-architect,” but those descriptions fail to capture the career of a man who is always chasing the next step in architecture and how he can think bigger. By helping to spawn the careers of Bjarke Ingels, Ole Scheeren, Farshid Moussavi, Jeanne Gang, Winy Maas, and many many others, Koolhaas has perhaps found another way of thinking bigger: by creating the future.

聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第10张图片

Milstein Hall at Cornell University © Matthew Carbone

聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第11张图片

G-Star RAW HQ. Courtesy of OMA - G-Star

聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第12张图片

Coach Omotesando Flagship. © Iwan Baan

聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第13张图片

OMA designed Maggie Gartnaval Opens Today. Image courtesy of OMA; photography by Philippe Ruault

聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第14张图片

Fondazione Prada. © Bas Princen - Fondazione Prada

聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第15张图片

The Interlace. © Iwan Baan

聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第16张图片

McKinsey & Company Hong Kong Office. © Philippe Ruault

聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第17张图片

Garage Museum of Contemporary Art. © Yuri Palmin

聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第18张图片

Rothschild Bank Headquarters.

聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第19张图片

AD Classics Villa dall'Ava. © Peter Aaron (OTTO)

聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第20张图片

AD Classics Educatorium. © Andrew Kroll

聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第21张图片

5 Years Later, A Look Back on OMA's Prada Transformer. © Iwan Baan

聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第22张图片

Cai Guo Qiang Studio. © Brett Beyer, Courtesy of OMA

聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第23张图片

Timmerhuis. © Ossip van Duivenbode

聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第24张图片

Holland Green. © Nick Gutteridge

聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第25张图片

CCTV Headquarters. Courtesy of OMA

聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第26张图片

Manus x Machina. © OMA - Albert Vecerka

聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第27张图片

Pierre Lassonde Pavilion at the Musée National des Beaux-arts du Québec. © Bruce Damonte

聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第28张图片

Repossi Place Vendome. © Cyrille Weiner, Courtesy of Repossi

聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第29张图片

Il Fondaco dei Tedeschi. © Delfino Sisto Legnani + Marco Cappelletti

聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第30张图片

AD Classics Dutch Parliament Extension. via OMA

聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第31张图片

RIJNSTRAAT 8. Photograph by Delfino Sisto Legnani and Marco Cappelletti, © OMA

聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第32张图片

Concrete at Alserkal Avenue. © Mohamed Somji, courtesy Alserkal Avenue

聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第33张图片

2017 MPavilion Designed by OMA's Rem Koolhaas & David Gianotten Opens in Melbourne. © John Gollings

聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第34张图片

Faena Forum, Faena Bazaar and Park. Image © Iwan Baan

聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第35张图片

Shanghai LuJiaZui Exhibition Centre. Courtesy of OMA

聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第36张图片

Bibliothèque Alexis de Tocqueville. © Delfino Sisto Legnani and Marco Cappelletti

聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第37张图片

Lab City CentraleSupélec. Photograph by Vitor Oliveira, Courtesy of OMA

聚焦:库哈斯的争议建筑生涯第38张图片

The Design Museum of London. © Luc Boegly + Sergio Grazia


【专筑网版权与免责声明】:本网站注明“来源:专筑网”的所有内容版权属专筑网所有,如需转载,请注明出处

专于设计,筑就未来

无论您身在何方;无论您作品规模大小;无论您是否已在设计等相关领域小有名气;无论您是否已成功求学、步入职业设计师队伍;只要你有想法、有创意、有能力,专筑网都愿为您提供一个展示自己的舞台

投稿邮箱:submit@iarch.cn         如何向专筑投稿?

扫描二维码即可订阅『专筑

微信号:iarch-cn

登录专筑网  |  社交账号登录:

 匿名

没有了...
评论加载中,请稍后!

新闻 (572 articles)


建筑 (10570 articles)


建筑大师 (149 articles)


雷姆•库哈斯 (6 articles)


OMA (50 articles)


设计作品 (62 articles)


2018 (863 articles)