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改善生活的窗户:体现自然设计模式的四个项目
A Window to Better Living: Four Projects That Embody Patterns of Biophilic Design

由专筑网王雪纯,李韧编译

研究表明,当我们面对自然时,自然不仅仅带给我们美感,也带给我们治愈的感受。

大多数人都认为有着绿植、树木、湖泊或海洋的自然景观具有疗愈的作用,但人们可能不知道,这样的认知与我们的进化心理有关。远古人类在草地和大草原上生活,使人类会天然地对某些自然元素感到安全和情感平衡。将人与自然联系起来的设计也名为自然设计的实践,这样的设计融合了自然界、日光和户外景观中的材料,能够改善人的健康状况。考虑到未来人类90%以上的时间会在室内度过,我们如今比以往任何时候都更需要有着自然疗愈效果的建筑。

从优先考虑落日或茂密植被的建筑选址,到打造舒适的隐居空间,在室内融入自然的材料和元素等,下文的四个项目体现了自然设计的核心要素。

Research shows that views of nature aren’t just beautiful, they’re healing, too.
Brought to you by Marvin Windows and Doors
Most people agree that nature views filled with greenery, trees, and lakes or oceans are calming and restorative, but they might not know that the reason for this is tied to our evolutionary psychology. Going back to our days living on the meadow and savannah, humans have sought certain elements to feel safe, secure, and emotionally balanced. Design that intentionally connects people to nature—a practice commonly referred to as biophilic design—incorporates materials found in nature, daylight, and views to the outdoors to improve well-being. Considering that we spend over 90 percent of our time indoors, buildings designed to maximize the calming effects of nature are needed now more than ever.
From siting that prioritizes a view of the setting sun or lush vegetation, to the creation of cozy spaces of refuge, to incorporating materials and elements of nature indoors, and more, these four projects embody the core elements of biophilic design.

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Tinkerbox/美国纽约哈德逊山谷

AIA主席、Studio MM创始人Marica McKeel和她的丈夫Brock以自然景观为设计灵感,设计了一座私人隐居住宅,最大化其朝南的视野,以观看傍晚落日余晖。

宽大的窗户加强了人与自然景观的紧密联系,角落窗户下方的长椅提供了使内外空间屏障消失的区域。坐落在地面层的宽敞露台成为另一个享受周围自然景观的场地。

Tinkerbox, Hudson Valley, New York
Designed with materials inspired by nature and grounding views that connect with the outdoors, architect Marica McKeel, Principal, AIA, Founder of Studio MM and her husband Brock designed a private retreat that maximizes views to the south-facing façade, where the sun sets in the evening.
Expansive windows create an intimate connection to the wooded landscape, and a bench seat below a Marvin corner window assembly provides a space of refuge while making the barrier between outside and inside disappear. Sitting at ground level, an expansive deck offers another opportunity to enjoy the surrounding wooded landscapes.

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褶皱别墅/美国威斯康辛州

这座由ohnsen Schmaling Architects事务所的建筑师Sebastian Schmaling设计,建筑规模适中,材料天然,色调朴实,与周围的落叶林和针叶林相呼应协调。

建筑几乎没有其他多余元素,窗户十分干净清晰,吸引视线。在整座住宅中,精心布局的小型开窗能够用于采光,并将森林框景其中。

“我们想要创造中性的室内背景,你可以看到不断变化的树叶、颜色、光线和阴影。”Schmaling说。

Pleated House, Door County, Wisconsin
This house by architect Sebastian Schmaling, AIA, of Johnsen Schmaling Architects boasts a modest size, natural materials, and an earthy color palette that exist in harmony with the surrounding deciduous and coniferous forest.
With little other visual clutter, the thin profiles of the Marvin windows become clean, crisp picture frames that draw the eye outside. Throughout the home, smaller, strategically placed windows are used to draw daylight into the interior spaces and individually frame curated views of the forest.
“We were trying to create a very neutral interior backdrop against which you see the ever-changing foliage, the colors, the light, the shadows,” says Schmaling.

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Nomadic Shack/加拿大萨斯喀彻温省

这个2,400平方英尺(约223平方米)的住宅由Nomadic Shack设计建造,各个部件在场外预制完成后再安装在一块偏远的土地上,所以此项目没有进行传统的施工操作。

住宅侧重于使用天然材料,包括回收的蒙大拿州谷仓木材外壳和来自怀俄明州的雪栅栏。通过大型窗户,人们在各个方向都可以看到无遮挡的视野,让人感受如同草原般的景观。

Nomadic Shack, Galloway Bay, Saskatchewan
Designed and built by Nomadic Shack, this 2,400-square-foot cabin was prefabricated off-site to allow installation on a piece of land so remote that it would have made traditional building practices impossible.
The cabin focuses on natural materials, including a reclaimed barn wood exterior from Montana and a ceiling made of snow fence from Wyoming. Large Marvin windows frame unimpeded views in all directions, allowing a prairie-like view to envelop inhabitants.

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庭院住宅/美国伊利诺斯州

芝加哥Kuklinski + Rappe Architects事务所在其庭院住宅项目中设计了可以眺望宁静的自然景观的室内空间。住宅包括一个沿着主庭院的“修道院”,为有特殊需要的家庭成员提供宁静的场所。

“外部空间提供感官体验,低矮的混凝土墙成为邻近的休息区的屏障,带浅水盆的喷泉可以浸泡手脚,庭院设有小草坪和开花的树木,还有带户外壁炉的庭院。护堤有草皮覆盖着。“来自AIA和LEED AP的Scoott A评论道。

镶嵌着蓝色的Marvin窗户呼应了天空的深沉色彩,并且建筑师在生活区域的周边放置了横窗,以便人们在任何位置的视野都不受遮挡。

Courtyard Residence, Downers Grove, Illinois
Chicago-based firm Kuklinski + Rappe Architects designed the interior spaces in their Courtyard Residence project to look out onto serene, landscaped areas. The home includes a “cloister” that runs along a main courtyard, offering a calming view for family members with special needs.
“The exterior spaces offer sensory experiences: A low concrete wall radiates warmth to the adjacent sitting area, a fountain with shallow basins allows soaking of hands and feet, a courtyard offers a small lawn and flowering tree, and a patio with an outdoor fireplace gives way to rolling, grass-covered berms,” says Scott A. Rappe, AIA, LEED AP.
Marvin windows clad in Cascade Blue echo the deep color of the sky, and transom windows are placed around the perimeter of the living area to allow a view to the outdoors from any position.


通过增强与自然的联系,这四个项目强化了自然设计的原则。

By including spaces that enhance connection with nature, these four homes reinforce the principles of biophilic design.

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