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Jacksonport国家公园游客中心:无限的回顾与展望第1张图片


Jacksonport State Park Visitor Center / Polk Stanley Wilcox Architects

由专筑网小R,吴静雅编译

来自建筑事务所的描述:这座现代化游客中心在过去成为了展示窗口,向人们展示了历史上的港口城市,同时让游客感受河流与城市、现在与过去 。Jacksonport位于阿肯色州白河与黑河的交汇处,这是一座繁荣于19世纪的港口城市,为多达200名乘客的蒸汽船提供服务。就历史与地理而言,这里是密西西比三角洲的山脉融合点,可以通向阿肯色州和密西西比河,因此这里也成为了美国内战的战略要塞,曾经受控于不同的部队。

Text description provided by the architects. A modern Visitor Center serves as a window on the past, celebrating a historically significant port town, while lifting visitors above a levee to reunite river and town, past and present. Situated at the confluence of Arkansas' White and Black Rivers, Jacksonport was a thriving 1800’s port town serving steamboats that held up to 200 passengers. It’s a place of contradiction geographically and historically, where the Mississippi Delta meets the mountains. Because of its accessibility to the Arkansas and Mississippi Rivers, Jacksonport was a Civil War strategic stronghold, being held five different times by Union and Confederate forces and serving as each general’s headquarters.

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另外,较为重要的是,Jacksonport是美国南部联盟的阿肯色州投降地,在1872年,一座法院成为了城镇的中心地区。后来,铁路绕过这座城镇,而河流商业也逐步衰竭,城市的发展陷入了困境。因毁灭性的洪水而建设的堤坝让城市与河流分隔开。在上世纪60年代,为了保留历史建筑,一座全新的州立公园应运而生。但是,就视觉而言,游客们仍然和河流分隔开。因此,建筑师的任务是设计一座具有功能的游客中心,让河流与城市、现在与过去联系得更加紧密。

Most importantly, Jacksonport was the location of the Confederacy’s surrender of Arkansas. In 1872 a beautiful Courthouse became the town’s centerpiece and county seat.  When the railroad bypassed Jacksonport and river commerce waned, the town suffered. Devastating floods led to levee construction that forever separated town from river. In the 1960s, to save from demolition the only historically significant structure left, the courthouse, a new State Park was established. Visitors, however, were still separated visually from the river. While our task was to design a functional Visitor Center, our challenge was to create a stage to experience and engage both river and town, past and present.

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公众其实期待看到诸如轮船、19世纪酒店、仓库、码头等设施的修复,但是由于河堤对于场地的影响,这使得公众的焦点转向了历史。那么,从空间与视觉上,强调河流与公园之间的联系,则成为了这个项目的主要目标。战争的历史保留了阿肯色州另一种历史结构特征,即“dog-trot”风格。而这座全新的游客中心应用了这种形式,一个玻璃体量连接着场地,就像是一座桥体,其下侧是分开的两个空间,这象征着统一。

Public charettes revealed expected desires for replicating structures like a steamship, an 1800’s saloon/hotel, or a dock & warehouse…but the inability for authenticity within the present site drastically altered by the levee changed the focus from “being seen” to “seeing history”. Lifting the park physically and visually (even with Corps of Engineers restriction of not building within 15’ of the levee) to see both river and park simultaneously became paramount.  The War’s history, two entities becoming one, generated a diagram drawn from another historic Arkansas structure, the “dog-trot”. Conceived as a modern dog-trot, the new Visitors Center juxtaposes two glass cubes imbedded in the earth representing the divided North and South under one roof connected by a bridge...a symbol of reunification.

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在下部,灰空间室外教室让游客们可以向上攀爬,越过河堤欣赏远方河流的美景,将人们的视线延伸到水面。建筑构成了三种不同的展览空间,分别给人们带来不同的体验,首先,在河流展区,人们可以俯瞰港口,在城镇展区,人们可以俯瞰公园,而在内部展区,人们可以通过显示器欣赏各种作品。三个独立的金属与木质体量分别代表了展览、电梯、服务区域,它们相互结合在一起,在其外部构成流线,这就如同曾经港口的蒸汽船。

Underneath, a covered outdoor classroom allows visitors to climb above levee height to view the river for the first time since levee construction, extending the park experience visually to the water. The center creates three distinct second-level exhibit experiences: The river gallery overlooking the port, the town gallery overlooking the park/courthouse, and the inner exhibit gallery sheltering light-sensitive displays. Three free-standing metal and wood-clad volumes (gallery, elevator, and service) are inserted like cargo, allowing perimeter circulation with views along the glass exterior much like the steamships that once graced the port.

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屋面为张力自由跨度结构,表达了轮船的拉杆意象。有一定深度的铝制遮阳板可保护着展品,扩大了人们的视野,减少边缘范围。另外,建筑师还将护坡道用作草地剧院,入口广场上种植有6棵树木,这代表了将近6000人次的阿肯色州人,他们过往的不幸结束于此地。就外部而言,简约但且精致的玻璃幕墙构成了优雅的平台,连接公园与河流,这座游客中心就如同密斯式“dog-trot””风格,人们能够在这里感受过去,同时了解当地的历史价值。

The roof’s expressed tension rod structure free spans the building, a homage to a steamship’s cable-stayed details. An 8’ deep aluminum shade protects exhibits, maximizing views, extending the roof and minimizing its edge.  A berm acts as lawn theater, while the entrance plaza’s grove of six trees represents almost 6000 Arkansans whose war ended in this place. The visually simple but rigorously detailed glass enclosure creates an elegant platform that recedes into the levee from the park’s historic structures. We call the Visitor Center our “Miesian dog-trot”, but it’s really a platform to see and experience the past, and more importantly understand the value of our state’s history.

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建筑设计:Polk Stanley Wilcox Architects
地点:美国,阿肯色州
类型:游客中心
面积:12000.0平方英尺(约1114.8平方米)
项目时间:2019年
摄影:Timothy Hursley
制造商:3form, Acme Brick, Atas International, Isokern, Kawneer, McNichols, Sherwin Williams, McBride Stone Company
客户:Arkansas State Parks
室内设计:Polk Stanley Wilcox
机械、电力、管道:Pettit & Pettit Consulting Engineers
结构工程:Engineering Consultants, Inc.
土木工程:McClelland Consulting Engineers
景观设计:Ecological Design Group
展览设计:Taylor Studios Inc.

Architects: Polk Stanley Wilcox Architects
Location: Newport, Arkansas 72112, United States
Category: Visitor Center
Area: 12000.0 ft2
Project Year: 2019
Photographs: Timothy Hursley
Manufacturers: 3form, Acme Brick, Atas International, Isokern, Kawneer, McNichols, Sherwin Williams, McBride Stone Company
Owner: Arkansas State Parks
Interior Design: Polk Stanley Wilcox
Mechanical, Electrical, Plumbing: Pettit & Pettit Consulting Engineers
Structural Engineering: Engineering Consultants, Inc.
Civil Engineering: McClelland Consulting Engineers
Landscape Architecture: Ecological Design Group
Exhibit Design & Fabrication: Taylor Studios Inc.

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