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集装箱重症监护室——方便又安全第1张图片


都灵医院的集装箱重症监护室
Shipping-container intensive care unit installed at Turin hospital

由专筑网小R编译

意大利建筑师Carlo Ratti和Italo Rota设计的集装箱舱体病房近期已经在都灵的一家医院里投入使用,用于治疗新冠病毒感染患者,该舱体单元包含有两张病床。

Carlo Ratti和Italo Rota为该项目起名为呼吸系统疾病连接单元(CURA),这个重症监护舱体大大提升了意大利北部的重症收治能力。

舱体包含有两张病床,已经用于都灵中央的Officine Grandi Riparazioni医院中,首位病人于4月19日入院。

A two-bed intensive care unit within a shipping container, designed by Italian architects Carlo Ratti and Italo Rota, has been built at a hospital in Turin and is being used to treat patients fighting the coronavirus.
Named Connected Units for Respiratory Ailments (CURA), the intensive care pod was designed by Carlo Ratti Associati and Rota to increase intensive care unit (ICU) capacity in northern Italy.
The pod, which contains two beds, has been installed at a temporary hospital built within the Officine Grandi Riparazioni complex in central Turin. The first patient was admitted earlier this week on 19 April.

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集装箱长度为6.1米,容纳两个病床和设备包括通风机、监视器、输液架、注射器。

Ratti说:“就设计而言,集装箱的限制在于其不变的尺寸,因此CURA需要经过调整与设计,让各项设备都能放置其中,医生甚至可以在里面给病人插管治疗。”

Built within a 6.1-metre-long shipping container, the intensive care pod contains beds and facilities – including ventilators, monitors, intravenous fluid stands and syringe drivers – for two patients.
"From a design point of view, containers have constraints: their dimensions cannot be changed," Ratti told Dezeen. "So CURA has required quite a bit of work to make sure that everything would fit inside them and that doctors would be comfortable with intubating patients inside it."

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Ratti认为,集装箱舱体结合了医院帐篷快速组装的特点,以及隔离病房的安全特征,这些病房都装有负压通风系统。

Ratti说:“标准的传染病院需要有严格的通风系统。”

“中国对于新冠病毒的治疗经验来说,病房至少在一个小时里要换气12次,通过过滤器对废气进行过滤和消毒,确保每个病房都能够负压通风,这样病毒就不会传播,负压体系能够有所谓的‘生物抑制’作用。”

“但是在大部分的帐篷和野战医院里,负压体系几乎不可能实现,那么这就甚至会危机到医护人员的生命安全。”

“那么集装箱就可以安装独立的空气处理和过滤系统,但是它又能够像帐篷医院一样快速地安装,使用起来就像传染病房一样安全。”

Ratti believes that the shipping-container pods combine the benefits of quickly assembled hospital tents with the safety of permanent isolation wards, which have ventilation systems that generate negative pressure.
"A standard hospital for infectious diseases needs special air treatment systems," explained Ratti.
"According to Chinese Covid-19 guidelines, it should guarantee at least 12 air changes per hour, sanitise exhausts with an ozone filter or an absolute filter and make sure that there is negative pressure inside each room, so that the virus cannot leak – negative pressure allows so-called 'bio-containment'," he continued.
"Such conditions are almost impossible to achieve in most tents or makeshift hospitals, which end up putting the lives of healthcare professionals at risk," he added.
"Using shipping containers, each with its own air treatment and filtering system, it is possible to make CURA pods as fast to mount as a tent hospital, but as safe to operate as a proper infectious disease ward."

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Ratti认为,相较于其他的预制结构,集装箱有一些特殊优势,因为它们能够运输到疫情较为严重的地区,并且不需要浪费太多时间。

他说:“我们可以看到的是,新冠病毒像一股浪潮,武汉、米兰、马德里、纽约都是曾经的战场。”

“集装箱可以快速地运输,安装速度也非常快,CURA舱体中有完善的医疗设备,例如病床、监视器、通风机、氧气、管道等等,而且它们都能够在短时间内移动。”

“即便是流水线预制医院的安装时间也需要几天,然后才能投入使用。”

Ratti thinks that shipping containers have several further advantages over other prefabricated structures, as they can be moved to areas most impacted by the pandemic and require little set-up time.
"We have seen that Covid-19 infections move in waves," he said. "First Wuhan, then Milan, Madrid, New York have been the background of a shifting battleground."
"Shipping containers can be moved from city to city and installed faster than any other prefabricated structure," he continued. "CURA pods come already furnished with all medical equipment – beds, monitors, ventilators, gases, vacuum, etc. – and can be deployed and moved in a matter of hours.
"Even the most streamlined prefabricated hospital requires a few days of installation and testing before being fully functional."

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CURA舱体为单个单元,并且和充气通道结合使用,这样能够构成大面积的野战医院,在临时的Officine Grandi Riparazioni医院里,这种单元则被用作隔离重症监护病房。

Ratti说:“都灵的这家医院是大型临时医院,主要面向重症,但是,新冠病毒患者的病情恶化很快,而CURA舱体刚好能够提供大容量的救治床位。”

The CURA pods are designed to work as single units or combined with inflatable tunnels to create larger field hospitals. At the temporary Officine Grandi Riparazioni  hospital, the unit is being used as a stand-alone intensive care ward.
"The site in Turin is a large, temporary hospital aimed primarily at patients who need sub-intensive care," said Ratti. "However, the conditions of Covid-19 patients can quickly degenerate – that's where CURA pods can provide intensive care."

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两扇玻璃窗户位于集装箱的侧面,这样让家属可以看到病患。

Ratti说:“两扇窗户位于集装箱的两侧,这样医生从内外都能够看到患者。”

“窗户还能够让家属也看到患者,并且不需要直接接触,因为新冠病毒患者其实非常孤独。”

Two glass windows have been cut into the sides of the containers, which could potentially allow visitors to see their relatives while they are in intensive care.
"Two windows carved on the opposite sides of the shipping containers are meant for doctors to always get a sense of the status of patients both from inside and outside the pods," explained Ratti.
"In general the windows also allow visual contact between patients and their families, without the latter being exposed to the virus – one of the tragedies of Covid-19 has been the large number of 'lonely deaths'."

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第一个CURA舱体在都灵建造,在诸如美国、阿联酋、加拿大等国家也已经建造了许多舱体,Ratti认为,CURA模板通用于世界,能够大大提升救治能力。

Ratti说:“全世界的医院都在提升救治容量,从而收纳更多的呼吸道疾病的病人。”

The pod in Turin is the first CURA pod to be built, but further units are already under construction in other parts of the world including the the USA, UAE and Canada. Ratti believes that the CURA template could be used across the world to increase intensive care capacity.
"Hospitals all over the world have been struggling to increase their ICU capacity to admit a growing number of patients suffering from severe respiratory diseases and needing ventilation," explained Ratti.

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“预计在未来几个星期或者几个月,尤其是在南半球,这种需求会逐渐增长,CURA为现有的医院体系提供了便于安装的ICU用房。”

“集装箱为标准化构件,能够通过海陆空各个方式在全球范围内运输,CURA利用的是全球物流网络体系,一旦构件到达现场,每个集装箱安装所需时间甚至不到一个小时,因为各项元件都已经安装在其内部了,只需要卸下集装箱、供电、连接管道即可。”

"Need is projected to continue in the next weeks or months, especially in the Global South. CURA provides an easy-to-install ICU extension for existing hospitals," continued Ratti.
"Shipping containers have been standardised and can be quickly moved all over the world by land, sea or air – CURA leverages the global logistics network for ICUs. Once on site, each container requires less than an hour of installation time as everything is already mounted inside it – it is only a matter of unloading it, powering it and connecting it to the vacuum and gases."

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CURA是一个开源项目,所有的技术图纸都能够在网络上找到。来自世界各地的设计师已经着手设计创新型重症病房单元。

Ratti说:“在不到三个星期的时间里,我们收到了来自世界各地的组织者和专业人士的咨询。”

“CURA成为了一个开源项目,有很多不同的团队在同时进行创新设计,部分团队已经开始建造自己的重症单元,他们分别来自加拿大、美国、阿联酋等国家。”

“病毒就是不断地进行复制,因此我们的最好回应也是创造属于自己的能够复制的体系,CURA就是如此,这是一种开源设计,并且能够不断地复制在不同的区域,现在不谈专利和版权。”

建筑师和设计师不断地以多种方式对抗新冠病毒,其中包括各种面罩和平装重症建筑单元。如果感兴趣,可以继续跟踪各项新闻。

摄影:Max Tomasinelli

CURA is an open-source project, with all of the technical specifications and drawings available online. Designers around the world have already begun adapting the design to create intensive care units.
"In less than three weeks we received inquiries from hundreds of organisations and professionals from all over the world," said Ratti.
"CURA has developed as an open-source initiative. It is great to see that there are different teams improving the design in parallel. Some of them have already started building their own units – including in Canada, the USA, the UAE and other countries," continued Ratti.
"The virus is code that replicates itself and attacks us. Our best response is to develop our own code – in the case of CURA, the code of open-source design – and to let it multiply to fight back. This is not the time for patents or copyrights in design."
Architects and designers have been helping to combat the coronavirus pandemic in numerous ways including designing face shields and flat-pack intensive care units. Keep up with developments by following Dezeen's coverage of the coronavirus outbreak.
Photography is by Max Tomasinelli.

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项目信息:
设计与创新:CRA-Carlo Ratti Associati with Italo Rota
医疗工程:Humanitas Research Hospital
医疗顾问:Policlinico di Milano
总平面布局、设计、施工、流线支持服务:Jacobs
研究:MIT Senseable City Lab
视觉与平面设计:Studio FM milano
数字媒体:Squint/Opera
安全认证:IEC Engineering
后勤管理:Alex Neame of Team Rubicon UK
MEP工程:Ivan Pavanello of Projema
医疗顾问:Maurizio Lanfranco of Ospedale Cottolengo
医疗设备供应:Philips
绘画产品:Gruppo Boero
赞助:World Economic Forum Covid-19 Action Platform, and Cities, Infrastructure and Urban Services Platform

Project credits:

Design and innovation: CRA-Carlo Ratti Associati with Italo Rota
Medical engineering: Humanitas Research Hospital
Medical consultancy: Policlinico di Milano
Master planning, design, construction and logistics support services: Jacobs
Research: MIT Senseable City Lab
Visual identity & graphic design: Studio FM milano
Digital media: Squint/Opera
Safety and certifications: IEC Engineering
Logistics: Alex Neame of Team Rubicon UK
MEP engineering: Ivan Pavanello of Projema
Medical consultancy: Maurizio Lanfranco of Ospedale Cottolengo
Medical equipment supply: Philips
Painting products: Gruppo Boero
Support: World Economic Forum Covid-19 Action Platform, and Cities, Infrastructure and Urban Services Platform

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