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你是否梦想建造一座树屋?第1张图片

© Eduardo Souza (ArchDaily)

建造树屋的小技巧
Tips for Building a Tree House

由专筑网邢子,小R编译

其实很难找到从未梦想过建造或拥有树屋的人:树屋的想法来自避难所,一个与自然完全融合并享有特别视野的空间,几乎所有年龄的人都会喜欢它。从小型平台到高度复杂的结构(包括电气和液压装置),都有各种规模和复杂性的树屋示例。一些专门指导树屋建造的网站提供了实现这些梦想的宝贵技巧。通常,人们会遵循这样的思想:“选择你的树,创造你的项目,但要做好适应它的准备!”

It is difficult to find someone who has never dreamed of building or having a tree house to call their own. The idea of a refuge, a space fully integrated with nature and with a privileged view, pleases almost all ages. There are examples of tree houses of all scales and complexities, from small elevated platforms to highly complex structures, including electrical and hydraulic installations. Some sites specializing in the topic (yes, that exists!), offer valuable tips for building these dreams. In general, they subscribe to the motto: "Choose your tree, make your project, but be ready to adapt it!"

你是否梦想建造一座树屋?第2张图片

Treehouse Extreme by Sullalbero SRL (Italy, 2019). Image © Sullalbero SRL

这种指导之所以必不可少,是因为树屋与民用建筑的工业化和BuildTech技术在建筑中的发展不同,在建筑和技术的各个阶段和过程都是可预测和可控制的,但与生物一起工作时,它会移动、生长和适应,许多因素出现了不确定性。尽管没有严格的法律或法规,但是在建造安全而坚固的树屋时,必须考虑一些重要的因素。

This approach is essential because - unlike what we have seen in the industrialization of civil construction and in the evolution of BuildTech technology in architecture, where all stages and processes are predictable and controlled - when working with a living being, which moves, grows, and adapts, many certainties cease to be certain. Although there are no strict laws or rules for this, when building a safe and resistant tree house, some important considerations must thus be taken into account.

你是否梦想建造一座树屋?第3张图片

Tree House / Madeiguincho. Image © João Carranca

应该仔细考虑要使用的树。首先,应该检查它是否健康,有没有明显的疾病,是否扎根,并且最好已经达到旺盛的峰值。这些检查至关重要,因为这棵树将成为房屋的基础和骨干。有几个变量和可能性要考虑,可以使用单个粗树干,同一棵树的多个分支,甚至附近树木的树干。这种选择将影响结构尺寸,以及跨度和平衡性,从而减轻或增加树木的负荷。例如,将结构固定到两棵不同的树上时,应考虑到每棵树的木材密度可能不同,并且对风的反应也不同。

The tree to be used should be considered carefully. First of all, you should check that it is healthy, has no apparent illness, is well rooted, and, preferably, that it has already reached its peak growth. These checks are vital, as this tree will be the foundation and the backbone of your home. There are several variables and possibilities to take into account. You can use a single thick trunk, several branches of the same tree, or even trunks of nearby trees. This choice will influence the possibilities for dimensions of the structure, as well as considerations of spans and balances, which can lighten or increase the load placed on the trees. For example, when fixing the structure to two different trees, it should be considered that each tree may have different wood densities and react differently to the wind.

你是否梦想建造一座树屋?第4张图片

TreeHouse for Grandchildren / Madeiguincho. Image © João Carranca

每当我们移动、钻洞或修剪树木时,这些动作都是侵略性和外部压力之源。因此,应该尽量减少这些情况,所以钻更少、更粗的孔比钻好几个小孔的危害要小。要始终避免在彼此相距不到30厘米的位置钻孔。同时,固定在树上应使用螺钉,不要使用普通钉子,并确保它们至少长20厘米,以保持良好的附着力。固定螺钉不要穿过整棵树,防止损坏树干的另一侧。

Every time we move, we drill, or we strip the trees, these actions are an aggression and a source of stress. Therefore, one should try to keep this to a minimum. Drilling fewer, thicker holes is less harmful than drilling several smaller holes. Always avoiding drilling holes at a distance of less than 30 centimeters from each other. To fasten to the tree, use screws, never nails, and ensure that they are at least 20 cm long to allow a lot of adhesion. Retention screws (which do not go through the entire tree) are best to prevent damage to the opposite side of the trunk.

你是否梦想建造一座树屋?第5张图片

ORIGIN Tree House / Atelier LAVIT. Image © Marco Lavit Nicora

重要的一点是树木具有特定的愈合过程,专业术语是腐烂分隔。树木虽然无法自己替换或治愈,但是它们试图将“受损”的组织“密封”在健康组织之外。所以受到伤害时,木材的厚壁细胞会通过抗腐烂的化学物质(例如酚和松节油)与相邻的细胞隔离,这些物质被提取出来,可以用于保护和修饰木制零件产品。

It is important to point out that trees have a particular healing process, for which the technical term is compartmentalization of decay. Trees are not able to replace or heal, but instead, they try to "seal" damaged tissue outside healthy tissue. When injured, the thick-walled cells of the wood are isolated from the adjacent cells by chemical substances resistant to rot, such as phenols and turpentine. These same substances are extracted and used as raw materials for products for the protection and finishing of wooden parts.

你是否梦想建造一座树屋?第6张图片

Tree Hotel / Tham & Videgård Arkitekter. Image © Åke E:son Lindman

你是否梦想建造一座树屋?第7张图片

Treehouse Extreme by Sullalbero SRL (Italy, 2019). Image © Sullalbero SRL

回到树屋,在建造它们时最关键的问题是构造楼板,这是保证建筑其余部分顺利建造的基础。对于这个步骤,有几种可能,不同的变量会导致不同的解决方案。也许建造树屋最好的参考资源是《树屋指南》,它包含了在这样的建筑中遇到的大多数可能性和潜在问题。

如果你的树只有一个主干,那么你的重点显然必须放在它上面。但至关重要的是,梁应有某种类型的加固,如对角托架或甚至辅助柱撑到地面,避免超载。

But to return to the tree houses, possibly the most critical issue when building them is structuring the floor slab, which is what facilitates the development of the rest of the building. For this step there are several possibilities, with different variables leading to diversified solutions. Perhaps the best source for venturing into building tree houses is The TreeHouse Guide, which encompasses most of the possibilities and potential problems to be encountered in a construction like this.
If you only have one trunk at your disposal, your focus will obviously have to be on it. But it is vital that the beams have some type of reinforcement, such as diagonal brackets or even auxiliary pillars to the ground, so as not to overload the connections.

你是否梦想建造一座树屋?第8张图片

© Eduardo Souza (ArchDaily)

你是否梦想建造一座树屋?第9张图片

Light Cute Treehouse by Sullalbero SRL (Italy, 2019). Image © Sullalbero SRL


如果有多根树枝或树干不够粗的问题,解决方案是在它们之间创建一个固定的框架。这种方法是最简单的建造方法,不需要大量的结构或木工知识。最好的做法是在施工中小心谨慎,使用大尺寸的部件,并特别注意它们之间的连接处。如果树枝不是很大或很重,由风产生的小张力可以通过这些支撑部件来解决。整个地板结构需要用坚固的固定物,即钉子或大螺丝,牢固地连接起来,这样应力才不会破坏连接点。但是这种方法不适合在大跨度或厚原木之间使用。

If there are multiple branches or trunks that are not sufficiently thick, one possible solution is to create a fixed frame between them. This method is the simplest way to build, and does not require great structural or carpentry knowledge. Best practice is to be careful and attentive in the construction, using large gauge pieces with special care for the joints between them. As our main source explains, if the branches are not very large or heavy, the small tensions produced by wind can be resolved by these supports. The complete floor structure will need to be rigidly attached with strong fixings (nails or large screws) so that the stresses do not break the joints. This method is not suitable for large spans or for use between thick logs.

你是否梦想建造一座树屋?第10张图片

© Eduardo Souza (ArchDaily)

当要求设计一个大跨度的结构,跨越多棵较大的树时,柔性结构必须纳入考虑。这种灵活性是必要的,因为考虑到结构将依附在不同的树上,支撑树将会在不同的情况下表现出不同的行为,例如,风暴会扭曲房屋的结构,从而破坏其连接,导致结构倒塌。这种灵活性应当使用更薄和更便宜的部件,但是这会让结构更加复杂。梁的一端必须连接到最坚固的树干上,另一端由滑动接头支撑。这时,建筑师必须熟悉独立一阶支撑和二阶嵌套支撑。确保当结构只在一端得到支撑和固定,而树随风移动时,梁可以自由滑动。

When the design calls for a structure with larger spans, across multiple larger trees, flexible structures must be considered. This flexibility is necessary because, considering that the structure will be attached to different tree types, the supporting trees will each behave differently in, for example, a windstorm, which can twist the structure of the house in such a way as to break its connections, causing the structure to collapse. This flexibility allows for the use of thinner and cheaper parts, but also makes the structure more complicated to build. One end of a beam must be attached to the strongest trunk and the other end, supported by a sliding joint. This is the moment that we architects must remember those dreaded classes in structures involving first-order bonds (as in this case) and second-order sockets and bonds. The structure is only supported and secured at one end, whereas the beam is free to slide when the tree moves with the wind.

你是否梦想建造一座树屋?第11张图片

© Eduardo Souza (ArchDaily)

另一种方法,稍微复杂一点,是使用钢索,利用牵引的力量。一根钢索系在支架的一端,另一端系在较高的树枝上。这种方法是廉价和有效的,但你需要非常小心,不要让树接触到移动电缆。钢缆具有巨大的抗拉强度,可以给人一种你的家漂浮在树上的观感。

Another method, a little more complex, is to take advantage of traction, using steel cables. A steel cable is attached at one end to the support and to a higher branch at the other end. This method is cheap and effective, but you need to be very careful that the tree does not come into contact with the mobile cable. Steel cables have enormous tensile strength and can give the impression that your home is floating in the trees.

你是否梦想建造一座树屋?第12张图片

© Eduardo Souza (ArchDaily)

平台建成后,墙体和屋顶即可搭建。建筑师最好避免使用太重的材料,因为大部分的负荷将持续被各自的树木承担。建成后,观察连接是否牢固、结构是否保持水平,这些因素对于防止房屋破裂和伤害他人都非常重要。当然,如果遇到大风,树屋并不是最安全的地方,也绝对不是躲避雷暴的好地方。同样重要的是,有些地区需要政府机构的授权才能建造这样的建筑,即使是在你自己的土地上。

After the platform is built, the walls and roofs can be constructed. Preferably, architects should avoid materials that are too heavy, since most of the load will continue to be absorbed by the respective trees. Over time, once built, observing whether the connections remain firm and whether the structure remains level is essential to prevent the house from breaking and hurting someone. Of course, a tree house is not the safest place to be in the event of a strong wind and it is definitely not a good place to be in a lightning storm. It is also important to point out that there are some areas that require authorization from government bodies to build a structure like this, even on your own land.

你是否梦想建造一座树屋?第13张图片

Light Cute Treehouse by Sullalbero SRL (Italy, 2019). Image © Sullalbero SRL

你是否梦想建造一座树屋?第14张图片

Treehouse Guest House by Sullalbero SRL (Italy, 2019). Image © Sullalbero SRL

如上的建议并不是要阻止你建造树屋的梦想,正如ARUP事务所在几年前发布的视频中指出的那样,也许最重要的技巧是跟随自己的直觉,观察你建造树屋的能力。在设计和建造此类结构时,实验和观察是非常重要的因素。当然,最重要的是在你在这个过程中获得的乐趣!

These tips are not meant to discourage you from building your dream tree house. As the ARUP engineer points out in this video published a few years ago, perhaps the most important tip is to follow your own intuition and to observe the capabilities of the tree on which you build. Experimentation and observation are very important factors when designing and building structures of this type. And, of course, perhaps the most important thing is to have fun in the process!

你是否梦想建造一座树屋?第15张图片

Yellow Treehouse Restaurant / Pacific Environments. Image © Lucy Gauntlett

你是否梦想建造一座树屋?第16张图片

ACES Treehouse / Charles Cunniffe Architects. Image © Ross Kribbs

你是否梦想建造一座树屋?第17张图片

Treehouse Extreme by Sullalbero SRL (Italy, 2019). Image © Sullalbero SRL

你是否梦想建造一座树屋?第18张图片

Tree House / Madeiguincho. Image © João Carranca

你是否梦想建造一座树屋?第19张图片

Tree Hotel / Tham & Videgård Arkitekter. Image © Åke E:son Lindman

你是否梦想建造一座树屋?第20张图片

Tree Hotel / Tham & Videgård Arkitekter. Image Cortesia de Tham & Videgård Arkitekter


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