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回到未来?by Ulf Meyer第1张图片

Back to the Future?

由专筑网雷君,刘庆新编译

梅尔在他的文章《一千点的建筑》中故意使用了挑衅的语气。那么,德国真的有理由羡慕其他国家和他们的全球知名建筑师吗?或者说,在建筑行业中,缺乏优秀的建筑师意味着在质量上减少收益吗?让我们看一下当前的状况。

当代国际最著名的德国建筑师斯特凡在《论战》(在德国建筑师的原创文章)写道:在建筑“个体如繁星”的时代应该更能体现二十世纪的现象。“如果我们看新世纪的第一个十五年就会有一个不同的故事:明星崇拜(URE)似乎是活跃在世界各地的建筑业界。“办公室组织,建筑师的年轻一代的生活计划和利益是不同的,”班尼士年轻人认为,那是时代的宣言。即使在几乎没有独特建筑景观的德国,仍有本土的明星和名人们在知名度调查和公共意识中突出。在新的BauNetz排名,每个单一的建筑公司都是以个性发挥特长。建筑在这里顽强地保护了几乎所有四十岁以上的男性白人的专属保护区。许多年之前会有女性普里茨克奖得主通过,如日本的Kazuyo Sejima。德国人注重文化传统,音乐、文学、艺术和哲学有强烈的吸引力。建筑既不能作为文化发展,也不能作为出口前进。


成功是什么?独裁还是平庸?


德国所谓的“建筑文化”的真正品质是在于它的宽度,它的工艺,还是它的安全?即使只有百分之几的可能,那也是必要的。他们带来的宣传以一个坚实的、广义的“建筑文化”,为指导,实际上是值得的。这不仅可以保证中上层楼的高质量,甚至可以使之加强彼此。没有大量的宣传,就有一个陷入平庸的风险。对应防火、保温和环境相容性的法规和限制性要求,实现标准,既可作为一种阻力,又可作为催化剂。较小的国家往往缺乏政治和官僚的能力来加强监管,但他们的建筑似乎也没有很糟。

到目前为止,欧洲的法律和标准体系的逐步统一,使更多的政治家和官僚的水平更上一层楼,而不需要为整个欧洲大陆的建筑服务提供一个公平和透明的市场。欧洲也开始面临一个狭隘的重点-----纸上谈兵。即便欧洲作为一个整体也会迅速失去关联条款:政治上、军事上、全球经济在任何情况下,也有文化和艺术形式的存在,包括建筑和城市规划。世界各地最迫切需要的规划知识-----德国自然是稀缺的:这里的联邦的权力下放给许多不同的国家的首都,有一个东亚相当大的城市,相比于伦敦、巴黎、莫斯科、伊斯坦布尔,仍然是微小的。由于世界上许多紧迫的问题根本不适用于此,当地的建筑师和城市规划者们决定不考虑任何解决方案。

In Ulf Meyer's previous article, "Architecture of a Thousand Pinpricks," the tone was deliberately polemical. So does Germany really have reason to envy other countries and their globally celebrated architects? Or does the lack of high-flyers mean a gain in quality in the middle range of the architectural profession? Let's take a second look at the current state of things.
In a comment on the 'polemic' (in the original article on German-Architects), Stefan Behnisch, internationally perhaps the best-known contemporary German architect, wrote that in architecture “the era of individual stars” could be "more of a phenomenon of the twentieth century than of the twenty-first." If we look at the first fifteen years of the new century, however, they tell a different story: The star cult(ure) seems to be flourishing in architecture all over the world. That "the office organization, the life plans and interests of the younger generation of architects are different," as Behnisch junior believes, will remain an assertion for the time being. Even in the almost starless architectural landscape of Germany, it is the home-grown starlets and minor celebrities who occupy all the top slots in name-recognition surveys and public awareness. In the latest BauNetz ranking, for example, there is not a single architectural firm that is not centered on individual personalities. What’s more, architecture here stubbornly remains the almost exclusive preserve of white males over forty. Many years – or perhaps decades – will have to pass before Germany produces a female Pritzker Prize winner, such as Kazuyo Sejima of Japan. The Germans' image of themselves as a cultural nation traditionally draws strongly on music, literature, art, and philosophy. Architecture is promoted neither as culture, nor as an export.

The Victory – or Dictatorship – of Mediocrity?
Does the true quality of so-called 'building culture' in Germany lie in its breadth, in sound workmanship, in safety? It would actually be worth doing without the top few per cent and the publicity they bring if that were necessary in order to have a solid, broadly based 'building culture' – except that it is wrong to suppose that one excludes the other. Not only is it possible to have high quality both in the middle of the pack and among the leaders, but the two aspects even reinforce each other. Without high-flyers, there is a risk of sinking into mediocrity. Over-regulation and restrictive requirements for fire prevention, thermal insulation and environmental compatibility create standards that can act as a brake on creative innovation – but can also spur it on. Smaller countries often lack the political and bureaucratic capacity to impose a comparable regulatory burden, yet their buildings seem none the worse for it.
Up to now, the progressive harmonization of Europe's legal and standards systems has created little more than an additional level of politicians and bureaucrats without having fully opened up a fair and transparent market for architectural services throughout the continent. The increasingly blinkered focus on Europe also carries a risk that the profession's navel-gazing will merely be continued at the next level up, although Europe as a whole is rapidly losing relevance in global terms: politically, militarily, and economically in any case, but also culturally and artistically – and that includes architecture and urban planning. Expertise in making megacities more habitable, for example – the planning know-how most urgently needed around the world – is naturally scarce in Germany: Here the federal structure devolves power to many different state capitals and there is only one reasonably large city, which is nonetheless tiny compared to London, Paris, Moscow, or Istanbul, and positively microbial if set beside the gigantic metropolises of East Asia. Because many of the world's pressing problems simply don't apply here, the local architects and town planners don't develop any solutions to them on the ground.

回到未来?by Ulf Meyer第2张图片

猖獗的监管和对时间的不同理解

在日本的建筑,通常不为永恒,只为一代建造。一个建筑的平均寿命约为23年。出于生态和经济方面的考虑,却引出了更轻松和更大胆的设计方法。虽然建筑从表面上是永恒的,似乎是在保护可持续发展的利益,但却需要忍受很长一段时间。在德国,房屋所有权是非常低水平的----53%(与香港出租公寓相提并论。)这对于年轻建筑师就增加了难度,特别是难于寻找来自中产阶级客户的佣金。在这个国家的所有大型公司或机构,一般都不愿意冒险,因此只能用以往的经验才敢做大做强。

聘请建筑师的费用非常昂贵,如年轻建筑师已经摆脱了私人房子,虽然住房是最古老的、原始的任务,但是在早期阶段的职业生涯,为年轻建筑师提供了一个理想的机会,以获得经验和提高创造力。

能源效率条例和其他法定规定使得在德国建筑如此昂贵,只有富人才能拥有一个独立的房子。在我们的城市里,更多的空间被分配给汽车,而不是普通的人来居住。日本,相比之下,禁止占用任何公共道路停车。当你申请汽车牌照,你必须告知你有一个停车空间,因为日本城市已经很拥挤了。这个简单的规则为城市基础设施系统提供了方向,火车或步行同样存在乐趣,而城市挤满了有创意的微小的情节,是年轻建筑师为这座城市量身定制的解决方案。

Rampant Regulation and a Different Understanding of Time
In Japan, they build not for eternity, but usually only for a generation. The average life expectancy of a building is approximately 23 years. Given the ecological and economic considerations, that may be more than disconcerting to German architects, but it does result in a more relaxed and bolder approach to design. Although building for eternity (ostensibly, at least) may seem to be in the interests of sustainability, it means that mistakes can hardly be corrected and must be put up with for a long time. The level of home-ownership in Germany is sensationally low at 53% (on a par with Hong Kong, the city of rental apartment blocks!) and this adds to the difficulty that young architects, in particular, have in finding small-scale commissions from middle-class clients. Almost all of the owners who build in this country are large companies or institutions, which are generally averse to risk and therefore work only with large practices that can point to an established track record.
The rigid fee scale makes it so costly to employ architects that categories such as the private house have disappeared from the spectrum of work available to young architects, although housing as such is the oldest, the primal, task of the building trade – and in the early stages of a career, especially, it offers an ideal opportunity to gain experience and exercise creativity.
The energy-efficiency ordinance and other (in a global comparison, extremely rigid) statutory regulations make it so expensive to build in Germany that only the wealthy can afford to own a detached home. More space in our cities is allotted for cars to park on than for ordinary people to build on. Japan, in contrast, prohibits parking on any land belonging to public thoroughfares. When you apply for a vehicle license plate, you must be able to show that you have a parking space at both ends of your journey – a nearly insurmountable hurdle in Japan's crowded cities. This simple rule has given rise to an urban infrastructure system that makes it a pleasure to take the train or even to go on foot, while the cities are packed with small and miniscule plots that require creative, tailor-made solutions from young (or established) architects.

回到未来?by Ulf Meyer第3张图片

英国放松管制

大多数德国建筑师都不确定放松管制会对他们的职业有益还是有害。因为建筑不是纯粹意义上的服务,受法律的自由市场控制,取消了强制性的收费规模,这可能会威胁到他们的生计。然而,在伦敦的建筑师伯恩哈德布萝尔说,“第十九世纪的保护制度有利于西部开放建筑服务市场。如今,英国皇家建筑师学会(RIBA)只有费用提议,和建筑师的服务价格面议。在此期间,英国的费用规模写满一张A4纸。不像在德国,RIBA对建筑师的教育影响很大,可能会取代其大学课程的认识。开放建筑服务的最初结果是集中的劳动力:在英国的30000个建筑师,几乎一半的人是在另一半人的工作经验下工作。

马丁波利,曾经是伦敦最著名的建筑评论家,写道:“老建筑的价值,其耐久性、位置和形状的特殊性,已成为社区过时的传统社会价值观。”这种观点听起来有点陌生。经济上的可收益性和良好的架构并不是相互矛盾的。德国建筑师更糟的是超越自己的边界:这会为他们重新选取一个位置,并重新定义他们的个人资料。扩大建筑师的工作范围,并占用额外的生态环境。但有些专家提出相反的策略,应该专注于建筑师的核心技能,设计能力。这是一个“一步向前,两步退后”的情况吗?对于建筑师来说股权就是建筑师的地位,(引用詹克斯查尔斯)“国王的无限空间。”

Deregulation in Great Britain
The majority of German architects are uncertain whether deregulation would benefit or harm their profession – with some justification, because architecture is not a service sector in the pure, classic sense, subject to the laws of the free market, and so the abolition of the mandatory fee scale could threaten their livelihoods. Nevertheless, in countries such as Great Britain that have abandoned, in the words of London architect Bernhard Blauel, "the protectionist system of the nineteenth century in favor of the Wild West" by deregulating the market for architectural services, the experience has not been a wholly bad one. Nowadays, the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) only issues fee recommendations, and the prices for an architect's services are negotiable. In the meantime, the British fee scale has been distilled onto an A4 sheet. Unlike the situation in Germany, however, the RIBA has great influence over the education of architects and may withdraw its recognition of a university course. For the profession, the initial consequence of liberalizing architectural services was a concentration of the workforce: of the (mere!) 30,000 architects in the UK, almost exactly a half now work in one of the 3,000 largest practices.
The late Martin Pawley, once the best known architecture critic in London, wrote that "old architectural values, such as durability and specificity of place and shape, have become as archaic and irrelevant as the traditional social values of community." Sentiments of this kind still sound unfamiliar to German ears – as yet. Ultimately, economic viability and good architecture do not have to be mutually contradictory – quite the contrary, in many cases. German architects could do worse than to look beyond their own borders: It might help them to decide on a position and redefine their profile as a profession – before somebody else does it for them. One possible strategy would be to expand the architect's scope of work and occupy additional niches, but some experts propose the contrary tactic, that of concentrating on the architect's core skill, design. Will it be a case of "one step forward, two steps back"? At stake is the status of architects as (to quote Charles Jencks) "kings of infinite space."



柏林和芝加哥的ULF Meyer研究架构。他曾为东京坂茂建筑师工作,曾任教于堪萨斯州立大学、内布拉斯加大学和台湾淡江大学。他目前在柏林生活和工作,是一位建筑记者。

Ulf Meyer studied architecture in Berlin and Chicago. He has worked for Shigeru Ban Architects in Tokyo and has taught at Kansas State University, the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, and Tamkang University in Taiwan. He currently lives and works in Berlin as an architectural journalist.

出处:本文译自www.world-architects.com/,转载请注明出处。

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