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国外实体建筑模型制作指南:你做的这么丑,可能真的不是因为手残!第1张图片


最全指南:如何制作出令人印象深刻的建筑模型?
How to Make Impressive Architectural Models? Your complete guide

由专筑网李佳琪,杨帆编译

如何制作出令人印象深刻的建筑模型?本文将为你提供最全的模型制作指南。

作为建筑学生和未来的建筑师,你需要掌握多种技能,而其中之一就是模型制作。模型是一种很好的表达方式,可以使你的建筑设计,室内设计或者城市设计项目呈现出三维的形态。它可以告诉你,不同的元素在现实中会创造什么样的感受。此外,模型更容易让其他的观众,特别是那些没有建筑学经验的人便于理解。因此,本文将提供一些关于如何制作模型,才能使其更加完美的建议。在此,我们的讨论将涉及:规模、工具、工序以及审美表现。同时我们也会教你一些节省预算的技巧。现在,让我们正式开始。

How to Make Impressive Architectural Models? Your complete guide.
Being an architecture student and a future architect requires multiple skills, one of which is making models. Models are a good way of presenting a 3D version of your architectural design, interior design, or urban design project. They give you a sense of how the different elements will feel in reality combined together. Besides, they are easier to perceive for other viewers, especially those with no experience in architecture. So, here we will give you some tips on how to go on about your model to make it that best it can get. We will discuss the scale, the tools, the sequence, and the aesthetic presentation. We will, also, give you some budget saving tricks. So, let’s get started.


1. 制作什么样的模型?

首先,对于即将制作的模型,你需要了解这个项目的类型及规模。如果这个设计主要部分是在外部形式,那么在基础材料的选择上,你仅需要考虑材料是否可以最完美地表现设计的外部,而舍弃内部。对于一些其他的项目,如住宅,你可能需要一个可以展示外观设计以及内部布局的模型。因此,在制作上要处理更多的细节。打个比方,如果是一个公寓模型,那么里面所有的部分就需要全盘考虑。城市设计的模型则是完全不同的情况。你将对整个街区的模型进行制作,因此建筑模型中所需的细节就要少得多。

1. What will you be modeling?
First, you need to comprehend the nature and size of the project you will be modeling. If the idea is mainly in the form, then you need to focus on the base material that will show best your form, regardless how it shall look from the inside. Some other projects, like houses, for example, may require a model that shows the design of the facades and the inside layout. So, here you will be dealing with more details. If it is a model for an apartment, for example, then the inside is all that matters. Urban design models are a completely different case. You will be modeling entire neighborhoods so the level of details required for the architectural elements in the model is much less.

国外实体建筑模型制作指南:你做的这么丑,可能真的不是因为手残!第2张图片

Pinwheel –baldridge Architects提供
Pinwheel – Courtesy of baldridgeArchitects



2. 什么是模型的合适比例?

在此提供一个关于怎样确定模型比例的指导。一般来说,建筑模型比例的范围以1:10到1:20为主,而城市模型比例的范围大多在1:500和1:2500之间,主要取决于模型覆盖的面积。

2. What is the right scale for your model?
Here is a guide for you on how the scale works with models. Generally speaking, architectural models range from 1:10 to 1:200 mostly, while urban models range mostly between 1:500 and 1:2500 depending on what the model will be covering.

国外实体建筑模型制作指南:你做的这么丑,可能真的不是因为手残!第3张图片

参考书:Basics Architecture 01: Representational Techniques
Reference book: Basics Architecture 01: Representational Techniques



3. 如何选取恰当的材料?

3. What are the right materials to use?

国外实体建筑模型制作指南:你做的这么丑,可能真的不是因为手残!第4张图片

图片提供:Fruzsi Boutros
Image: Fruzsi Boutros


材料的范围很广,选择主要取决于你的目的,制作时间和技能水平。其中泡沫是最常被使用的基础材料。

• 白色泡沫板有多种厚度,最常见的为3mm和5mm。这些固体板可以用作泡沫和其他轻质材料模型的基础。或者,你也可以用它们来制作墙壁,并根据尺寸选择厚度。当然,如果内部墙不可见,那么厚度就不重要了。

• 软木板是有纹理的棕色板状材料,比泡沫板薄且更具灵活性。它们的处理和切割相对容易,但也会轻易地被破坏。

• 泡沫板灵活而不易被破坏。它们有多种颜色选择且厚度小,用剪刀就可以轻易地进行裁剪。

• 木材可用于模型制作,尤其是轻木,易切割也易于着色。木板可以作为较重模型的基础。轻木条可用于表示木骨架结构或桁架结构。

如果你的模型偏向概念或是形式化的风格,你可以选择容易塑形的材料,如Canson 的纸板、纸、线、或者是粘土,如果你有耐心,你可以选择尝试石膏或纸浆。

We have a wide range of materials here depending on your purpose, available time, and level of expertise. The basic and most commonly used base material for models is foam.
• White Foam boards come in multiple thicknesses, but most commonly 3mm and 5mm. These solid boards can be used as a base for models created from foam and other light materials. You can, also, use them to construct walls, and choose the thickness based on the scale. If the interior wall will not be visible, then the thickness doesn’t matter.
• Cork sheets are textured brownish sheets which are less thick and more flexible than foam boards. They are easier to handle and cut but they can break easily.
• Foam sheets are flexible but not easily breakable. They come in colors and small thickness; they can be cut easily with scissors.
• Wood can be used for modeling, especially Balsa wood which can be cut easily and painted. Wooden boards can also be used as a base for the heavier models. Balsa strips can be used for structures with the wooden skeleton, or to show trusses.
If your model is more of a conceptual or a form-oriented type you can go for materials that can be easily shaped like heavy Canson sheets, paper, wires, or clay, and if you have the patience you can experiment with gypsum or paper maché.


4. 什么适合作为切割和组装的工具?

首先,切割:

切割是模型制作的第一步,可以毫不夸张的说,这一步骤对模型起着决定性的作用。整齐的切割使模型整体美观且易懂,讨人喜欢。相反的,如果边缘都是凌乱的,模型可能就不会被认可。因此,为了确保整洁的边缘切割,你需要:

• 新刀片:不锈钢可锁定多功能裁纸刀,其可更换的刀片可以保证整齐的切口。可变的刀片尺寸,使切割更加容易,效果更好。

• 精密刀:它们锋利,耐用,且易于维护。适用于小细节的制作。可以轻易地切割纸张,泡沫,织物,薄金属和塑料。

• 剪刀:小型钛金属剪刀可用于制作一些精致的细节。在购买时选择一个抓握舒适的,以避免长时间使用产生损害。

• 角尺:不锈钢直角尺可以帮助我们更加容易和准确地绘制垂直线。将胶带粘贴到角尺的背面,可以使其更好地固定于下方的材料上,避免滑动。

4. What are the right tools to use for cutting and assembly?
First, the cutting:
Cutting is the actual first step of the model making, and it is not an exaggeration when we say it can make it or break it. Neatly cut pieces give an overall aesthetically pleasing understandable model. If the edges are all messy, the model might not be perceived well. To ensure clear cut edges you need to use
• Fresh blades: Stainless steel wheel-locked utility knives with replaceable blades are best for neat cuts. The changeable blade size, also, makes the cutting easier and better.
• Precision knife: They are very sharp, durable, and easy to maintain. They are best used for the small details. They can easily cut through paper, foam, fabric, thin metal, and plastic.
• Scissors: Small titanium scissors are needed for the fine details. Be careful to buy ones with a comfortable grip, so they will not hurt with long use.
• L-Square: Stainless still L-squares help you draw perpendicular lines easily and accurately. Attaching masking tape to its back make it hold better to the material below and avoid sliding.

国外实体建筑模型制作指南:你做的这么丑,可能真的不是因为手残!第5张图片


• 金属尺:6’’, 12’’, 和 18’’的金属尺,根据模型的尺寸,可以很方便地进行操作。是最适于切割的工具。

• 可自我愈合的切割垫板:它们可以保护你的切割刀片,减缓变钝的速度,而且,你也一定不想划坏你的桌子。

• Metal Ruler: 6’’, 12’’, and 18’’ metal rulers can all be handy depending on the size of the model. These are best for the cutting.
• Self-healing Cutting Mat: They will protect the cutting blades from dulling fast, and after all, you don’t want to ruin your desk.

国外实体建筑模型制作指南:你做的这么丑,可能真的不是因为手残!第6张图片

图片来自:www.aliexpress.com
Image via: www.aliexpress.com


• 激光切割:如果你不相信自己的切割技术或者愿意付更多的钱,那么你可以选择走捷径。在AutoCAD中画出样本,然后激光刀将帮你完成余下的工作。

• Laser Cutting: If you are not confident in your cutting or you are willing to pay more, then you can take that shortcut. You draw the sample pieces on AutoCAD and the laser cutter will do the rest.

国外实体建筑模型制作指南:你做的这么丑,可能真的不是因为手残!第7张图片

图像来自:www.newindiahobbycentre.com
Image via: www.newindiahobbycentre.com


提示1: 小心不要割伤自己,尤其要小心使用高精度刀,身边常备急救包。
提示2: 为模型中所有不同的部分制作样本,然后把它们作为模板。这可以使切割更容易,更快。
提示3: 在激光切割之前,尝试手工制作,体会这种感受。毕竟,这是一种不可替代的制作体验。

Tip 1: Be careful not to cut yourself, especially with the precision knife, and keep the first-aid kit by your side.
Tip 2: Make prototypes for all the different pieces and then use them as templates. It makes the cutting much easier and faster.
Tip 3: Before going for laser-cutting, try to do the manual work and get the sense of it. It is an irreplaceable experience.


第二步,组装:

现在,模型中所有的部分已经切割准备完毕,你需要了解最好用的组装工具了。因此,这里列举了一些你可能会需要的工具,当然,你也可以根据材料,时间和预算自己做决定。

• 胶棒:便宜,容易使用,但不是很牢固。只适用于纸,且可能不会永久性的粘连。

Second, the assembling:
Now, that you have all the pieces cut and ready, you need to know the best assembly tools. So, here is what you might need, and, of course, depending on the materials, time, and budget, you can decide.
• Glue Sticks: They are cheap and easy to use but not very strong. They only work with paper and they might not give you a permanent result.

国外实体建筑模型制作指南:你做的这么丑,可能真的不是因为手残!第8张图片



• 白乳胶:无毒白胶产品,可以使材料粘连得牢固且整齐。然而,它需要一段时间进行干燥。

• White Glue: There are non-toxic white glue products which stick materials strongly and neatly. However, it takes a while to dry.

国外实体建筑模型制作指南:你做的这么丑,可能真的不是因为手残!第9张图片



• 万能胶:它就像白色的胶水一样,但是相比之下,黏胶更厚,所以它比正常的白色胶水更牢固,却干得更快。

• Tacky Glue: It is like white glue but thicker, so it’s stronger than the normal white glue, and it, also, dries faster.

国外实体建筑模型制作指南:你做的这么丑,可能真的不是因为手残!第10张图片



• 热熔胶:它干燥快粘性强,然而,需要谨慎使用,小心被热熔胶烫伤。此外,由于其干得快且粘性强,要注意避免粘错。最后,胶枪往往寿命很短,易破碎,需要经常更换。

• Hot Glue: It dries the fastest and gives a strong bond, however, you need to be cautious while using it, since the hot glue can burn you. Also, since it dries fast and strong, you can’t afford to make mistakes. Finally, the glue guns tend to have a short life span. They break easily and need to be replaced.

国外实体建筑模型制作指南:你做的这么丑,可能真的不是因为手残!第11张图片



• 木胶:显然,如果你的模型制作中用到了木材,就需要用到木胶。在使用时需要立即清掉多余的胶水,因为它会产生污渍。

• Wood Glue: Obviously, you will need that if your model will make of wood. You need to clean the excess glue immediately because it stains.

国外实体建筑模型制作指南:你做的这么丑,可能真的不是因为手残!第12张图片



• 双面胶带:双面均有胶带。粘结牢固,整洁,可调,但放置时要小心,因为如果你想要去除它,就会同时撕掉纸或泡沫板表面。

• Double-sided Tape: This tape sticks on both sides. It is strong, neat, and adjustable, but be careful when placing it because if you try to remove it after, it will tear away the paper or the foam board surface.

国外实体建筑模型制作指南:你做的这么丑,可能真的不是因为手残!第13张图片



• 胶注射器:使用胶水时,会非常方便。你可以用白乳胶或万能胶水填充,然后涂抹在正确的地方。胶注射器的使用,会让模型变得整洁牢固。

提示:在胶水凝固时,你可以暂时用直针把这些部分固定在一起。

• Glue Syringe: When using glue, these could be very handy. You can fill them with white or tacky glue, and use it right on spot. The model will come out neat and stable.
Tip: While the glue is setting, you can temporarily use straight pins to hold the pieces together.

国外实体建筑模型制作指南:你做的这么丑,可能真的不是因为手残!第14张图片


现在,是讨论外表面的时候了。

Now, it is time to discuss the presentation.


5. 在建筑模型中用什么表示饰面材料?

这一步骤可能需要一点创造力。毕竟,各种各样的材料,都可以以不同的方式有所呈现。然而,最常见表示饰面材料的方式是:

5. What to use for finishing materials in architectural models?
This step might require a bit of creativity on your side. After all, there is a large variety of materials that can be represented differently. However, the most common way to represent the finishing material is to

国外实体建筑模型制作指南:你做的这么丑,可能真的不是因为手残!第15张图片

图片来自:www.newindiahobbycentre.com
Image via: www.newindiahobbycentre.com


• 以合适的比例打印瓦片或砖的位图图像,测量,然后将其准确的贴在泡沫板制成的墙上。
• 无需打印,从杂货铺购买已有的样式
• 瓦楞纸板可用于屋顶,也可用于一些墙面的饰面。
• 薄透明塑料板,也称为透明玻璃片,可用于表示玻璃。
• 轻木条可以用于表示木屏风和其他木饰面。
• 软木板的褐色也可以给人一种木材的感受。
• 对于有色的表面,可以选择在纸或泡沫板上用彩喷着色。
• 可以使用彩色贴纸,这些在工艺品商店中可以买到。
• 如果颜色太多,你可以选择购买彩色泡沫板。其填充是白色的,但光滑的表面是有色的。

提示: 不要用力过猛。仔细考虑想要从模型中反映什么。太多的材料,特别是没有纹理的贴纸,会使你的模型看起来很假。只显示重点表达的部分。现在,让我们通过装饰和景观表达来完善模型。

• Print bitmaps of the tiles or bricks in the right scale and measurements and stick it accurately to your foam board walls.
• Instead of printing, buy from the available variety of available
• Corrugated paper sheets can be used for roofs. They can also be used for some wall finishes.
• Thin transparent plastic sheets, also known as clear sheet print, can be used to indicate glass.
• Balsa wood strips can be used for wooden screens and other wooden finishes.
• The brownish color of the cork sheets might also give a general impression of wood.
• For colored surfaces, you can paint the paper or foam board by color sprays.
• You can also use colored sticker paper, which is available in craft shops.
• If there is too much of a certain color, you can just buy colored foam board. The filling is white but the smooth surface is colored.
Tip: Don’t overdo it. Think carefully of what you would like to reflect from your model. Too many materials, and especially the stickers with no texture, will look artificial. Just show what is important. Now, let’s tweak the model with furniture and some landscape elements.


6. 如何通过装饰和景观表达来完善模型?

从家具开始:
你可以选择买现成的,但可能会有点贵,而且如果你想展示自己设计的家具,就不会有已经制成的了。这个时候,就要自己动手做家具了。
• 粘土是最好的选择,因为它容易进行塑性处理,而且很便宜。
• 薄泡沫板(1mm),也常被使用。
• 彩色泡沫板是一个不错的选择,因为它很容易处理。而且有厚度,可以立在模型上。

6. How to furnish and landscape your model?
Starting with the furniture:
You can buy the ready-made stuff, but they can be a bit pricey, and if you would like to show your own designed or customized furniture, they won’t do. So, you can start making your own furniture.
• Clay is one of your best options because it is easy to shape and handle, and besides, it is cheap.
• Small thickness (1mm) foam boards can, also, be used, and colored.
• Colored foam sheets are a good option since they are easy to handle. Use thickness that will make it stand.

国外实体建筑模型制作指南:你做的这么丑,可能真的不是因为手残!第16张图片

图片来自: www.alibaba.com
Image via www.alibaba.com


现在,让我们来考虑景观。
包括铺地、植被、水景和照明设备。对于铺地:
• 地板砖,与饰面材料相似,可以购买或印刷。
• 道路上的白色标记可以选择绘制或购买现成的白条
• 人行道的高度可以用一层薄薄的泡沫板表示,或根据规模选择其他。
• 水的元素包括水池和喷泉。
• 对于水的制作,你可以简单地使用蓝色的纸张,然后用薄的透明纹理塑料板覆盖在上面,如果它的面积很小,可以用透明玻璃片。
• 对于喷泉,你可以用相同的材料,把它作为一个家具的模型来制作。

植被的表达包括树木、灌木和草。你可以:
• 买现成的小草,树,以及一簇簇的植物。
• 使用真实的苔藓来表示草。
• 将木屑上色为草绿色,自制苔藓。
• 可以用作树枝和树干部分的材料:金属丝、牙签、或大头针。
• 绿色的草堆可以由绿色棉球,软木球,海绵,或泡沫来代替。
看完这个关于如何用金属丝制作树的教程,你就会知道怎么做了:

Now, to the landscaping..
Here we have flooring, vegetation, water elements, and lighting fixtures. As for the flooring:
• Flooring tiles, just like with finishing materials can be bought or printed.
• Roads with white markings can be drawn or you can buy the ready-made strips
• The height of the pavements or sidewalks can be shown by a layer of thin foam board, or according to scale.
• Water elements include pools and fountains.
• For water, you can simply use blue paper sheets and cover them with thin transparent textured plastic sheets or just clear sheet print if it is a small surface.
• For the fountain, you can model it as a piece of furniture with same suggested materials.

Vegetation includes trees, shrubs, and grass. You can
• Buy the ready-made small grass mats, trees, and tufts.
• Use actual moss for grass indication.
• Spray sawdust with grass-green color and make your own moss.
• As for trees the skeleton or the trunk part can be made of: wire, toothpicks, or straight pins.
• The green mass can be made of green colored cotton pads, cork balls, sponge, or foam.
Check this tutorial on how to make wire trees, you will get the idea:

国外实体建筑模型制作指南:你做的这么丑,可能真的不是因为手残!第17张图片

Lakeshore East 模型——图片来自:www.chicagoarchitecture.org
Lakeshore East Model – Image via www.chicagoarchitecture.org


至于照明的元素,你只需要用到:

• 白色的大头针

如果你想真正地照亮你的模型,你可以使用:
• 微型LED灯
• 小型荧光棒

As for the lighting elements, you can simply use
• White headed straight pins
And if you want to actually illuminate your model you can use
• Micro LEDs
• Tiny glow sticks

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最后,我们提供了一些整体的建议,这些在制作模型的过程中将会帮到你:
• 勤洗手,不要弄脏你的模型和手。
• 做模型的空间足够宽敞,确保你可以有空间自由移动。
• 在良好的光线条件下工作,以保护眼睛,同时可以避免做错。
• 打印一份计划,并用它作为建模的基础,这样可以制作得更快。
• 投资高品质的工具,因为可以用更久,并且会让你得到最好的结果。
• 享受这个过程,这会反映到你的作品中。

Finally, here are some general tips that will help you with your model making
• Wash your hands frequently, not stain your model or your hands.
• Make sure to work in big enough space so that you can move freely.
• Work in good lighting conditions not to hurt your eyes or make mistakes.
• Print your plans and use them as a base for your model to build it faster.
• Invest in high-quality tools, since they will live longer and give you the best outcome.
• Enjoy the process, it will reflect on your work.


祝大家可以在模型制作过程中收获良好的体验!

Happy modeling !


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