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本文转载自香港双人青国际景观

(阿卜杜拉国王石油研究中心)是一个非营利的机构,致力于能源高效利用的自主研究,从经济和社会层面造福世界。它通过提出一系列政治和经济框架,减少了环境破坏和能源供给成本,同时为能源的高效使用提供了具有实用性的技术方案。通过与全球的研究中心、公众政策组织、政府机构及各行各业进行合作,KAPSARC将来自全世界的先进专业技能整合起来,攻克了一系列能源上的挑战,同时将自身的知识、眼界及研究框架无偿地分享给大众。

KAPSARC (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Centre) is a non- profit institution for independent research into policies that contribute to the most effective use of energy to provide economic and social wellbeing across the globe. KAPSARC develops policies and economic frameworks that reduce the environmental impact and overall costs of energy supply and enable practical technology-enabled solutions to use energy more efficiently. Collaborating with international research centres, public policy organizations, worldwide government institutions and global industry, KAPSARC brings together leading experts from around the world to tackle energy challenges; freely sharing its knowledge, insights and analytical frameworks.

▼园区鸟瞰,aerial view  ©Hufton+Crow

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▼70000平方米的研究中心共包含五座主要的建筑,the 70,000m2 KAPSARC campus incorporates five key buildings  ©Hufton+Crow

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KAPSARC园区面积达70000平方米,共包含五座主要的建筑:能源知识中心、能源计算中心、带有展厅和300人礼堂的会议中心、藏书量达十万册的研究图书馆,以及用于礼拜的Musalla。KAPSARC的设计立足于对技术和环境层面的考量,将园区内的五座建筑统一为一个整体。设计方案呼应了利雅得高原的环境条件,使能源和资源消耗量降至最低,并于近期获得了美国绿色建筑协会颁布的LEED白金级认证。建筑的基本布局基于一个细胞式的半模块化系统,不同的建筑形成一个整体,通过公共空间彼此相连。形如蜂巢的六边形棱柱以最少的材料在有限的体量中构成了一个细胞晶格系统,这一结构及组织原理定义出了KAPSARC的实质:浮现于沙漠景观之中的晶体结构,它以最佳方式回应了环境条件,同时满足了内部空间的功能需求。蜂巢状的晶格朝着中轴线的方向逐渐变得扁平,呼应了自然环境中向西方延伸的河床。

▼形如蜂巢的六边形棱柱构成了一个细胞晶格系统,Hexagonal prismatic honeycomb structures create a lattice of cells within a given volume  ©Hufton+Crow

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The 70,000m2 KAPSARC campus incorporates five key buildings: the Energy Knowledge Centre; the Energy Computer Centre; a Conference Centre with exhibition hall and 300-seat auditorium; a Research Library with archives for 100,000 volumes; and the Musalla. KAPSARC’s design has solid technical and environmental considerations at its heart, drawing the five elements of the campus into a unified whole. Recently awarded LEED Platinum certification by the US Green Building Council, the centre is designed in response to the environmental conditions of the Riyadh Plateau to minimise energy and resource consumption. The primary organising strategy of the design is a cellular, partially modular system that integrates different departmental buildings as a single ensemble with interconnecting public spaces. Hexagonal prismatic honeycomb structures use the least material to create a lattice of cells within a given volume. This structural and organizational principle determined KAPSARC’s composition as an amalgamation of crystalline forms that emerges from the desert landscape, evolving to best respond to the environmental conditions and internal programme requirements. The honeycomb grid is compressed towards its central axis as an extension of the natural wadi that runs to the west.

▼六面体的“细胞”有着更强大的连通性,the six sides of the hexagonal cells offer greater opportunities for increased connectivity ©Hufton+Crow

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研究中心无疑应当是一个具有前瞻性的机构,KAPSARC的建筑同样放眼未来:其结构能够在不改变外观特征的情况下实现体量上的扩大和功能上的调整。模块化的设计催生出具有统领性的组织、空间和结构策略。相比于只有四个侧面的矩形体块,六面体的“细胞”有着更强大的连通性。KAPSARC的五座建筑有着不同的尺寸和组织原理,为的是更好地适应使用需求。每座建筑都包含能够随使用和工作需求变化的功能结构。通过延展蜂巢状的晶格,这些晶体能够被轻易地叠加,从而满足研究中心在未来的扩建需要。

A research centre is by its very nature a forward-looking institution and KAPSARC’s architecture also looks to the future with a formal composition that can expand or adapt without compromising the centre’s visual character. The modular design generates consistent organisational, spatial and structural strategies that drive all elements of the plan. The six sides of the hexagonal cells also offer greater opportunities for increased connectivity when compared to rectangular cells with only four sides. KAPSARC’s five buildings differ in size and organisation to best suit their use. Each building is divided into its component functions and can be adapted to respond to changes in requirements or working methods. Additional cells can readily be introduced by extending KAPSARC’s honeycomb grid for future expansion of the research campus.

▼园区建筑环绕在一个巨大的公共庭院周围,the buildings of the campus surround a large public courtyard  ©Hufton+Crow

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建筑的独特形式还能使利雅得高原地区的强烈光照和高温得以缓解。园区建筑环绕在一个巨大的公共庭院周围,精致的钢柱森林支撑着一系列顶棚,为庭院带来遮蔽。建筑整体朝向北面和西面,坚固的外壳抵御了南面的猛烈日晒,同时将北面的盛行风引入庭院,在气候温和的几个月里为庭院带来凉风。这一布局还便于园区在未来向北部扩建,并且在西面与研究人员的居住社区相连。为了方便行人,园区中的每栋建筑皆能够通过中央的公共庭院直接进入,庭院还可被用作会面的空间,并在温和时节为建筑提供连接。另外一条连接途径则位于地下,便于在一年中最炎热的时间里使用。

▼建筑坚固的外壳抵御了南面的猛烈日晒,the solid shell prevents harsh sunlight from the south  ©Hufton+Crow

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▼走廊,corridor

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The specific arrangement and form of KAPSARC’s buildings contribute to softening the strong light and heat of the Riyadh Plateau.The buildings of the campus surround a large public courtyard shaded by canopies supported from a forest of crafted steel columns. Presenting a solid, protecting shell to the harsh sunlight from the south, the KAPSARC campus opens to north and west; encouraging prevailing winds from the north to cool the courtyard during temperate months and facilitating connections with any future expansion of the campus to the north, as well as creating connections with the researcher’s residential community to the west. Privileging the pedestrian, each of the buildings within the campus is entered through this central public courtyard that also serves as a meeting space and link between buildings during temperate seasons. An underground link also connects the main buildings on the campus for use at the hottest times of the year.

▼精致的钢柱森林支撑着一系列顶棚, the canopies are supported from a forest of crafted steel columns   ©Hufton+Crow

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除了具有保护性的强大外壳能够抵御极端天气,建筑还具有一个多孔的内部空间。一些特殊的六边形“细胞”被有计划地放置在每栋建筑当中并处于开放状态,形成一系列带顶庭院,为室内带来柔和可控的自然光。建筑的晶体结构在南面、西面和东面的高度有所增加,使内部空间免于受到阳光的直射。内部庭院则朝向北面和西北面,为下方的空间带来间接照射的阳光。“捕风口”被装置在每个庭院南侧的屋顶内部,可捕捉到北面的盛行风,从而降低庭院的温度。

With its strong, protective shell on the exterior that shields from the extremes in weather, KAPSARC’s architecture is porous within. Specific hexagonal cells strategically located within each building are left open to create a series of sheltered courtyards that bring softly-controlled daylight into the interior. Orientated for the sun and wind conditions, the crystalline forms of the prismatic architectural cells gain in height towards the south, west, and east to shield internal spaces from direct sunlight, while the courtyards within are oriented to the north and northwest to bring indirect sunlight into the spaces below.‘Wind-catchers’ integrated within the roof profiles on the southern sides of each courtyard catch the prevailing winds from the north, cooling each courtyard.

▼用于礼拜的Musalla,the Musalla for praying  ©Hufton+Crow

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KAPSARC的建筑具有良好的透明度,能够促进研究人员和来访者之间的积极交流。有意倾斜的波纹屋顶面板为整个园区赋予了丰富的空间层次,同时为各个楼层带来不同的视野和景致。公共区域被设计为研究人员的协作区域,用于非正式的会面和交流。需要保证私密性的安全区域位于建筑内部楼板交叠的位置。

KAPSARC’s architecture promotes transparency and encourages an active exchange between researchers and visitors. By strategically off-setting floorplates, spatial layering effects are created throughout the centre to provide views to the floors above and below; offering transparency between floors in public areas designed as collective zones for researchers to meet informally and exchange ideas. Secure areas and rooms requiring privacy are located within areas of each building where floorplates overlap.

▼丰富的空间层次,patial layering effects are created throughout the centre  ©Hufton+Crow

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▼环绕着庭院的走廊,corridors surround the courtyard

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▼良好的透明度促进了研究人员和来访者的积极交流,KAPSARC’s architecture promotes transparency and encourages an active exchange between researchers and visitors  ©Hufton+Crow

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▼交通空间,circulation area  ©Hufton+Crow

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凭借主动与被动相结合的能源系统,研究中心获得了LEED的白金级认证,具体表现为:建筑通过自身体量、朝向、立面优化、系统选择以及排布在南向的会议中心屋顶的太阳能光伏系统(制热量5,000MWh/年),降低了45%的能源消耗(与ASHRAE标准比较);园区内所有饮用水皆可循环利用,所有灌溉用水皆来自于非饮用水资源;园区建筑所使用的材料40%来自于500英里以内的范围,30%由可再生原料制成;98%的木材经过了森林管理委员会(FSC)的认证;基于垃圾分类,4000公吨的废弃物免于被填埋。此外,KAPSARC还获得了霍尼韦尔智能建筑奖的“最智能建筑”奖。KAPSARC在环境可持续性、安全性和生产力这三个层面上皆有着为人称道的卓越表现。

KAPSARC was recently awarded LEED Platinum certification from the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) through its application of passive and active solutions including: a 45% reduction in energy performance (compared to the ASHRAE baseline standards) achived via KAPSARC’s building massing and orientation, façade optimization, system selection and the solar PV array located on the roof of the south-facing Conference Centre with a capacity of 5,000MWh/year; All KAPSARC’s potable water is recycled and reused on site and 100% of irrigation water is from non-potable sources; 40% of KAPSARC’s construction materials have been sourced from within 500 miles, and 30% of materials made with recycled content; 98% of all wood certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC); 4,000 tonnes of waste separated and diverted from  landfill.  KAPSARC has also been named Saudi Arabia’s ‘smartest’ building in the Honeywell Smart Building Awards programme. Based on criteria that include environmental sustainability, safety and productivity, KAPSARC received outstanding scores across all three categories.

▼建筑远景,a distant view  ©Hufton+Crow

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