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来来来,搬把小凳子,快来围观这些世界城市之最!第1张图片

Hong Kong Khush N  licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

地球上的极端城市:最冷、最贫瘠、人口最多……
Extreme Cities: The Densest, Coldest, Remotest, Most Visited (etc) Human Settlements on Earth

由专筑网李韧,杨帆编译

人类的适应性很强,我们能够适应许多恶劣的极端环境。有时,极端环境来源于自然,而有时,这种极端的状况却是人类一手造成。本文列出了一些极端的居住环境,有些极具挑战性,而有些则非常有趣,所有的一切都为我们带来了不同的视角,让我们了解人类未来的生活状况。

Humans are adaptable animals; we have evolved to adjust to, and survive in, many difficult and extreme conditions. In some cases, these extremes are natural, while in other modern cities extreme living situations are created by us, and we are forced to accept and adjust. Here is a list of extreme settlement conditions: some challenging, some wonderful and all of them offering a fascinating insight into how we occupy the planet in 2017.

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Singapore © Erwin Soo  licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0

最昂贵的城市——新加坡

有几个亚洲城市在这项排名中也十分靠前,但新加坡仍然占据榜首。本次排名的基础来源于日常生活用品的价格,例如食品、衣物,以及一些家庭用品。在新加坡,这些物品所花费的金额数量较大,例如,一公斤面包售价为3.55美元,一瓶酒的价格为23.68美元。更有趣的是,虽然榜单上的其他城市同样面临住房危机,但2016年80%的新加坡居民都享受着住房补贴,这也解释了他们在这个世界上最昂贵的城市中的生活方式。

Most Expensive City-Singapore
While several Asian cities feature on the list of most expensive in 2017, Singapore comes out on top. The study was based on the price of day-to-day and specialty products including food, clothing, drinks and household supplies converted to US Dollars. The conclusions drawn were that in Singapore, basic items cost a lot, with a one-kilo loaf of bread costing $3.55 U.S. and a bottle of wine $23.68. Interestingly, while most of the other cities on this list are facing housing affordability crises, as of 2016 80% of local Singaporeans were living in subsidized housing blocks, which perhaps explains how the most expensive city in the world remains viable to live in.

来来来,搬把小凳子,快来围观这些世界城市之最!第3张图片

Bangkok Pier Alessio Rizzardi  licensed under CC BY 2.0

游客最多的城市——泰国,曼谷

由于物价低廉、风景美丽等因素,泰国成为了2017年游客最多的国家。而泰国的中心曼谷今年预计的游客数量约为2020万人次,其当地人口只有800万人,一个城市的大多数人口竟然是游客,这是一件听起来非常有趣的事。在本次调查中,曼谷的游客数量比伦敦多20万人次,因此居于榜首。

Most Visited City-Bangkok, Thailand
Affordable, diverse and beautiful, it's no wonder Thailand features first on the list of most visited for 2017. Its vibrant center, Bangkok, is expected to draw 20.2 million international overnight visitors this year alone, more than double its population of 8 million. It is interesting to consider the nature of a city so dominated by, and therefore tailored to, tourists. Bangkok narrowly beats London by 200,000 visitors.

来来来,搬把小凳子,快来围观这些世界城市之最!第4张图片

Manila Jopetsy  licensed under CC BY 2.0

人口密度最高的城市——菲律宾,马尼拉

菲律宾的马尼拉是世界上人口密度最大的城市,其每平方公里约71263人(即每平方英里107562人)。这里的人口密度甚至超过位居第二的城市帕特罗斯一倍之多。马尼拉是大型港口城市,其主要人口分布在现代高层建筑以及西班牙巴洛克风格的建筑集中区域,这些建筑都具有高度抗震性能。

City with the Highest Population Density-Manila, Philippines
With a population density of 71,263 people per square kilometer (or 107,562 per square mile), Manila in the Philippines is by far the most densely populated city in the world. Its density per kilometer squared is more than double that of the next densest location—neighboring municipality Pateros, and even famously dense Mumbai. A large harbor city, Manila locates its population among a series of contemporary high-rises and a prolific Spanish baroque style which came about in response to high earthquake risk.

来来来,搬把小凳子,快来围观这些世界城市之最!第5张图片

Hong Kong (Public Domain)

高层建筑最多的城市——香港

香港闻名于其环球金融中心,这里的城市天际线常常出现在电影中。在这座城市,超过150米高的建筑有317座,这个数字远远高于名单上的其他城市,甚至击败了纽约。

City With the Most Skyscrapers-Hong Kong
Hong Kong is famous as a global financial hub and for its sky-scraper skyline—often featuring in modern films. With 317 buildings over 150 meters tall, the city literally towers above the rest of the list of cities with the most skyscrapers, beating New York by 60.

来来来,搬把小凳子,快来围观这些世界城市之最!第6张图片

Melbourne Pier Alessio Rizzardi  licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

最宜居的城市——澳大利亚,墨尔本

每年,Economist Intelligence Unit(EIU)会评判出140个城市的宜居指数,评判标准是当地医疗状况、教育程度、社会稳定性、文化水准、环境状况以及基础设施的发展状况。澳大利亚的墨尔本已经是第七次位居榜首,该评估的满分为100,而墨尔本得分97.5。但这样的结果仍然受到非议,有人认为这个排行无法表明当地人们的实际生活状况。

Most Livable City-Melbourne, Australia
Each year the Economist Intelligence Unit's (EIU) Liveability Index ranks 140 cities by their healthcare, education, stability, culture, environment and infrastructure to determine the world's most liveable city. Melbourne has taken the top spot for the seventh time, scoring 97.5 out of a possible 100. The ruling is not without controversy though, with critics suggesting the ranking glosses over the realities of life for many people living in the city.

来来来,搬把小凳子,快来围观这些世界城市之最!第7张图片

La_Rinconada_Peru © Hildegard Willer

世界上最高的城市——秘鲁,拉林科纳达

这是唯一排名前十的城市不在中国的榜单,拉林科纳达的海拔为5130米(16830英尺),是世界上海拔最高的城市。城市位于La Bella Durmiente山脚下,这是全球知名的“睡美人”冰川。这里的温度太低,导致植被无法生长。然而近50000人都生活在这片贫瘠的土地上。虽然这里距离赤道不远,但城市的平均温度只有1.2 °C (34.2 °F)。

World's Highest City-La Rinconada, Peru
As the only settlement in the top ten not in China, La Rinconda is the highest city in the world at 5,130 meters (16,830 feet). The city rests at the foot of La Bella Durmiente, "The Sleeping Beauty" glacier, high in the Andes. With temperatures too low for tree growth, this barren and surreal landscape is home to nearly 50,000 people. Despite being only 14 degrees from the equator the average temperature is 1.2 °C (34.2 °F).

来来来,搬把小凳子,快来围观这些世界城市之最!第8张图片


最大的城市(数据来源于城市测量结果)——中国,重庆

联合国儿童基金会将“人口居住的城市行政边界”的内部区域定义为城市。重庆是中国发展的新兴城市,城市人口约30165500人次,比上海多出了近600万。重庆是长江上游流域的经济核心区域,同时也是交通发展和制造业的中心地区,是中国唯一一个位于内陆的直辖市。

Largest City (Based on City Proper Measurement)-Chongqing, China
UNICEF defines city proper as "the population living within the administrative boundaries of a city." Described as one of China's emerging megacities, Chongqing packs in 30,165,500 people, beating Shanghai by close to 6 million. As a transportation hub and manufacturing center, Chongqing serves as the economic core of the upstream Yangtze Basin and is the only one of China's four direct-controlled municipalities located far away from the coast.

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CHILE (Photo by Yves Forestier/Sygma via Getty Images)

世界最南端的城市——智利,威廉姆斯港

智利威廉姆斯港再往南便是南极洲,这也成为这座城市吸引游客的一大亮点,当地人也戏称这里是世界最南端的城市。阿根廷的乌斯怀亚和智利的蓬塔阿雷纳斯同样也会运用“最南端”说法,但从确切的地理位置来说,威廉姆斯港的纬度让其始终位于榜首。

Southernmost City-Puerto Williams, Chile
As a gateway into Antarctica, Puerto Williams uses its extreme southern location as a drawcard for tourists, even touting the slogan The southernmost city in the world. Two other cities also lay claim to the slogan, Ushuaia in Argentina and Punta Arenas in Chile, but by latitude Puerto Williams, a port town on Navarino Island, surrounded by pristine eco systems, is the ultimate winner.

来来来,搬把小凳子,快来围观这些世界城市之最!第10张图片

London Hanno Rathmann licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

亿万富翁最多的城市——英国,伦敦

根据每年的《星期日泰晤士报》财富排行榜,伦敦的富豪人数约为80人,这里被称为是亿万富翁的故乡。根据美国在线新闻平台Business Insider的说法,世界上只有5%的富翁总产值超过100亿美元,而全球财富总额则为241万亿美元,其中7.6万亿美元都属于这些富豪们。

City with the Most Billionaires-London, UK
With a grand total of 80, London is the city the most billionaires choose to call home, according to the annual Sunday Times Rich List. According to Business Insider only 5% of the world's billionaires are worth more than $10 billion USD, but it doesn't stop them all collectively owning $7.6 trillion of the world's current total of $241 trillion in wealth.

来来来,搬把小凳子,快来围观这些世界城市之最!第11张图片


交通堵塞最严重的城市——墨西哥,墨西哥城

墨西哥城不仅拥有稠密的本地人口,同时还拥有较多的游客数量,这两个问题让墨西哥城成为世界上交通堵塞最严重的城市,其66%的拥堵状况也都来源于此,这意味着每个人在路上需要额外花费59分钟,在晚高峰时段这个数据还会上浮101%。

City with the Most Traffic Jams-Mexico City, Mexico
Densely populated and a hot spot for tourists, it's no wonder Mexico City has some congestion problems. Evidently, the worst congestion problems in the world. This scale gives it a level of 66%, meaning an additional average of 59 minutes is spent per user on the roads. This gets as high as 101% during peak evening periods.

来来来,搬把小凳子,快来围观这些世界城市之最!第12张图片

Oymyakon Maarten Takens licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

最冷的城市——俄罗斯,奥伊米亚康

俄罗斯北部城市奥伊米亚康的名字来源于单词kheium,意思是“不冻的河流”,这里是人类居住的极寒地区。这里冬季平均气温低于−50 °C (−58 °F),根据数据记载,北半球最冷的时期是在1933年,当时的气温为−67.7 °C (−89.9 °F)。在当地六月和七月的温度并不会低于−10 °C (14 °F),甚至有时候还能达到30 °C (86 °F)。

Coldest City-Oymyakon, Russia
The Even word kheium, in which this settlement aptly finds its namesake, reportedly translates to "unfrozen patch of water; place where fish spend the winter." Oymyakon, in Northern Russia is the coldest permanently inhabited locale on the planet. The average minimum temperature in winter remains below −50 °C (−58 °F) and the coldest ever temperature recorded in the Northern Hemisphere occurred there in 1933, coming in at −67.7 °C (−89.9 °F). June and July are the only months in which the temperature has never dropped below −10 °C (14 °F), and it can actually get hot, reaching over 30 °C (86 °F) on some days.

来来来,搬把小凳子,快来围观这些世界城市之最!第13张图片

Auckland Pier Alessio Rizzardi  licensed under CC BY 2.0

最遥远的城市——新西兰,奥克兰

这是一个孤独却精致的城市,1922年Rudyard Kipling访问奥克兰时如是说。奥克兰坐落在太平洋的小岛上,城市人口超过100万,与周边相邻的城市也有相当一段距离。这里距离悉尼约2168.9公里(1347.7英里)。当地毛利人将奥克兰命名为Tāmaki Makaurau,意思是“众人向往的爱情之地”,因此只要有便利的交通,一定会有许多情侣慕名而来。

Most Remote City-Auckland, New Zealand
Last, loneliest, loveliest, exquisite, apart. Or so wrote Rudyard Kipling when visiting Auckland in 1922. Nestled deep in the Pacific ocean, Auckland takes the title of the city with a population of more than one million that is most remote from another city with a population of more than one million, with Sydney, Australia a mere 2,168.9 kilometers (1,347.7 miles) away. The indigenous Māori name for Auckland is Tāmaki Makaurau—land of a thousand lovers. Perhaps it would attract even more lovers if only they could get there...


出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。

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