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作为建筑师,这些材料你都了解吗?第1张图片


建筑师应该了解的16种材料(及其运用方式)
16 Materials Every Architect Needs to Know (And Where to Learn About Them)

由专筑网李韧,曹逸希编译

建筑材质其实是建筑中与我们身体直接接触的部分,那些冰冷的金属门把手、暖色的木墙、坚硬的玻璃窗,不同的材质能够为我们带来不同的空间氛围。但如果说是坚硬的玻璃门把手、冰冷的金属墙壁及温暖的木质窗户(通过采用瑞典皇家理工学院(KTH)研发的新型半透明木材,这些产品的制作则并非像听起来那么荒谬)。另外,材质的形式、功能,及其所在位置也非常重要,这些元素不可分割。

因此,小编为大家收集了16种材料,其中大多数都十分常见(例如混凝土和钢材),还有一些读者也许不太熟悉,但建筑师应该了解,让我们一起看看吧。

A building’s materiality is what our bodies make direct contact with; the cold metal handle, the warm wooden wall, and the hard glass window would all create an entirely different atmosphere if they were, say, a hard glass handle, a cold metal wall and a warm wooden window (which with KTH’s new translucent wood, is not as absurd as it might sound). Materiality is of just as much importance as form, function and location—or rather, inseparable from all three.
Here we’ve compiled a selection of 16 materials that should be part of the design vocabulary of all architects, ranging from the very familiar (such as concrete and steel) to materials which may be unknown for some of our readers, as well as links to comprehensive resources to learn more about many of them.

作为建筑师,这些材料你都了解吗?第2张图片

"Petrified Carpets," an exhibit by Studio Ossidiana at the 2016 Dutch Design Festival. Image © Kyoungtae Kim

1、混凝土

这大概是全球使用最广泛的材料了,我们就从它开始了解,但是它对环境有一定的负面影响,因为它有着较高的碳排放量,约占全球总碳排放量的5%。如果你想要更多地了解有关混凝土的设计知识,那么在混凝土中心(Concrete Center)则有许多有用的使用报告,其中大部分甚至能免费注册。

1. Concrete
Concrete is the most widely used building material in the world, making it a good starting material to get to know. However it also has significant environmental impacts, including a carbon footprint of up to 5% of worldwide emissions. To get to know all about designing with concrete, the Concrete Center has a collection of useful reports, many of which are free with registration.

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Translucent wood developed by KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. Image © Peter Larsson / KTH

2、木材

木材是世界上最古老最传统的建筑材料之一。由于近年来工程木材产品的设计,以及高层建筑和一些具有透明度的建筑作品的普及,让木材产生了多种不同形式。对木材的重新思考这个网站(reThink Wood)有着许多木材资源,可以帮助建筑师们学习了解。

2. Wood
One of the oldest, most traditional building materials around the world is of course timber. The material is beginning to take on new forms thanks to engineered wood products, and with high-rise buildings and even translucent properties, this diverse material is being taken to new heights. reThink Wood has a great collection of resources to learn about, and help architects design with, wood.

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A 3D-printed steel structural connecter created using a method developed by Arup. Image © David de Jong

3、钢材

在发现钢材这种建筑材料后,城市的天际线发生了爆炸性的改变,这种材料通常用于建筑结构的加固及独特的建筑外表皮建造。通过维基百科搜索钢结构的信息(wiki SteelConstruction.info)则可以了解到更多关于钢材的知识。

3. Steel
The city skylines as we know them exploded out of our discovery of steel, commonly used for reinforcement but serving as a beautiful skin in several examples. The wiki SteelConstruction.info offers everything you could possibly need to know about designing with steel.

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A bench developed by Terreform ONE and Genspace created using bioplastics. Image © Terreform ONE

4、塑料

在许多人的印象中,塑料是种廉价不环保且不可持续的材料,但这样的说法也许过于武断,塑料的应用非常普遍,为什么我们不可以将其回收再利用作为建筑材料或生物塑料呢?另外,目前3D打印技术发展迅猛。美国化学委员会(American Chemistry Council)对于塑料的前景也持有积极的态度,并且描述了它们在建筑中的主要用途,甚至为每一种塑料材料提供了深入了解其功能的链接。

4. Plastic
Although this may seem like a cheap, unsustainable material to some, one should not be so quick to judge the possibilities that plastic holds. We produce so much of it; why not recycle it in the form of architecture or bioplastics? What about the whole new world that comes with 3D printing? The American Chemistry Council has a great overview of plastics as a material, as well as a rundown of their major uses in architecture, with links to further resources for each.

作为建筑师,这些材料你都了解吗?第6张图片

Stone staircase developed by Webb Yates Engineers and The Stonemasonry Company for a residential design by RAL Architects. Image © Agnese Sanvito

5、石材

在世界上一些特定地域的建筑世代使用石材建造,这种材质有着丰富的肌理、色彩和硬度,尽管其质地坚硬、重量大,但作为建筑材料,其仍然可以打造成多种形式。建筑石材研究所(The Building Stone Institute)有着关于这种材质的各种资源,其中有不同类型石材的规格,和常见的施工方式。

5. Stone
Another material used over generations in certain geographical locations around the world, stone has a wide diversity of textures, colours and strengths. Despite its heavy, solid materiality, one can still work with it to achieve diverse forms. The Building Stone Institute has a variety of resources including fact sheets and specification sheets for many of the most common types of stone used in construction.

作为建筑师,这些材料你都了解吗?第7张图片

Community Center in Cambodia by Orkidstudio and StructureMode. Image Courtesy of Orkidstudio

6、纺织物品

纺织物具有较强的拉伸能力,因此承重型座椅、充气式建筑、木材织物等各种产品与建筑都能运用这种材料。建筑肌理杂志(Fabric Architecture Magazine)为建筑师收集了多种此类材质,并且将市面上的各种纺织材质都进行了分类与讲解。

6. Textiles
Textiles have been explored most commonly using tensile structures, however there’s a whole range of opportunities using this material: load-bearing chairs, inflatable spaces, fabric casting and wooden fabrics amongst others. Fabric Architecture Magazine has a collection of technical articles for architects, while their resource guide provides a comprehensive overview of the products on the market in this category.

作为建筑师,这些材料你都了解吗?第8张图片

Elbphilharmonie in Hamburg by Herzog & de Meuron. Image © Maxin Schulz

7、玻璃

在当代建筑中,玻璃大概是最常用的建筑材质了,较多地运用于建筑立面之中。许多建筑设计师与研究者们都在努力开发其更多的可能性,例如智能玻璃的研发。PPG玻璃教育中心(The PPG Glass Education Center)则是一个学习玻璃材质的好地方。

7. Glass
Our most used material to achieve transparency and light is without a doubt glass, one of the most commonly used façade elements in contemporary architecture. Some are taking it a step further, attempting to extend its properties to create "intelligent" responsive glass. The PPG Glass Education Center is a great place to learn more.

作为建筑师,这些材料你都了解吗?第9张图片

"FaBRICKate" structure in Iran by ADAPt. Image Courtesy of ADAPt

8、砖

砖块的形状为固定的矩形,这种材料已经被证明可以用传统的手工艺建造出漂亮的结构。建筑师们也在努力挖掘砖石材料的更多用途,并且将这种材料用于可持续的小型建筑元素之中。砖石研发协会(The Brick Development Association)则为大家收集了多种不同的关于砖材质的使用资源。

8. Brick
Despite its rigid, rectangular shape made to fit in your hand, brick architecture has been shown to create beautiful structures with the right craftsmanship. Innovative thinkers are also finding new ways to incorporate active sustainability into the small building elements. The Brick Development Association has a collection of resources for learning more about brick.

作为建筑师,这些材料你都了解吗?第10张图片

DuPont's Kevlar. Image via DuPont.com

9、芳纶纤维

这种材料比金属更加坚固,有着强大的抗拉强度,在建造大型建筑时,这种材质运用得非常广泛。但它的强度比钢材低一些,它甚至可以替代传统大型建筑的承重结构。这种材料较为新颖,信息还不全面,John Fernandez所写的《建筑材料》一书则对它有着浅显易懂的描述与介绍。

9. Kevlar
A material stronger than metal body armor, with awesome tensile strength, Kevlar is certainly an asset when building large structures. With a less rigid composition than steel however, it could reform the way we think of large load-bearing structures. As a still-relatively-new material, there are few comprehensive information sources on Kevlar's architectural applications, but this article and this snippet of the book Material Architecture by John Fernandez are good places to start.

作为建筑师,这些材料你都了解吗?第11张图片

The Green School by PT Bambu. Image Courtesy of PT Bambu

10、竹子

这种材料的应用并不那么普遍,主要取决于建筑的地理位置,在竹子易于生长的区域,其运用则非常广泛,它具有灵活、坚固、可持续的特点,能够被用于多个方面。

10. Bamboo
Bamboo usage is generally dictated by the geographical location of the architectural project. In locations where bamboo makes sense, it is an incredibly flexible, strong, sustainable material that can be useful in many ways.

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Textile Room by P-A-T-T-E-R-N-S. Image © Monica Nouwens

11、碳素纤维

碳素纤维几乎能够反映我们对于材质的一切要求,强于钢材5倍的强度,2倍的硬度,但其自身重量却非常小。碳素纤维的组成成分让它十分灵活,无论是用于建筑立面还是细部构件的建造,它都能满足你的需求。

11. Carbon Fiber
Reflecting everything about our new material endeavors is carbon fiber: "five times stronger than steel, twice as stiff, weighing significantly less." The composition of carbon fibre makes it flexible to work with, allowing it to take shapes from surfaces to rods, depending on your requirements.

作为建筑师,这些材料你都了解吗?第13张图片

"Kirigami"-inspired solar panels developed at the University of Michigan. Image via Inhabitat

12、光伏电池板

当前世界有着成千上万的高层建筑,有的建筑师会将光伏电池板用于高层建筑的立面上,虽然这还并未普及,但随着光伏技术的发展,电力系统可以不再需要被固定在屋顶上。国际能源署(The International Energy Agency)的光电手册为建筑师们提供了许多免费的在线资源,能够让大家多多了解这种材质。

12. Photovoltaic cells
With all the high-rises soaring high above the earth, it’s a wonder photovoltaic facades haven’t become a norm. Due to the evolution of photovoltaic technology, cells may no longer have to be locked in place on the roof. The International Energy Agency's design handbook for photovoltaics in buildings is available for free online.

作为建筑师,这些材料你都了解吗?第14张图片

Image from the Mud Structure project by Architecture for Humanity Tehran - Rai Studio. Image © Mahsa Masoudi

13、生土

生土是一种古老的建筑材料,这种材料十分普遍,对于小尺寸的建筑的使用更加广泛。生土也可以通过压缩呈块状,也可以用于建造不规则形态。

13. Earth
Earth is among the oldest building materials we can think of due to its almost universal accessibility and relative ease of use at small scales. It’s capable of being compressed into modules, as well as creating freeform surfaces, all of which can eventually return to the earth with ease.

作为建筑师,这些材料你都了解吗?第15张图片

via Al Jazeera English

14、回收材料

在建筑施工过程中,往往会形成大量的废料,但是你可以多多了解这些废弃材料。并将它们变废为宝。无论是将丢弃的烟头作为建筑材料,还是将垃圾塑料瓶组装成抗震墙,这种回收利用材料的精神都是值得赞扬的。

14. Waste
We produce a huge amount of waste covering a huge range of materials, but getting to know your waste is an excellent idea for future architects. Whether it’s converting cigarette butts into building material or plastic bottles to earthquake resistant walls, recycling is something to be admired.

作为建筑师,这些材料你都了解吗?第16张图片

NO99 Straw Theatre / Salto AB. Image Courtesy of Karli Luik

15、秸秆

对于其他许多材料来说,同时达到形成被动式热环境、遮风避雨、结合自然的要求有些困难,但秸秆就可以轻松做到。难怪稻草小屋在以前就十分受欢迎。

15. Straw
Creating a passive thermal environment, shielding from rain and blending into similar natural surroundings are just a few things that straw is good at. It’s no wonder thatched roofs were so popular in the past.

作为建筑师,这些材料你都了解吗?第17张图片

Image fromNeri Oxman and the Mediated Matter group's Synthetic Apiary project. Image Courtesy of The Mediated Matter Group

16、有机材料

随着人们对于世界的探索,人们逐步了解了自然界中动物所创建的有机结构。我们不仅可以从中学习到动物们对于材料的运用,也让我们能够将这些手法运用于人类建筑的设计中来,让人与自然更好地共存。

所有材料都一样,易得性和成本十分重要。有些材料并没有列出来,但不代表它们的运用不多,因此每个建筑师都应当充分了解身边的材料,这样才能建立起完备的知识储备。

16. Organic materials
With the massive loss of habitats happening around the world, getting to know organic structures created by animals is something that’s best to do sooner rather than later. Not only can we learn from their use of materials, it also opens up opportunities for us to coexist through incorporating their organic materials into our architecture.
As with all materials, accessibility and cost plays a huge role. There are sure to be materials not on the list that would be the obvious option in certain parts of the world, so be sure to get to know the materials around you in addition to these and you’ll be sure to have a complete resource.

        
出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。

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