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藤本壮介又一次脑洞大开,对立的元素也能促进和谐?第1张图片

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藤本壮介如何运用看似相反的元素促进社区的和谐
How Sou Fujimoto Promotes Community By Uniting Seemingly Opposite Elements

由专筑网李韧,曹逸希编译

本文最初发表于Redshift,标题为“建筑师藤本壮介通过激进的方式促进公共空间的和谐”。

2011年的日本大地震和海啸对日本石卷的市政大厅和文化中心造成了巨大的损害,当地政府希望在重建项目中能够将这两座建筑功能合二为一,成为城市地标建筑。

2016年,设计方案经过重重筛选,最终,日本新一代建筑师藤本壮介的方案以其创新的思维脱颖而出。

建筑场地周边环绕有居民区和风景宜人的山地,“我想为当地人民带来更多的自然景观,这些景观包含附近的及远处的。”建筑师说。

This article was originally published by Redshift as "Architect Sou Fujimoto Has Radical Ideas for Familiar Communal Spaces."
The destruction wrought upon Ishinomaki by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami damaged the city’s civic hall and cultural center beyond repair. To rebuild, Ishinomaki City wanted to create a landmark combining these two facilities into a new complex—one that would be like a city unto itself, serving the community.
In 2016, design proposals were screened in a process that included public presentations, with many locals participating. In the end, Sou Fujimoto, a leader among the next generation of Japan’s architects, was selected for his innovative design.
The planned site, set off from downtown, is surrounded by residential areas and a scenic mountain backdrop. “I wanted to create a new landscape for Ishinomaki that people would find familiar both from near and afar,” Fujimoto says.

藤本壮介又一次脑洞大开,对立的元素也能促进和谐?第2张图片

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这位建筑师在东京和巴黎都设立有工作室,藤本壮介的建筑风格简约而微妙,但其空间却十分有趣。他设计过汽车站、公共厕所、私人住宅、学校基础设施以及办公建筑。其近期的作品有建造于2010年的武藏野美术大学博物馆和图书馆,2013年的伦敦蛇形画廊,盖里和扎哈在这之前也参与过该项目的竞标。

石卷文化中心也是他的一大代表作品,该项目于2018年秋季开始施工,预计于2021年春季完工。

重建记忆

石卷市文化中心也有着特别的挑战,其中之一是功能中需要一座剧院,那么就需要结合舞台、舞台上方的廊道、耳光室、面光室、帘幕等相关功能,“由于这些空间都需要一定的高度,因此它们必定自成一体。”藤本壮介说,“那么我该怎么将这些空间与文化建筑融为一体呢?”藤本壮介的灵感来自于在一系列的城市建筑中建造一座“接地气”的文化综合体。

Working on projects around the world from his studios in Tokyo and Paris, Fujimoto aims for structural forms that are simple and subtle in nature, yet distinctly otherworldly and playful. He has designed everything from bus stops, public restrooms, and private homes to university facilities and office buildings. Recent works include the Musashino Art University Museum and Library built in 2010, and the 2013 Serpentine Pavilion installation in London’s Kensington Gardens—previous winners of the commission include Frank Gehry and Zaha Hadid.
But among his projects that have reverberated through the architectural world, his plans for the Ishinomaki Cultural Complex Center stand out. Construction will begin in fall 2018 and is scheduled to be completed in spring 2021.

Rebuilding Memories
The Ishinomaki Cultural Complex Center presented particular design challenges. One of the requirements was to include a theater, and so a “fly tower” (an open vertical space above the stage) had to be built to store lights, curtains, and other equipment for performances. “Since the fly tower has to be a certain height, it inevitably takes on a unique shape,” says Fujimoto. “How could I soften its imposing form and make it a building dear to the city’s people?” This was the inspiration for Fujimoto’s concept, in which the civic complex would resemble a series of buildings in a lively town.

藤本壮介又一次脑洞大开,对立的元素也能促进和谐?第3张图片

Image Courtesy of SFA

如果让一个儿童来画一座房子,她一定会画一个三角形来代表屋顶,因为这个形状几乎是建筑的通用标志,这个典型的“建筑”标志在藤本壮介的多个作品中都曾出现,但是在这个熟悉的画面中,他会以自己的方式来进行更深的诠释。

藤本壮介“接地气”的石卷市文化中心方案通过多个不同高度的屋顶连接起来。最高的天花板的高度为25米,“这些独立的小‘建筑’很简单。”藤本壮介说,“我想如果我们结合人们的记忆,从而创造出人们所熟悉的空间,即使这个空间原本并不存在。”

对于国际竞赛,设计师一般使用BIM数据,但是藤本壮介总是在完成自己的设计方案之后再来建造BIM模型。然而对于这个项目来说,很难将空调和电力设备与三角形屋顶结合,藤本壮介在项目的早期即结合了BIM,他通过Revit软件完成这个项目设计,现在,他们正在与工程咨询Arup公司进行机电合作。

Ask a child to draw a house, and she will almost invariably draw a box with a triangle on top to indicate the roof: This shape could be considered a universal symbol for a house. The prototypical “house” shape can be seen in many of Fujimoto’s architectural plans, but within this familiar image, his designs play with form and style.
The “buildings” of the “town” making up Fujimoto’s plan for the Ishinomaki Cultural Complex Center are actually a single connected structure with ceilings of varying heights. The space with the tallest ceiling soars to an impressive 25 meters (82 feet). “The individual ‘buildings’ are quite simple,” says Fujimoto. “I thought that if we took these basic forms already etched into peoples’ memories and combined them, we could create a familiar place that could be anywhere, yet does not really exist.”
Designers commonly submit BIM data to enter international competitions, but Fujimoto has always contracted out BIM model creation after completing his design. However, for this project, since it would be difficult to precisely integrate air conditioning and electrical equipment into the triangular roof design, Fujimoto introduced BIM early in the process, carrying out his design work in Autodesk Revit. Now, fine adjustments are being made in cooperation with the engineering consulting firm Arup.

藤本壮介又一次脑洞大开,对立的元素也能促进和谐?第4张图片

Image Courtesy of SFA+NLA+OXO+RSI

“除了我们已经解决的技术问题,例如手工制作的建筑模型。”藤本壮介说,“我们充分利用数字和实体方式,但是手工建模可以让我们可以在真实地了解实体模型之前先对数字空间进行测试,在未来我也希望可以通过结合数字与实体的形式来进行建筑设计。”

结合自然

在这个石卷项目中,建筑师运用了对比的手法,藤本壮介在法国南部蒙彼利埃的多功能住宅塔楼项目就有着引人注目的激进式设计方式。这座塔楼名叫“L’arbre Blanc(意为白色树木)”,位于蒙彼利埃新老城区之间,其中包含有公共空间、办公场所、餐厅、艺术展览,这个项目也促进了藤本壮介法国工作室的落成。

蒙彼利埃距离地中海不远,即使在冬天气温也不会过低,人们常常在露台上享受午后时光,因此建筑师设计了一座50米高、17层的住宅,这样人们可以在家里享受到传统的户外生活,另外,他还为每个客厅和卧室设计了长条形的露台。

每个单元都有多个悬挂着的起居空间,较大的露台的宽度为6米,长度为8米,“这座建筑非常独特。”藤本壮介说,“这看上去就像是一个巨大的松果,或是一朵西兰花这些存在于自然世界中的东西。它与我们概念中的体量不同,设计方式也不同。”

藤本壮介的设计灵感部分来自于蒙彼利埃的市长和城市规划师,“一开始,他们都十分惊讶。”藤本壮介说,“然而,我让他们理解了这样的设计方式能够将蒙彼利埃的景观与传统保留下来。”该项目于2018年9月完成,但几乎所有的住宅单元都已一售而空。

自然与建筑的结合、实体与数字的结合、新与旧的结合,这些元素乍一看似乎十分对立,但正如建筑师所说:“21世纪就是个融合了各方思维的新时代。”在2017年日本Autodesk 大学中,藤本壮介进行了演讲,通过事务所的设计项目表达了对未来的展望。

“In addition to the technology we have at our disposal, time-tested design methods, such as building architectural models by hand, are essential to our work,” says Fujimoto. “We make the most out of both digital and physical methods. Building a model by hand gives us insight into an idea that can be tested in the digital space before being reflected back into the physical model. Going forward, I would like to continue fully utilizing this back-and-forth between the digital and physical worlds.”

Drawing Nature In
In stark contrast to the familiar shapes found in the Ishinomaki project, Fujimoto’s mixed-use housing tower under construction in Montpellier in southern France is an eye-catching building with a radical design. The tower, named “L’arbre Blanc” (The White Tree) is located between the new and old districts of Montpellier, incorporating plans for common areas, office spaces, a restaurant, and an art gallery. This project was also the impetus for Fujimoto to open his studio in France.
Montpellier faces the Mediterranean Sea, and even in the winter the weather is warm enough to enjoy lunch on an outdoor terrace. Fujimoto sought to create a 50-meter (164-foot) tall, 17-story building where residents could enjoy the region’s traditional outdoor lifestyle at home. Ultimately, he created a daring design in which long terraces are placed outside every living room and bedroom in the complex.
Each unit has multiple living spaces seemingly suspended in the air, with larger terraces reaching six meters (19 feet) wide and eight meters (26 feet) long. “What we came up with was a very unique building,” says Fujimoto. “It’s like a pinecone, or a head of broccoli, or some kind of tree—its organic complexity is reflected in our natural world. It completely diverges from the blocky, concrete designs prevalent in housing complexes up until now.”
Fujimoto’s design for the project was green-lighted by Montpellier’s mayor and city planners. “At first, they were quite surprised,” says Fujimoto. “However, I was able to get them to understand how this previously-inconceivable design preserves the scenery and traditions of Montpellier while also paving the way for its future.” The project is scheduled to be completed in September 2018, but almost all the units have already been sold.
This meeting of nature and architecture, the physical and the digital, the old and the new—what at first glance seem to be elements in opposition are, as Fujimoto says, “coming together in a new age of fusion in the 21st Century.” His speech at Autodesk University Japan 2017 shared this vision for the future of making things in architecture, and through Fujimoto’s architectural design work, the world is getting a glimpse into that promising future.


出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。

        
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