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斯图加特国立美术馆新馆(1977–1984,德国,1984年)Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart, Germany (1977–1984), 1984. Alastair Hunter, photographer. Image Courtesy of Canadian Centre for Architecture

Spotlight: James Stirling


普利兹克奖得主英国建筑师詹姆斯•斯特林(James Stirling,1926年4月22日—1992年6月25日)自小在英格兰西北部工业城市利物浦成长,他的职业生涯现代运动背后的创作和理论思想。从文脉主义的先驱柯林•罗(Colin Rowe),再到现代主义建筑师大师柯布西耶(Le Corbusier),亦或是意大利文艺复兴建筑作品及俄罗斯构成主义,在各种建筑理论的影响下,斯特林形成了自己的一系列建筑理论,这些理念都体现于其作品之中。他的设计作品在当时的社会上显得有些“格格不入”,甚至激起一些争论。

British architect and Pritzker Laureate Sir James Stirling (22 April 1926 – 25 June 1992) grew up in Liverpool, one of the two industrial powerhouses of the British North West, and began his career subverting the compositional and theoretical ideas behind the Modern Movement. Citing a wide-range of influences—from Colin Rowe, a forefather of Contextualism, to Le Corbusier, and from architects of the Italian Renaissance to the Russian Constructivist movement—Stirling forged a unique set of architectural beliefs that manifest themselves in his works. Indeed his architecture, commonly described as "nonconformist," consistently caused annoyance in conventional circles.


詹姆斯•斯特林肖像/Portrait of James Stirling. Ray Williams, photographer.. Image Courtesy of Canadian Centre for Architecture

根据Rowan Moore的说法,斯特林的作品在当时具有一定的冲突性,然而,Reyner Banham也评论其作品是对于当时某些社会现象的“含蓄指控”,斯特林的作品不仅具有开创性,而且相当有趣。在1996年,英国皇家建筑师学会甚至以他的名字设置了奖项,即后来众所周知的斯特林奖。

According to Rowan Moore, Stirling also "designed some of the most notoriously malfunctioning buildings of modern times." Yet, for all the "veiled accusations of incompetence," as Reyner Banham put it, Stirling produced a selection of the world's most interesting and groundbreaking buildings. Notably, the Royal Institute of British Architects' highest award, the Stirling Prize, was named after him in 1996.


剑桥历史系教学楼(1963–1967)/History Faculty Building, University of Cambridge, England (1963–1967). Ezra Stoller, photographer. Image Courtesy of Canadian Centre for Architecture

位于剑桥皇后大学的弗洛里大楼(Florey Building)是苏格兰建筑大师詹姆斯•斯特林“红色三部曲”之一,其它两个项目分别是莱斯特大学工程楼(Leicester Engineering Faculty building)和剑桥历史系教学楼(Cambridge History Faculty building)。这些建筑有着激进的现代主义特色。剑桥历史系教学楼(1968年)由斯特林和合作伙伴James Gowan共同设计,在其中,使用者必须“在温度极不稳定的温室中学习生活,甚至还时常有着古怪的声响、频繁的漏风漏雨,以及随时掉落的墙皮”。但是建筑空间中紧张感与精致感共存,作品中“力与美的完美融合”极具突破性。

The Queen’s College Florey building was the third and final building of The Red Trilogy, encompassing the Leicester Engineering Faculty building and the Cambridge History Faculty building. Within its design was held an architectural style imbued with a radically revised type of Modernism. This history faculty building (1968) at the University of Cambridge, which he designed alongside his partner James Gowan, often forced its inhabitants to "struggle to study in [an] alternately freezing/boiling greenhouse, with dodgy acoustics, frequent leaks and falling cladding tiles." Yet the architectural concepts of interweaving tension and elaboration and, according to Moore, "interplays of forces and illusions" were groundbreaking.


意大利拉蒂纳公共图书馆(1979–1985),轴测图/Biblioteca Pubblica, Latina, Italy (1979–1985): worm's-eye axonometric view of reference library. Image Courtesy of Canadian Centre for Architecture


Stiff Dom-ino住宅,理论方案(1951),轴测图/Stiff Dom-ino Housing, theoretical project (1951): cut-away axonometric view with hinged windows. Image Courtesy of Canadian Centre for Architecture

斯特林于1984年设计的斯图加特国立美术馆新馆很快成为了“当时最引人注目的观光景点”,甚至有人认为这座建筑是毕尔巴鄂古根海姆博物馆(Guggenheim Museum Bilbao)的原型。在斯图加特美术馆新馆之后,斯特林的作品被贴上了后现代主义的标签,但他自己却十分抗拒这个名号。在此期间,他常常受到许多重大项目的委托,例如伦敦泰特美术馆,还有位于其家乡利物浦的新泰特美术馆设计工作。

His 1984 Neue Staatsgalerie in Stuttgart quickly became, according to Moore, "one of the biggest tourist attractions in the country," making it "a prototype of the Guggenheim in Bilbao." After the Staatsgalerie, Stirling's work was often described as Postmodernism, a label which he himself rejected. During this time he also received a number of significant commissions, from the Clore Gallery to London's Tate Britain and the design for the new Tate Galleries in his hometown of Liverpool.


英国伦敦泰特美术馆/Clore Gallery, Tate Britain, London. Image © Wikimedia user Elekhh licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

斯特林曾经被授予了骑士爵位,然而不幸的是,在1992年6月25日,他医治无效而离世。近年来,他的作品愈发受人关注,后人甚至通过大量的书籍与展览来纪念这位建筑大师。甚至在2012年,人们还举办了名为“James Stirling: Notes from the Archive in Canada”的作品展。在职业生涯的后期,他的作品愈发精致,其粉丝们认为,先前某些作品的失败应该归咎于当时落后的施工技术,以及建造成本的不足。

A few days after being conferred with a Knighthood, Stirling was hospitalized and died on the 25th June 1992. In recent years his work has been continually re-evaluated, leading to a number of books and exhibitions, most notably the 2012 exhibition James Stirling: Notes from the Archive in Canada. For Moore, his later work became "more likeable and less leaky". His defenders have often ascribed the technical failures of his buildings to poor construction, cost-cutting and unworkable clients.


皇后学院佛洛雷大楼,牛津大学/The Florey Building at Queen's College, Oxford University. Image © James Brittain


剑桥历史系教学楼/University of Cambridge History Faculty. Image © Wikimedia user Solipsist licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0


弗洛里大楼/Florey Building


莱斯特大学工程楼/Leicester Engineering Faculty building


弗洛里大楼/Florey Building


© Flickr User: pov_steve





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