网站地图关于我们

查看相册 View Gallery
福斯特的巴比肯演讲,你是否学到了什么?第1张图片

Left: via Norman Foster on Instagram; right: Courtesy of Foster + Partners

从福斯特(Norman Foster)巴比肯演讲中所学到的5大要点
5 Lessons From Norman Foster’s Lecture at the Barbican

由专筑网李韧,曹逸希编译

建筑大师诺曼•福斯特(Norman Foster)于1990年荣获建筑爵士奖章,于1999年获得普利兹克建筑奖,同时也获得了贵族荣誉称号,在当今建筑界中,福斯特做出的贡献首屈一指。近期,福斯特在一次演讲中,谈论了关于城市景观的未来发展,该演讲由巴比肯建筑基金会主办,是“Architecture On Stage”系列的第七部分。本次演讲的内容相对宽泛,福斯特通过其事务所的相关项目谈及了对于未来城市发展的预测,其中也充分表明了,福斯特的解决策略与其敏锐的洞察力相辅相成。以下是来自本次演讲的5大要点,它们能够很好地帮助你理解福斯特的思维模式。

After being knighted in 1990 for services to architecture, winning the 1999 Pritzker Prize and then gaining peerage in the same year, it could be argued that there is no living architect that has had a larger impact on urban life than Norman Foster. In a recent talk, Foster addressed a sold-out Barbican Hall on the future of our growing urban landscape, in the seventh installment of the Architecture On Stage series organized by The Architecture Foundation with the Barbican. While the content was full of grandiose statements and predictions, of a scale similar to the projects Foster's practice undertakes, it was the problem-solving approach he showed that gave more of an insight into the man himself. The following 5 lessons gleaned from the presentation won't guarantee Foster-like levels of success, but they may be able to help you navigate the challenges that architecture can present, both personally and professionally.

福斯特的巴比肯演讲,你是否学到了什么?第2张图片

Courtesy of Norman Foster Foundation

1、建筑学不只是盖一座房子

这很好理解,许多人在做设计时容易把自己的思维卡在某个立面设计,或是屋面设计之中,这是来自于内心潜意识的驱使,因为好的造型能够让建筑更加吸引眼球,但是我们在追求造型的同时不应该失去我们设计这座建筑的真正目的,即真正于人有益的空间。福斯特始终在重申这一点,同时引用了一些建筑之外的案例,他认为“很难将建筑与各项基础设施分隔开”。无论是其外观造型,还是其功能空间,建筑都应该更好地丰富使用者的生活。在这其中,既有公共空间的塑造,也有周边环境的人行设施,亦或是建筑空间的流线形态,福斯特所关注的不仅仅是建筑美学,这也是其多个项目都能取得巨大成功的重要原因。

1. Architecture is more than a building
As obvious as this may sound, it is easy to fixate on a facade or roof, the most ego-driven aspect of any project. But what we can lose in the quest for Instagram perfection is the true purpose of architecture: designing a space to be used by a community. Foster consistently reiterated this point, referencing the creation of something more than just a building, saying it was “difficult to separate the architecture from the infrastructure.” By not simply thinking about how it will look, and concentrating on how it will work, a building will have a greater chance of enriching the lives of the people who use it. Whether it’s the creation of a public space, the pedestrianization of the surrounding context, or maintaining a path through the building’s core—Foster’s focus upon more than just aesthetics is key to the perceived success of many of his projects.

福斯特的巴比肯演讲,你是否学到了什么?第3张图片

© Wikimedia user Russ McGinn licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

2、探索才是王道

从福斯特的演讲中我们可以感受到其深厚的历史文化和理论知识。这对于这位已经从业超过五十年的建筑师来说是一大优势,他能够精准地说明多个项目的各个不同要素,同时尖锐地指出其背后的探索目的。除了一些经典项目之外,福斯特甚至还能从小众领域中寻求灵感,例如Georgii Krutikov和美国国家航空航天局的“Stanford Torus”,这些都说明了其深厚的文化内涵。另外,他也经常谈论到每个项目背后的主要研究事项,例如建筑的原型与模型,以及城市的生活研究调查,这一切的一切都能引起福斯特的关注。在经过重重研究之后所得出的结论,往往能经得起推敲,这也避免了项目建成之后的多重质疑。

2. Research is king
What was clear from hearing Foster speak was the depth of historical and theoretical knowledge he had. While this might seem an obvious trait of someone who has been at the very top of his profession for over 50 years, it was nevertheless impressive how he could pinpoint individual elements of multiple projects and provide their research-driven purpose. Aside from the expected classic texts, Foster drew inspiration from slightly more off-piste references, like Georgii Krutikov and Nasa’s "Stanford Torus," showing the extensive contextual background demanded in his office. He also frequently talked about the practice's primary research, from their extensive prototypes and models to the investigative studies of urban life in favelas, something Foster seemed particularly passionate about. If a decision is well researched then it can rarely be wrong, avoiding the awkward silence after a client (or college reviewer) asks “but... why?”

福斯特的巴比肯演讲,你是否学到了什么?第4张图片

Courtesy of Foster + Partners, ARUP, Kier + Wright, Apple

3、“我们总是关注于自己擅长的事”

2010年,福斯特放弃了上议院的职位,在问答环节中,一位观众问他是否后悔做出这个决定,因为这等于放弃了一个很好的平台,并且这个平台还能给他带来许多好机会,福斯特回答说:“我们都被自己所擅长的事所吸引。”他认为,作为设计师,他要比作为一个政客日复一日的争论更有用。从价值观念看来,这种观点是理念沟通的关键因素,水平的整体提高固然重要,但是我们的精力有限,无论是制作模型,还是绘图,亦或是细部设计,你只有充分运用了自身的优势,才能够让一个项目取得相应的成功。从这个角度来说,这也是这位前英国皇家空军飞行员能拿下7座机场设计项目的原因—他擅长于此。

3. “We all gravitate to what we do best”
In 2010, Norman Foster was one of several peers to give up their seat in the House of Lords. During the Q&A, an audience member asked whether he regrets the decision in which he gave up a great platform to encourage the changes he had spoken so passionately about. In response, Foster said: “we all gravitate to what we do best.” He claimed that he was far more useful as a designer, leading by example, than he would ever be as a politician arguing day after day. Taken at face value, this sentiment is key to the effective communication of ideas. Improving holistically is still important, but our skills are naturally weighted in certain areas; be it model-making, drawing, pitching or detailing; and in focusing on your strengths you can help maximize a project’s success. In Foster's case, it's also probably the reason why the former RAF man has designed no less than 7 airports—he's good at it.

福斯特的巴比肯演讲,你是否学到了什么?第5张图片

Courtesy of Foster + Partners

4、大胆的设计思路

大胆一些!福斯特的大部分作品都有着相似的设计思路,这一点在其早期作品中表现得更加明显,而他在演讲中也提到了许多主题,例如横穿整个伦敦的无人驾驶救护车。然而,在建筑中放开胆子是一件相对困难的事情,因为每个项目都受到多重约束。但是有时候往往是那些看上去疯狂的理念在后期总是备受赞赏。有时,似乎违背常理的创新能够对建筑产生积极的影响,也正如George Bernard Shaw所说:

“聪明人适应世界,愚笨的人让世界适应自己,因此,一切的进步都来源于看似诡异的思维。”

4. Bold solutions
Be bold. Most of Foster’s work, in particular his earlier projects, is experimental in one way or another, and so were a lot of the topics brought up in his lecture (ambulance drones to be used all across London, for example). To be bold in architecture is difficult, as the hundreds of constraints and regulations try their best to maintain a palatable level of status quo. However, it is often in seemingly crazy ideas that change is facilitated. Creating something new—even if it means swimming against the tide—is critical for positive change within architecture, and as George Bernard Shaw once said:
“The reasonable man adapts himself to the world; the unreasonable one persists in trying to adapt the world to himself. Therefore all progress depends on the unreasonable man.”

福斯特的巴比肯演讲,你是否学到了什么?第6张图片

© Flickr user martinrp licensed under licensed under CC BY-ND 2.0

5、“以少做多”

建筑先驱巴克敏斯特•富勒(Buckminster Fuller)是福斯特的老师,在1971年,他们进行了首次合作。福斯特后来常常会引用他与富勒的对话,并且以此来表达其设计思路和解决策略。福勒曾经说过“以少做多”,这句话对后来的项目息息相关,即运用有效的科技策略(少)来将成果最大化(多)。后来的几何穹顶、Dymaxion住宅等项目中,我们都能感受到建筑师通过简单的技术策略来解决我们当前所面临的可持续问题,也减少了建筑对于全球有限能源的依赖,这在Bloomburg欧洲新总部大楼项目中体现得淋漓尽致。你可以将这些策略运用于项目之中,将成果最大化,同时为人们的基本需求留出空间。如果你想要了解更多福斯特在建筑之外的生活,可以浏览其Instagram来进行更多地了解。

5. “Doing more with less”
Buckminster Fuller was the mentor of Norman Foster, the pair first working with each other on a project in Oxford, 1971. Foster frequently referred back to conversations he had with "Bucky," using him as a touchstone in what he was trying to achieve and how he wanted to achieve it. The famous Fuller quote “doing more with less” is usually attributed to the performance of a project: using technological advancements in order to create a more efficient input (less) with a larger output (more). This is seen first hand in his geodesic dome, and later the Dymaxion House, and the relatively simple mantra mimics the sustainable agenda we face, reducing global reliance on finite supplies, something Foster addressed in the new Bloomburg European HQ. You can also apply this to the time you spend at work, maximizing output and leaving space to live—something essential for general well-being. And if you ever need any tips for how to live outside of architecture, a quick browse of Norman Foster’s personal Instagram account will provide plenty of ideas.

福斯特的巴比肯演讲,你是否学到了什么?第7张图片

© Wikimedia user Philipp Hienstorfer licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

福斯特的巴比肯演讲,你是否学到了什么?第8张图片

Courtesy of NASA Ames Research Center

福斯特的巴比肯演讲,你是否学到了什么?第9张图片

Courtesy of NASA Ames Research Center

福斯特的巴比肯演讲,你是否学到了什么?第10张图片

Courtesy of NASA Ames Research Center

福斯特的巴比肯演讲,你是否学到了什么?第11张图片

Courtesy of NASA Ames Research Center

福斯特的巴比肯演讲,你是否学到了什么?第12张图片

Courtesy of Norman Foster Foundation



出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。

【专筑网版权与免责声明】:本网站注明“来源:专筑网”的所有内容版权属专筑网所有,如需转载,请注明出处

专于设计,筑就未来

无论您身在何方;无论您作品规模大小;无论您是否已在设计等相关领域小有名气;无论您是否已成功求学、步入职业设计师队伍;只要你有想法、有创意、有能力,专筑网都愿为您提供一个展示自己的舞台

投稿邮箱:submit@iarch.cn         如何向专筑投稿?

扫描二维码即可订阅『专筑

微信号:iarch-cn

登录专筑网  |  社交账号登录:

 匿名

没有了...
评论加载中,请稍后!

新闻 (517 articles)


建筑 (9853 articles)


建筑师 (690 articles)


诺曼•福斯特 (3 articles)


演讲 (14 articles)


英国 (533 articles)


伦敦 (343 articles)


2018 (630 articles)