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由洪水引发的城市湿地狂想曲第1张图片


麻省理工学院设计了一系列的池塘来应对由气候变化引起的城市洪水
MIT proposes series of ponds to combat urban floods caused by climate change

由专筑网李佳琪,李韧编译

麻省理工学院(MIT)的工程师和城市规划师团队为解决气候变化引发的洪水问题,进行了方案设计,即多功能城市雨水湿地和池塘。设计师将雨水的清洁和生态娱乐功能进行了完美的结合。该方案结合了工程设计、城市规划和景观建筑的专业知识,形成了多功能的绿色空间。

设计方案由一系列模块化岛屿组成,适应不同城市环境的需求。在进行雨水控制的同时,湿地与池塘能够为城市带来了绿色植物,为社区创造了娱乐空间以及宝贵的野生动物栖息地。

A team of engineers and urban planners at MIT has developed a solution to climate change-causing floods: multifunctional urban stormwater wetlands and ponds that seamlessly integrate the control and cleaning of stormwater with ecological and recreational benefits. The proposal combines engineering, urban planning, and landscape architecture expertise to design a versatile green space.
The design features a series of clustered islands which are modular and scalable so they can be tailored to fit the needs and resources of varying urban settings. On top of managing stormwater, the wetland or pond creates greenery for the city, recreational space for the community, and valuable wildlife habitats.

由洪水引发的城市湿地狂想曲第2张图片

渲染图:休斯敦与毗邻城市绿地和湿地/Artist’s rendering showing Houston with an adjoining engineered urban green space and wetlands area. Images courtesy of MIT / by Jonah Susskind

这些湿地可以蓄水、控制水流,从而对水质进行改善。湿地对水的净化也包括污染物的沉淀过程,而这些过程都通过生物和化学的结合来完成。湿地植被是另一个很好的过滤器,因为植物表面和生物膜都能够有效地吸附污染物和过剩的营养物质。

在麻省理工学院设计团队的设想中,这些绿地有多种好处,例如休闲小径可以将城市街道与景观绿地连接起来,同时形成多个生态栖息地,较大的岛屿则主要用于公共活动,而洪泛区可以用作运动场、野餐区或游乐场。

These wetlands control the water’s movement maintaining it for a time in order for the ecosystem to improve water quality. Wetlands purify water through a combination of biological and chemical processes, including giving contaminants time to settle out of the water. Wetland vegetation is another good filter, as plant surfaces and the biofilms they support are very effective at capturing pollutants and excess nutrients.
MIT engineers envision these green spaces as having a multitude of benefits. They include recreational trails, connecting city streets to inviting green space as well as providing multiple ecological habitat zones. The larger islands can hold event spaces for public programming, while floodplains can be used as sports fields, picnic areas, or playgrounds.

由洪水引发的城市湿地狂想曲第3张图片

像南加州这样的硬质道路空间,可以将雨水保留在表面,进行收集并将污染物输送到附近的供水系统中/Paved spaces, such as this example in southern California, keep stormwater on the surface where the water picks up and carries pollutants to nearby bodies of water, often including the local water supply.

麻省理工学院(MIT)研究小组在其发布的报告“城市雨水湿地设计指南”中公布了研究方案的细节,希望城市能够采用。这些指导性的设计尚未在实践中使用,但小组目前正在与多个地方的城市领导人就建设试点湿地系统进行交涉。

The MIT team has released the details of their study in a freely available report, ‘design guidelines for urban stormwater wetlands,’ in the hope that cities will adopt this approach. The guidelines have yet to be used in practice, however the team is currently in contact with city leaders in several locations about the prospect of building a pilot wetland systems.

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