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在钢筋水泥遍布的现代建筑世界里,木材能否逆袭?第1张图片


麻省理工学院设计的大型木材建筑
MIT champions large-scale timber architecture with Longhouse proposal

由专筑网王帅,杨帆编译

John Klein领导了麻省理工学院学生用大量木材设计了一座大型社区中心,他认为木材是更可持续的建筑业的关键材料。

该建筑名为“长屋”(The Longhouse),其结构高40英尺,由单板层积材(LVL)制成,这一种新型的工程木制品,能够承受高水平压力。

这种材料支撑起长屋的巨大封闭空间,长为140英尺(43米),宽为50英尺(15米),连续的屋顶没有任何内部结构支撑。

木材提供生态友好型建筑方案

麻省理工学院建筑系的研究科学家Klein说,像LVT这样的木材提供了一种可持续的替代钢铁混凝土的方法,同时在经济上也相当可观。

Klein告诉Dezeen的记者:“对于六层以上的建筑,我们的木材技术从成本上已经超越了混凝土和钢结构方案。”

“大型木结构建筑为住房和减少碳排放提供了一个有效的解决方案,也为城市扩张问题提供了一个可持续的解决方案。”

Wood is the key to a more sustainable building industry, says architect John Klein, who has led Massachusetts Institute of Technology students in designing a large community centre from mass timber.
The Longhouse is a 40-foot-high structure to be made from laminated veneer lumber (LVL), one of a new class of engineered wood products that are able to withstand high levels of stress.
The material would allow the Longhouse to contain a large enclosed space – 140 feet (43 metres) long and 50 feet (15 metres) wide – that is uninterrupted by any internal structural supports.

Mass timber offers eco-friendly construction option
Klein, a research scientist in MIT's architecture department, said that mass timber like LVT offered a sustainable alternative to concrete and steel, and had become economically viable as well.
"At heights above six stories, mass-timber technologies have begun to compete economically with concrete and steel building solutions," Klein told Dezeen.
"Mass-timber buildings offer a promising solution for housing and carbon reduction goals, in addition to providing a sustainable solution for cities to address urban sprawl."

在钢筋水泥遍布的现代建筑世界里,木材能否逆袭?第2张图片


与排放密集型的混凝土相比,大型木结构的生产影响低且无毒。它还有一个额外的好处就是储存大气中的碳,这些碳在树生长的时候就储存在了木材中,Klein说:“建筑就是碳的储存器。”

美国的一些建筑已经开始使用大型木结构,例如马萨诸塞大学内John W Olver设计的四层建筑,但Klein表示,他们正在落后于欧洲、澳大利亚和加拿大等国。

北美的大型木结构建筑仍然滞后

他告诉Dezeen的记者:“目前北美的建筑规范不支持建设六层高度以上的大型木结构建筑,这一障碍极大地限制了在中等海拔范围内大量木材的使用。”但他也补充说国际建筑规范有希望在2021年进行重新修订。

在波特兰(美国俄勒冈西北部港市)建造的一座12层高的建筑本来计划成为北美最高的木建筑,但因为开发商降低了预算,导致其上月被搁置。

麻省理工学院建筑系的大型木结构设计团队的学生们设计的“长屋”(The Longhouse)旨在挑战建筑规模,而不是高度。

该建筑旨在成为一个灵活的社区空间,并包含合作、社交活动及运动等多种用途,该建筑由6英寸厚(15厘米)的LVL面板切割而成的一系列拱门组成。

这些拱门呈折叠式排列,可容纳大量的太阳能电池板,也可以供自然光透过。

In contrast to emissions-intensive concrete, mass-timber production is low-impact and non-toxic. It also has the additional benefit of storing carbon from the atmosphere that has been sequestered by the tree as it grew. "The building is a carbon sink," said Klein.
Mass timber has already been used in several US buildings — including the four-storey John W Olver Design Building at the University of Massachusetts Amherst — but Klein says the country is falling behind the likes of Europe, Australia and Canada.

North America's mass-timber adoption still lagging
"The current North American building codes do not support mass-timber building prototypes with above six stores, an impediment which significantly limits the implementation of mass timber in the mid-rise range," he told Dezeen, though adding that he expects the International Building Code — the basis for most US jurisdictions — to change in 2021.
Plans for a 12-storey building in Portland that would have become the tallest all-timber building in North America were put on hold last month, which the developers put down to cost.
The Longhouse — designed by cross-disciplinary students in the Mass Timber Design workshop in MIT's architectural department — aims more for scale than height.
Intended to be a flexible community space used for purposes such as co-working, social events and exercise classes, the building would comprise a series of arches cut from six-inch-thick (15-centimetre) LVL panels.
These arches are arranged in a pleated pattern that accommodates plenty of solar panels, and creates windows for natural light and passive solar heating.

在钢筋水泥遍布的现代建筑世界里,木材能否逆袭?第3张图片


麻省理工学院建筑学硕士研究生Demi Fang说:“这是一个有趣的设计过程,它结合了工程和美学,最终让我们完成每个拱单元作为空心三角形截面的方案。”

她说:“通过建立三角形截面所达到的结构深度可以帮助我们达到公共空间所需的清晰跨度。同时使建筑内外都形成最好的视觉效果。”

“因拱门的每一点受力大小不均匀,所以其沿着长度方向逐渐变细,这种变化的横截面既结合了结构性能,又节省了材料。”

拱门为预制件,在现场使用螺栓连接在一起。

“长屋”将于本年10月于缅因州材料业大会(Maine Mass Timber Conference)上展出。

尽管目前还没有建造它的计划,但Klein下一步将在制造和工程合作伙伴的帮助下在新英格兰建立一个示范模型。项目基金由美国农业部2018年木材创新基金资助。

"An interesting design process incorporating engineering and aesthetic considerations ultimately pointed us towards the idea of building up each arch element as a hollow triangular cross-section," said Demi Fang, a graduate student in MIT's Master of Science in Architecture Studies.
"The structural depth achieved by building up the triangular section helps us achieve the clear span desired for the communal space, all while lending a visual language on both the interior and the exterior of the structure that we thought worked well," she added.
"Each arch tapers and widens along its length; because not every point along the arch will be subject to the same magnitude of forces, this varying cross-section depth both expresses structural performance while encouraging material savings."
The arches would be prefabricated and bolted together on-site.
The Longhouse will be presented this October at the Maine Mass Timber Conference.
There are no plans to build it at present, although Klein's next project — funded by a 2018 Wood Innovation Grant from the US Department of Agriculture — will look to build a demonstration model in New England with the help of manufacturing and engineering partners.


项目信息:
大型木结构设计小组:John Fechtel, Paul Short, Demi Fang, Andrew Brose, Hyerin Lee,和Alexandre Beaudouin-Mackay.

Project credits:
Mass Timber Design workshop team: John Fechtel, Paul Short, Demi Fang, Andrew Brose, Hyerin Lee, and Alexandre Beaudouin-Mackay.

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