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看看你身边的建筑,满足这9个要素吗?第1张图片

© Adolf Bereuter

哈佛研究学者总结的健康建筑9要素
Harvard Researchers Detail the 9 Factors That Make a Healthy Building

由专筑网李韧,杨帆编译

上个月,哈佛大学公共健康学院重新发布了对于气候、健康、全球环境的研究,引入了全新的合作对象,并且为Joseph Allen博士的健康建筑倡议机构设置了新目标。就当前而言,健康建筑团队的承诺是“提升全人类在所有建筑中的生活质量”,该团队也正在研究建筑环境对于人类健康、生产力的影响,同时帮助人们过上更加幸福的生活。

为了让学术规范化,同时也让外界人士能够更好地理解其中的理念,健康建筑团队发表了一份详尽的清单,简要说明了健康建筑的组成部分。

健康建筑的9大要素如下所示:

Last month Harvard University’s School of Public Health re-launched their Center for Climate, Health, and the Global Environment, introducing new partnerships and a new director for the institutional home of Dr. Joseph Allen’s Healthy Buildings initiative. With the stated mission of “improving the lives of all people, in all buildings, everywhere, every day,” the Healthy Buildings Team is leading research on how today’s built environments impact the health, productivity, and well-being of the people who inhabit them; as well as how future buildings can help us live healthier lives.
In the interest of defining their terms and presenting their research in a way that audiences outside academia can understand and incorporate into their work, the Healthy Buildings team have released an exhaustive list that details the simple foundations of making a building healthy.
The 9 foundations for healthy buildings are as follows:

看看你身边的建筑,满足这9个要素吗?第2张图片

via Harvard C-CHANGE

通风

健康建筑应当满足通风需求。再循环及室外空气应该被过滤,即使是纳米粒子也能被有效地去除。而室内进风口也应当远离街道污染源。

空气质量

建筑与室内材料应当选用化学排放量低的材料。有条件的话需设置蒸汽屏障,用来隔绝不良气体的进入,同时控制室内湿度和气味。

热舒适

热舒适状况应当满足舒适标准,并且在一整天都保持较为稳定的温度和湿度。

空气湿度

对建筑进行定期的检查,有效地查找建筑墙体中所出现的通气孔。

Ventilation
Outdoor air ventilation rate guidelines should be met or exceeded. Recirculated and outdoor air should be filtered so that even nano-particles are removed efficiently. Outdoor air intakes should be placed away from street-level pollutant sources.

Air Quality
Materials and furnishings with low chemical emissions should be used. Vapor barriers are necessary for limiting vapor intrusion and humidity levels must be stabilized to control odors.

Thermal Health
Thermal conditions should meet comfort standards and maintain consistent temperature and humidity levels throughout the day.

Moisture
Regular inspections should be conducted to find and remedy any moisture sources and condensation spots within the building's envelope.

看看你身边的建筑,满足这9个要素吗?第3张图片

© Wikimedia user Faolin42 licensed under CC-BY-3.0. Image: Harvard School of Public Health's F.X. Bagnoud Building by Payette (1996)

粉尘&虫害

建筑表面应当定期进行清洗,同时采取预防措施,例如墙面密封、防渗漏,及时清理垃圾,以避免蚊虫滋生等等。

安全保障

充足的照明、视频监控、事故报告、消防安全措施、应急疏散系统可以有效预防建筑内存在的安全隐患。

水质

管理人员应当定期检测水质,检测成果也应当符合国家标准,同时需配备净化系统,减少水质的污染,另外还应当采取相应措施清理水管中的污垢。

噪声污染

其中包括室内噪声控制和室外噪声控制。噪声源头应控制在35dB以下,而最大混响时间则应低于0.7秒。

照明&视野

各个主要功能空间都应该有良好的视野,并且设置充足的照明设施,同时尽量采用自然采光,避免引起眩光。

Dust & Pests
Surfaces should be cleaned and vacuumed regularly. Pest issues should be avoided by taking preventative measures such as sealing entry points, preventing moisture buildup, and removing trash promptly.

Safety & Security
Sufficient lighting, video monitoring, incident reporting protocols, fire safety preparations, and maintaining an emergency action plan can ease safety concerns and reduce stress within a building.

Water Quality
Water should be regularly tested and maintained to National Drinking Water Standards, with a water purification system to eliminate contamination. Steps should be taken to avoid water stagnation in pipes.

Noise
Protection from outdoor noises and measures to control indoor noise should be controlled. Sources should keep background noise below 35db and maximum reverberation time under 0.7 seconds.

Lighting & Views
All work and habitation spaces should have direct lines of sight to exterior windows. There should be sufficient task lighting, and as much natural daylight as possible without causing glare.

看看你身边的建筑,满足这9个要素吗?第4张图片

© Adolf Bereuter

在确定各项因素之后,该团队解释了可以通过这些性能来优化建筑的健康功能。

完整版的报告一共36页,可以在其官方网站中下载,该团队将影响人类健康因素的概念进行了分解,详细阐释了其背后的科学依据,并且注明了相关信息来源与背景文献。同时其中还包含一份指南,为建筑设计中的具体问题提出相应的建议。

这份报告的内容浅显易懂,穿插结合深入的解释与方法,这让其成为一项重要资源,帮助人们更好地改善建筑空间的品质。

新闻来源:The Harvard Gazette

Having identified these factors, the team explains that they can be assessed using performance metrics to show how a building’s health functions can be improved or optimized.
In the full 36-page report, which is available for download on their website, the team breaks down the specific ways that each concept impacts human health, explains the underlying science behind them and provides links to the primary literature that their research is based upon. They also include a guide with specific advice for addressing each of their foundations in building designs.  
While their basic assertions may seem obvious, the depth of explanation and thorough, comprehensive approach to this important topic makes this guide a helpful resource for anyone involved or interested in improving a space of any kind.
News via: The Harvard Gazette
      
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新闻 (499 articles)


建筑 (9789 articles)


研究报告 (5 articles)


通风 (9 articles)


照明 (25 articles)


安全 (3 articles)


2018 (571 articles)