网站地图关于我们

查看相册 View Gallery
城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第1张图片

Image via PXHere

一片灰烬中的城市该如何重建
How Cities have Rebuilt from the Ashes

由专筑网李韧,蒋晖编译

每座城市都有着不同的发展历史,纵观历史的长河,城市当前的布局形态都来源于自然与人为的影响。而就某些城市来说,其形态往往是政治、宗教、阶级斗争的结果,而就另一些城市而言,复杂的文化融合铸就了当前的城市现状。城市的发展虽较为缓慢,但有时候,诸如自然灾害、军事战争、工业革命等事件也会造成城市的迅速变化。

城市的发展不仅能够代表城市自身,还能够代表当地的传统文化,经过重建的城市是否与曾经的一致?这些城市经历过灾难是否浴火重生?以下城市便是浴火重生的代表。

Every city has a story. Throughout history, many natural and man-made changes have altered the way cities were originally laid out. For some, the urban form developed as a result of political disputes, religious separations, or class divides. For others, a more mixed approach has allowed for uniquely mixed cultural atmospheres. And while development of cities is typically slow, occasionally cities experience dramatic and immediate changes to the urban fabric - the results of natural disaster, military conflict, or industrial catastrophe.
What happens next - if anything - can reveal a great deal about not just the city itself, but the local culture. Do cities rebuild exactly as they were? Or do they use disaster as an opportunity to reinvent themselves? The following is a roundup of cities that have moved past catastrophe to be reborn from the ashes.


柏林

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第2张图片

Berlin Reichstag - Before. Image © Bundesarchiv, Bild 102-13744, licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Commons

多年以来,德国经历了多次战争,其中包括人尽皆知的世界第二次大战。在二战期间,美国空军对德国城市进行了轰炸,从而导致大部分建筑被摧毁。位于柏林的德国国会大厦也成为了一片废墟,上空还飘扬着苏联国旗。在战后,德国城市立刻投入到城市的发展之中,而到目前为止,柏林成为了德国最受欢迎的城市之一,这里有着诸多大型企业与建筑作品。而由福斯特翻新改造的德国议会大厦保留了原有的建筑特征,但是在屋面上增加了带有现代风格的玻璃穹顶。

Berlin
Germany has taken part and endured several wars along the years, making it one of the most notable participants in both World Wars. During the Second World War, the American Air Force bombarded the German city and destroyed more than half of its buildings. Berlin’s distinguished Reichstag Building fell victim to the war and was left in ruins, with a Soviet flag waving on its roof. Right after the war ended, prompt renovations were underway, and has been ongoing since then. Berlin is now one of Germany’s most visited cities, housing numerous mega enterprises and structures. The Reichstag Building, which is the German house of parliament, was renovated by Sir Norman Foster, preserving the original building’s architecture style, but with a contemporary intervention of a large glass dome on its roof.

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第3张图片

Berlin Reichstag. Image Courtesy of Wikimedia User Fae Licensed Under Public Domain

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第4张图片

Reichstag. Image Courtesy of Matthew Field, licensed under GFDL 1.2 via Commons

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第5张图片

Berlin Reichstag - Now. Image Courtesy of Flickr user oh-berlin, licensed under CC BY 2.0

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第6张图片

Berlin Reichstag. Image Courtesy of Wikimedia User Fae Licensed Under Public Domain



德累斯顿

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第7张图片

Dresden - Before. Image via Wikimedia Commons

二战中的另一座受到损害的城市便是德国的德勒斯顿,这里曾经是德国的文化中心,有着巴洛克风格的建筑、花园,以及Elbe河。在战争期间,美国士兵对这座城市进行了轰炸,城市化为灰烬,每座具有历史、文化、社会意义的建筑如珍珠般散落一地。同样地,战争结束后,城市投入到迅速的发展之中,建筑仍然保留了原有的风格,诸如歌剧院、Zwingler宫等知名建筑都直接恢复了原貌,而诸如里伯斯金建筑事务所设计的军事历史博物馆则表达了历史与现代的融合。

Dresden
Another German veteran in the Second World War is the city of Dresden, which was once known as one of Germany’s cultural centers for years, with Baroque-style architecture, gardens, and Elbe River. During the war, the American Forces blasted the city, destroying everything in the area. Every historic, cultural, and social building was dispersed to the ground. After the conclusion of WW2, the city underwent repairment but the buildings were preserved in terms of architectural style. Iconic buildings in the area such as the Opera House and Zwingler Palace, were designed to look just as they were before the war took place. Some buildings, such as the Military History Museum by Studio Libeskind, were designed to show the fusion of historic and contemporary architecture.

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第8张图片

Dresden - Before. Image Courtesy of Wikimedia User 32X Under CC BY 3.0

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第9张图片

Dresden - Before. Image Courtesy of Wikimedia User AndreasPraefcke CC BY 3.0

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第10张图片

Dresden - Now. Image Courtesy of PIxabay

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第11张图片

Dresden - Now. Image Courtesy of Wikimedia User Ingersoll Licensed Under Public Domain

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第12张图片

Studio Libeskind's Military Museum . Image © Alexandra Timpau



华沙

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第13张图片

Warsaw - Before. Image Courtesy of Wikimedia User Jarekt Under Public Domain

在德国军队的袭击中,波兰华沙也受到了巨大的损害,在进行轰炸之后,德国军队对华沙进行了焚烧,许多历史文化遗迹都化作废墟。战争结束之后,华沙政府花费了约5年时间进行了规划与重建,其依据是17世纪至18世纪的街景地图。诸如皇家城堡、宫殿、城墙等知名建筑都进行了重建。这座城市的Old镇还被联合国教科文组织列入世界遗产名录。

Warsaw
Also a participant in the Second World War, the Polish city fell victim to Germany’s assaults. As the battle was ongoing between both countries, Germany launched an attack that left nothing standing in the city. Right after they bombed the area, German troops invaded Warsaw by land, and burned anything that was left untouched, demolishing every piece of history, culture, religion, and monarchy that the city had owned. Planning the reconstructing of the city took more than 5 years to be completed, referring to 17th and 18th century street-maps since every document had been destroyed. All the notable buildings in the city, including the Royal Castle, Palaces, and city walls, were reconstructed. The city’s Old Town is currently named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第14张图片

Warsaw - Before. Image Courtesy of Wikimedia User Vert Under Public Domain

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第15张图片

Warsaw - Now. Image Courtesy of Skitterphoto CC BY 0



里斯本

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第16张图片

Lisbon. Image Courtesy of PIxabay

与欧洲许多城市不同的是,葡萄牙首都里斯本的毁灭并非源于战争,而是由于一连串的自然灾害。在18世纪中期,这座城市受到了地震的侵袭,而后又遭遇了海啸,在接下来的5天之中,大火蔓延整座城市,住宅、图书馆、宫殿、教堂,以及成千上万的人们无一幸免。但是后来,这座顽强的城市在国家的资助下涅槃了。城市规划中,建筑呈网格形态布局,并且有着抗震结构体系,同时采用了古典主义的风格。Praca do Comercial的巨大凯旋门的建造就很好地表达了城市的重生。

Lisbon
Unlike the majority of European cities, Lisbon was not destroyed due to an ongoing war, but due to a very unfortunate relationship [or luck?] with mother nature. In the middle of the 18th century, a huge earthquake hit the city followed by a tsunami. During the following five days, large fires spread across the city, burning houses, libraries, palaces, and churches, killing thousands of people. Soon after, the city was reborn under the patronage of the Portuguese Prime Minister. The buildings, which were implemented in a grid-like arrangement, had infrastructures designed to endure future earthquakes, while the structures themselves possessed a classical architecture style. A huge triumphal arch was built on the Praca do Comercial to embody the city’s rebirth.

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第17张图片

Lisbon. Image via Wikimedia Commons

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第18张图片

Lisbon . Image Courtesy of Wikimedia User Pp.paul.4 Wikimedia Commons

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第19张图片

Lisbon - Now. Image Courtesy of Wikimedia User Deensel Licesed Under CC BY 2.0



广岛

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第20张图片

Hiroshima Now. Image via Wikimedia Commons

这座日本城市在1945年遭受到了一颗原子弹的侵袭,造成60000多名人员伤亡,同时城市的建筑大部分被摧毁,剩下的小部分建筑在年底毁于飓风。后来随着城市的复兴,广岛的居民也逐渐增多,住宅、学校、公共场所也逐渐恢复。一些建筑被改造为博物馆与纪念中心,主要用于记录二战的历史。在这片土地上,树木与草地十分迅速地蔓延生长,这几乎让人不敢相信,在70年前,这里曾经是一片废墟。

Hiroshima
Perhaps one of the most unfortunate victims of the war, the Japanese city was infamously hit with a atomic bombs in 1945, which instantly killed more than 60,000 citizens and demolished almost every structure in the city. Anything that did remain, however, was then destroyed by a cyclone which hit towards the end of that year. The city was gradually resurrected and people began going back to Hiroshima, building houses, schools, and public spaces. Many buildings were transformed into museums and memorials, documenting the history of Hiroshima and Japan in the Second World War. Contrary to what was assumed, trees and greenery quickly found their way to flourish in a land that was believed to live without a single green grass for at least seventy years.

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第21张图片

Hiroshima. Image via Wikimedia Commons

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第22张图片

Hiroshima. Image Courtesy of Louisiana Channel



贝鲁特

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第23张图片

Beirut Martyr Square. Image Courtesy of Wikimedia User FunkMonk Under CC BY 2.0

黎巴嫩首都贝鲁特也是一座古老的城市,自从公元前140年,这座城市受到多次的君主统治与自然灾害。但是贝鲁特每次都能焕发新生,因此人们都称这座城市具有“凤凰的精神”。在20世纪末,贝鲁特经历了长达15年的战争,这座曾经被誉为“中东巴黎”的城市变得一片狼藉。在20世纪90年代之后,贝鲁特经历了复兴,重建之后,成为了现代宜居城市,甚至还拥有几座地标性建筑。但是由于政治的不稳定因素,一些基础设施与交通设施的发展仍然较不完善,直至今日,火车、地铁系统仍然不成熟,这对于市民来说十分不便。

Beirut
The Lebanese capital is one of the oldest cities in the world, and has been destroyed multiple times by historic monarchies and natural disasters since 140 B.C. However, the city always found its way to be born again, earning the “Spirit of the Phoenix” title. Towards the end of the 20th century, Beirut suffered from a detrimental civil war that lasted for fifteen years. The city, which was once considered the “Paris of the Middle East” was bombed and punctured, leaving nothing habitable. After the 1990’s, Beirut saw the light of resurrection again, and was rebuilt into a modern, livable city, housing several iconic landmarks. However, due to the lack of political stability and the unavailability of a unanimously-approved agenda, the reworking of proper infrastructures and transportation systems was halted. Trains were left to rust, and metro systems were never proposed, leaving the Lebanese citizens with limited services, up until today.

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第24张图片

Beirut Civil War. Image Courtesy of Wikimedia User Bertilvidet~Under CC BY 3.0

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第25张图片

Beirut - Now. Image Courtesy of Wikimedia User Pontifex1974 Under CC BY 3.0



伦敦

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第26张图片

The Great London Fire . Image Courtesy of Wikimedia User DcoetzeeBot Under Public Domain

1666年,中世纪伦敦的许多建筑与桥梁在大火中被损毁。然而建筑师们却把此看做城市公共空间重生的契机。虽然一些城市规划项目并没有得到实施,但是五项由国皇家建筑师学会提出的灾后建议向公众展示了伦敦这座城市。诸如Christopher Wren、Captain Valentine Knight、Richard Newcourt等著名建筑师绘制了中世纪时期的街道网格图纸,建议进行网格型城市空间布局,保留公共空间。城市的市民也不喜欢完全性的城市转变,并且希望保留城市的原有风格特征。在现在的伦敦,人们仍然能够看到历史与现代建筑的交汇,这展示了建筑风格的多样性。

London
In 1666, Medieval London was entirely consumed by flames, demolishing every standing building and bridge in the city. Several architects saw the Great Fire as an opportunity to redesign London and transform it into wide boulevards and vast public spaces, rivaling other European cities. Although none of the master-plans suggested were followed through, five of the post-fire proposals were exhibited at the Royal Institute of British Architects, presenting what would have been the city of London. Well-established architects such as Christopher Wren, Captain Valentine Knight, and Richard Newcourt drew plans that shifted away from the original medieval street patterns, proposing grid-like arrangements and grand civic spaces. Citizens resisted the complete change and remained loyal to the city’s original urban style. Modern-day London sees a layering of historic and contemporary architecture, displaying every architecture style that has resided in the city.

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第27张图片

London Proposed Maps. Image Courtesy of Wikimedia User MartinPoulter Under CC BY 4.0

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第28张图片

Christopher Wren Map of London. Image Courtesy of Wikimedia User BotMultichillT

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第29张图片

London Proposed Maps. Image Courtesy of Wikimedia User OgreBot - Commons

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第30张图片

London Proposed Maps. Image Courtesy of Wikimedia User Speede Under Public Domain



东京

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第31张图片

Tokyo - Before. Image Courtesy of Wikimedia User Nesnad Under Public Domain

1923年的日本关东大地震之后,这座城市的大部分建筑被完全摧毁,同时地震还导致许多木质建筑发生了火灾,周边的道路也几乎融化,而由于水源较远,因此灭火十分困难。东京重建的预算非常巨大,进展却较为缓慢。但是,城市的复兴仍然十分成功,由于其建筑、经济、生活方式,这里成为了旅游的热门地。

Tokyo
After a great earthquake, known as the Great Kanto Earthquake, hit the Japanese city in 1923, every structure in the area was totally destroyed. The earthquake caused many wooden buildings to catch fire, melting nearby roads as well. Water was inaccessible due to the damages caused by the earthquake and so putting the fire off was almost impossible. Tokyo’s rebirth proposals were a lot bigger than the budget available, so the progress was rather slower and simpler than expected. However, the city’s resurrection is perhaps one of the most impressive, as it is currently one of the most visited cities in the world for its architecture, economy, and lifestyle.

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第32张图片

Tokyo. Image Courtesy of Flickr User J Damasio


芝加哥

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第33张图片

Chicago - Now. Image Courtesy of PIxabay

在1871年,一个小意外引发了芝加哥大火,而当天的大风又将火灾蔓延至了城市的中心,导致大约17000座建筑被烧毁,至少70000名市民流离失所。在大火之后,芝加哥进行了重建,不到20年的时间,这座城市愈发迅速地发展起来,虽然仍然存在经济与社会等问题,但这里依旧发展成为了知名的经济区,甚至还建造了世界第一座高层建筑,即10层的家庭保险公司大厦。

Chicago
Back in 1871, one very unlucky barn unintentionally initiated the Great Chicago Fire. The fire was carried into the central district from that barn by the heavy winds that were taking place during that day, burning almost 17,000 building and displacing more than 70,000 residents. After that fire, Chicago underwent a period known as “Great Rebuilding”, and in less than twenty years, regardless of all the economic and social obstacles, the city became a reputable economic district, housing the world’s first ever skyscraper (at that time, the Home Insurance Building, a 10-storey building was considered a skyscraper).

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第34张图片

Chicago Fire. Image Courtesy of Wikimedia User Acabashi Licensed Under Public Domain

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第35张图片

Chicago Fire. Image Courtesy of Wikimedia USer GreenMeansGo Licensed Under Public Domain

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第36张图片

Chicago. Image Courtesy of Wikimedia User Dschwen Under CC BY 4.0

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第37张图片

Chicago Library. Image Courtesy of Wikimedia User Victorgrigas Under CC BY 3.0



萨拉热窝

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第38张图片

Sarajevo City Hall. Image © Mikhail Evstafiev CC BY SA 3.0

建于1896年的波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那萨拉热窝的市政厅至今仍然是摩尔建筑的一大代表。在1992年的城市战争中,这座建筑受到了严重损坏,在后来的翻新过程中,建筑师保留了建筑独特的风格,并结合传统砖石与木材,以及现代的钢结构,其立面系统与原有建筑几乎一致,让建筑看上去似乎从未被损坏。

Sarajevo
The Bosnia and Herzegovina Sarajevo City Hall (built in 1896) was, and still is, a significant representation of what Moorish architecture looks like. In 1992, a war took place in the city, causing grave damage to the city hall. During the renovation phase, the architects made sure to preserve the building’s distinguished style and used the same material used originally (stone, brick, and wood) with new steel structures for support. The facade’s design was reworked identically to the original design, making it seem as though the building was never damaged in the first place.

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第39张图片

Sarajevo City Hall. Image Courtesy of Wikimedia User Чаховіч Уладзіслаў CC BY SA 3.0


新奥尔良

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第40张图片

New Orleans Hurricane . Image Courtesy of Flickr User NOAA

2005年8月,卡特里娜飓风袭击了美国墨西哥湾岸区,从弗罗里达州到德克萨斯州东部都受到严重破坏,而新奥尔良的建筑、基础设施、景观被毁于一旦,市民流离失所。许多政府与非政府组织为新奥尔良的重建伸出援手,为这座城市提供医疗援助以及商业住宅项目的资助。GTECH Strategies是一个匹兹堡非政府组织,该组织在2009年计划将这片荒凉的地区改造为向日葵花园,项目中的可持续发展策略让城市绿地得以增加,同时为新奥尔良带来了全新的希望与活力。

New Orleans
Taking place in a more modern timeline, the deadly and destructive Hurricane Katrina struck the United State’s Gulf Coast, causing colossal damage from Florida to eastern Texas. The eye of the hurricane rested in New Orleans, and caused implausible damage to the buildings, infrastructure (worth billions of US dollars), landscape, and human beings, killing and displacing thousands. Several governments and NGOs have offered their support into reconstructing New Orleans, providing health aid and constructing residential and commercial projects. In 2009, GTECH Strategies, a Pittsburgh-based NGO has planned on transforming abandoned plots in the area into sunflower gardens. The sustainable development will not only increase the green spaces in the damaged city, but will add an atmosphere of positivity and hope to the New Orleans.

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第41张图片

New Orleans Hurricane . Image Courtesy of Wikimedia User Mfield Public Domain

城市复兴:凤凰涅槃,浴火重生第42张图片

Crescent Park Proposal. Image Courtesy of Eskew + Dumez + Ripple


【专筑网版权与免责声明】:本网站注明“来源:专筑网”的所有内容版权属专筑网所有,如需转载,请注明出处

专于设计,筑就未来

无论您身在何方;无论您作品规模大小;无论您是否已在设计等相关领域小有名气;无论您是否已成功求学、步入职业设计师队伍;只要你有想法、有创意、有能力,专筑网都愿为您提供一个展示自己的舞台

投稿邮箱:submit@iarch.cn         如何向专筑投稿?

扫描二维码即可订阅『专筑

微信号:iarch-cn

登录专筑网  |  社交账号登录:

 匿名

没有了...
评论加载中,请稍后!

新闻 (471 articles)


建筑 (9692 articles)


城市复兴 (3 articles)


战争 (5 articles)


废墟 (13 articles)


柏林 (91 articles)


华沙 (15 articles)


里斯本 (24 articles)


广岛 (15 articles)


2018 (503 articles)