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经典作品赏析:圣保罗艺术博物馆第1张图片

© Pedro Kok

AD Classics: São Paulo Museum of Art (MASP) / Lina Bo Bardi

由专筑网李韧,王帅编译

本文最初发表至2014年8月14日。欲了解建筑项目的背后故事,请访问AD经典板块。

丽娜·柏·巴蒂(Lina Bo Bardi)在接受位于圣保罗Terraço do Trianon全新艺术博物馆的设计邀请时,其实也接受了客户的潜在的要求,即尽可能地保留城市的全景视角。这项要求由政府规定,目的是保留Avenida Paulista沿线的重要城市聚集空间,同时这里也是城市的主要经济和文化中心。因此,Bo Bardi构思了简单而有力的策略,这座建筑中间有一道裂缝,一半位于露台之下,而另一半则结合了天空。整个广场面向公众开放,在1968年,这座圣保罗艺术博物馆便正式亮相了。

When Lina Bo Bardi received the commission to build a new museum of art on São Paulo’s Terraço do Trianon, she was given the job under one condition: under no circumstances could the building block the site’s panoramic vistas of the lower-lying parts of the city. This rule, instituted by the local legislature, sought to protect what had become an important urban gathering space along Avenida Paulista, the city’s main financial and cultural artery. Undeterred, Bo Bardi came up with a solution that was simple and powerful. She designed a building with a massive split through its midsection, burying half of it below the terrace and lifting the other half into the sky. As a result, the plaza remained open and unobstructed, and in 1968, the iconic São Paulo Museum of Art (MASP) was born.

经典作品赏析:圣保罗艺术博物馆第2张图片

© Flickr user Rodrigo_Soldon

在一开始,这个项目就充斥着政治色彩,Bo Bardi和当地政府人员沟通与协商,明确了这座建筑的城市地位,而后负责了该项目设计、建造、管理等每个部分。[1]然而,随着项目的发展,她也愈发意识到,她对于博物馆的构思并不属于政治家和城市文化精英们,她反而更应该迎合城市人民的观点。这座博物馆不仅保留有较大面积的公共空间,同时也表达了这样一种观念,即博物馆不仅能够用于展示文化,而且还能成为一座城市大舞台。

From the beginning, the project was rife with political overtones. Bo Bardi, who oversaw nearly every part of the building’s design, construction, and administration, initially secured the museum’s prime location through a “backroom deal” that she negotiated herself with the local governor. [1] However, as the project evolved, it became increasingly clear that her vision for the museum would not belong to the politicians and the city’s cultural elite. She would instead attempt to cater to the populist view that the museum and the site on which it stood should belong to the people and the city. Not only would the museum return the same amount of public space that it borrowed, but it would embrace the radical notion that a museum could both exhibit culture and serve as a stage on which it was created.

经典作品赏析:圣保罗艺术博物馆第3张图片

© Pedro Kok

MASP的美学来源于巧妙的工程方案,建筑的结构清晰地支配了建筑的形式语言。两根巨大的预应力混凝土横梁平行地穿越场地,放置在巨型支柱之上,用于悬挂着巨大的体量,其内部是博物馆的主要展览与行政空间。上部空间与下部空间通过观光电梯连接在一起,而电梯又将博物馆和城市联系起来,这似乎是在挑战这样一个理念,即艺术品能够与艺术家相分隔,并让人们的参观带有政治色彩。

The MASP’s monumental aesthetic is the result of an ingenious engineering scheme whose structural clarity dominates the building’s formal language. Two enormous pre-stressed concrete beams, resting on equally massive piers, traverse the length of the site in parallel and suspend a voluminous box containing the museum’s main exhibition and administrative spaces. This upper section is connected to the below-grade levels through a glass elevator that takes visitors on a journey between the museum and the city and back again, intentionally challenging the idea that artwork can exist in disconnect from the people that create it and imbuing the visiting experience with political meaning.

经典作品赏析:圣保罗艺术博物馆第4张图片


经典作品赏析:圣保罗艺术博物馆第5张图片


Bo Bardi将这种艺术与政治之间的讨论延伸到展馆之中,在这里,现代主义式开放平面限定了艺术作品之间的等级。参观者出了电梯之后会进入一片画作之中,他们会在这些作品之间来回欣赏,并不会感受到明确的序列。一位学者这样描述到,“每件艺术作品都有自己的展示场地,这种展览模式证明了作品的根本性质,同时也证明了制度的缺乏。”[2]玻璃面板放置在厚重混凝土体块之上,这使得整个体量看上去如同漂浮在空中,这也促进了展品的自由感,并且表达了展览形式与建筑形式之间的关联。Bo Bardi的丈夫是这座博物馆的主要负责人,在1990年退休之前,他都一直保留这种设计方式,但后来可惜的是,这种排布方式被取消,取而代之的是传统的展示系统。这只是此类展览建筑的一个案例,即建筑师希望参观者能够接受这种艺术观念。

Bo Bardi extended this discourse on art and politics into the main galleries, where for years a modernist open-floor plan radically redefined the hierarchies between works of art. Visitors were released from the elevator into an unmediated field of suspended paintings and required to meander between pieces without a clear sense of progression. As one scholar described it, “each artwork was shown to be its own site, a display mode that attested both to the migratory destiny of the pieces, but also, and more importantly, to a lack of institutional framing.” [2] The pieces, which were strikingly mounted on glass panels grounded in heavy concrete blocks, appeared to float in the air, intensifying the liberated chaos of the exhibit and cheekily mimicking the floating form of the building. Bo Bardi’s husband, who was the longtime director of the museum, preserved this arrangement until his retirement in 1990, when it was tragically abandoned in favor of a more conventional solid-wall display system. It was just one example of the way in which the architect attempted to force visitors to reexamine preconceived notions of art.

经典作品赏析:圣保罗艺术博物馆第6张图片

© Pedro Kok

博览建筑是一个整体,Bo Bardi不断地在光影与体量之间进行对话。就露台而言,建筑的体量能够直接表达在视觉效果之中,但是就感官而言,这种感觉就消失了。杰出的结构主义者Herman Hertzberger写道:“在建筑的下部,你不会感受到压迫感,因为建筑远远高于你。”[3]另外还有这样的说法,“人们行走在展馆下方的广场上并不会感受到体量的重量,反而会感受到头顶上似乎有一片云,帮你遮挡了巴西的炎炎烈日,这为人们带来一丝凉爽。”[4]

In the gallery and with the building as a whole, Bo Bardi repeatedly prompts a powerful dialogue between lightness and mass. From the terrace, for example, the weight of the building is intuitively obvious, but as a sensory experience it is notably missing. The great structuralist Herman Hertzberger wrote that “when underneath the building, you feel absolutely no sense of oppression due to the immense presence above you.” [3] By a different account, "pedestrians who walk on the plaza beneath the galleries feel nothing of the weight of the structure overhead, but rather sense that a cloud has passed in front of the hot Brazilian sun and given them a delightful moment of coolness." [4]

经典作品赏析:圣保罗艺术博物馆第7张图片

© Flickr user Carol^-^

这座建筑中结合了现代主义和粗野主义元素,因此有着某种对抗关系。一方面,优雅的玻璃和开放式平面布局让博物馆符合视觉上的轻盈,同时这也属于传统的国际式风格,另一方面,大型混凝土面板和结构体系属于粗野主义,这在当时属于博物馆的巅峰时期。Bo Bardi并没有回避不同元素之间的矛盾,而是将它们表达出来,例如将支柱涂成红色,让楼层分隔变得轻薄一些,同时拉长立面中的垂直元素,以此来增强视觉效果。这种观念之间的相互影响充满戏剧性,建筑对于传统美学的创新式应用见证了诸如Oscar Niemeyer 与Roberto Burle Marx等大师独一无二的混凝土现代主义的巴西传统。

Much of this tension exists due to the building’s juxtaposition of modernist and brutalist elements. On the one hand, the elegant glazing and open floor plans responsible for the visual levity of the museum belong firmly in the International Style tradition. On the other, the colossal concrete piers and structural systems belong to the brutalist movement, which was in its heyday at the time of the museum’s construction. Rather than shy away from the contradictions posed by these disparate elements, Bo Bardi draws attention to them, painting the piers bright red and thinning out the floors and elongating vertical elements of the façade to visually dematerialize their width. The effect of the interplay of these ideas is dramatic, and the building’s innovative rethinking of conventional aesthetics hearkens to a uniquely Brazilian tradition of concrete modernism that includes Oscar Niemeyer and Roberto Burle Marx.

经典作品赏析:圣保罗艺术博物馆第8张图片

© Flickr user Rodrigo_Soldon

经典作品赏析:圣保罗艺术博物馆第9张图片

© Flickr user Juliana Magro


这座博物馆仍然存在争议与批判,但是它十分真实地表达了Lina Bo Bardi的设计理念,即这里既是一座博物馆,同时也是圣保罗居民的聚集场所。就此而言,MASP证明了建筑师能够通过设计而表达社会责任感,同时增加社会的平等性。这座博物馆改善了城市的发展现状,同时也关乎了政治的艺术层面。

Although the museum is not without controversy or critics, it succeeds in faithfully delivering the vision of Lina Bo Bardi by serving both as a museum and as an informal gathering place for the residents of São Paulo. In this sense, the MASP is a testament to the power of architects to promote egalitarian values and social responsibility and through design. The building exemplifies the best of the brutalist effort to improve the urban condition through architecture and serves as an elegant critical essay on the political dimensions of art.


[1] Buergel, Roger M. “’展览的控告’: Lina Bo Bardi的语法展示.” Afterall: 艺术、文脉
咨询期刊, 第26期(2011年春季), p. 56.
[2] Ibid.
[3] Hertzberger, Herman. 空间与建筑: 建筑课程2. 010 出版商: 鹿特丹, 2010年, p. 106.
[4] Anyone Corporation. "Lina Bo Bardi: 圣保罗艺术博物馆." ANY: 纽约建筑, No. 5, Lightness (1994年 3月/4月), p. 24.

[1] Buergel, Roger M. “’This Exhibition Is an Accusation’: The Grammar of Display According to Lina Bo Bardi.” Afterall: A Journal of Art, Context, and Enquiry, Issue 26 (Spring 2011), p. 56.
[2] Ibid.
[3] Hertzberger, Herman. Space and the Architect: Lessons in Architecture 2. 010 Publishers: Rotterdam, 2010, p. 106.
[4] Anyone Corporation. "Lina Bo Bardi: Museo de Arte de São Paulo." ANY: Architecture New York, No. 5, Lightness (March/April 1994), p. 24.


建筑设计:Lina Bo Bardi
地点:1578 Avenida Paulista
项目时间:1968年
摄影:Pedro Kok, Flickr user Juliana Magro, Flickr user Rodrigo_Soldon, Flickr user Carol

Architects: Lina Bo Bardi
Location: 1578 Avenida Paulista
Area: 0.0 m2
Project Year: 1968
Photographs: Pedro Kok, Flickr user Juliana Magro, Flickr user Rodrigo_Soldon, Flickr user Carol

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