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一起来打破学校的常规束缚,建筑也可以是一种教育的工具第1张图片

Hanazono幼儿园|Hanazono Kindergarten and Nursery / HIBINOSEKKEI + Youji no Shiro. Image © Studio Bauhaus

为什么我们的学校需要更好的建筑
Why Our Schools Need Better Architecture

由专筑网王沛儒,蒋晖编译

在建筑领域,设计和教育之间的关系越来越重要,尤其是在儿童教育的方面。建筑学、哲学和社会学之间的关系是众所周知的。通常,在我们进行设计时,这些相关领域所提出的问题可以作为反映空间和用户关系的一种工具。当我们在考虑孩子的教育时,我们需要跳出局限的人体工程学,把建筑看作一种教育的工具。

因此,空间-建筑-用户体验这三者的关系是与其他领域同时存在的,即儿童有不同的需求,所以他们之间的同化和转化的过程是同时发生的。例如,在社会学中,被称为初级社会化的过程——也被称为婴儿期——负责形成0到6岁之间的智力和社会习惯,在他们的性格形成过程中产生社会、道德和行为观念。

Within the architecture field, the relationship between design and education has gained prominence, especially when it comes to children’s education. The relationship between architecture, philosophy, and sociology is well known. Frequently, when designing, issues introduced by these fields work as tools to reflect upon the relationship between the space and the user. When we consider children’s education, we must go beyond ergonomics and think of architecture as an educational tool.
Therefore, the space-architecture-user experience triad is thought alongside other areas, being that children have different needs, their processes of assimilation and transformation happen in tandem. Specifically within sociology, for instance, the process known as primary socialization – also called infancy – is responsible for the intellectual built up and social habits that form between 0 and 6 years old, acting to incur social, moral, and behavioral notions in their character formation.

一起来打破学校的常规束缚,建筑也可以是一种教育的工具第2张图片

Hanazono幼儿园|Hanazono Kindergarten and Nursery / HIBINOSEKKEI + Youji no Shiro. Image © Studio Bauhaus

研究表明,婴儿出生时大约有1000亿个神经元,这些神经元能够产生千万亿次的连接——是成人大脑的五倍之多[1]。在这些细胞中,大约有800亿个细胞会在连接的过程中丢失,这是因为即使在胎儿时期婴儿就开始形成这些被称为突触的连接了,而他们未使用的细胞就会死亡。换句话说,婴儿期是整个生命周期中神经发育的主要阶段,对成年后的精神和身体有着重大影响。

因此,把教育投资的重点放在成年期是错误的,我们应该在出生后不久就开展教育。

Research shows that a baby is born with approximately 100 billion neurons, which are capable of making a quadrillion connections – five times more than an adult brain [1]. Of these, around 80 billion are lost because even as a fetus the baby begins to form these connections, known as synapses, and the unused cells die. In other words, infancy is the main neural development phase in the entire life cycle and can have a significant psychic and physical impact in adult life.
It is misguided to focus the brunt of educational investments during adulthood, and therefore we should begin pedagogical development soon after birth.  

一起来打破学校的常规束缚,建筑也可以是一种教育的工具第3张图片

澳大利亚悉尼NUBO儿童游乐中心|NUBO / PAL Design. Image © Michelle Young, Amy Piddington

在来自世界各地的研究者的支持下,在过去的几年里,无论是在公共部门还是私人部门,对儿童的教育都进行了大量的投资。而在建筑学方面,许多项目都是与儿童的教育方法所结合的。

私营部门的目标是发展具有社会影响力的企业,力求教育儿童掌握知识技能和工具。

Supported by researches from all over the world, much investment in childhood education has been made in the past few years, both in the public and private sectors. When it comes to architecture, many projects have been designed alongside educational methodologies.
The private sector has aimed to develop enterprises with a social impact that seeks to educate children with intellectual skills and tools.

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一起来打破学校的常规束缚,建筑也可以是一种教育的工具第5张图片

hakusui幼儿园|Jardim de Infancia Hakusui / Yamazaki Kentaro Design Workshop. Image Cortesia de amazaki Kentaro Design Workshop

拥有国际和现代教学方法的四所新学校将于2018年在巴西圣保罗落成——Beacon School、Colegio Renascenca、Concept School和Red House,这是Helena Galante和Mariana Rosario在Veja Sao Paulo杂志[2]的文章中所强调过的。

Four new schools with international and/or contemporary teaching methodologies were/will be inaugurated in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2018 – Beacon School, Colégio Renascença, Concept School and Red House, as highlighted by Helena Galante and Mariana Rosário in the article for Veja São Paulo magazine [2].

一起来打破学校的常规束缚,建筑也可以是一种教育的工具第6张图片

Alto de Pinheiros的学校|School in Alto de Pinheiros / Base Urbana + Pessoa Arquitetos. Image © Pedro Vannucchi

在公共部门,一些来自世界各地的建筑师已经签约了开发学校的项目,重点是发展教育领域的空间设计。

通常,当我们想象一所学校或一间教室时,我们立刻想到的是一种传统的模式——一排排的课桌,一块黑板,教室前面正在讲课的老师。然而,你有没有问过自己,为什么世界上大多数学校都是这种配置?“当前”的这种模式并不新鲜;它至少已有300年的历史。为什么我们要一直像19世纪那样设计空间?

In the public sector, a number of architects from all over the world have been contracted to develop school projects focusing on the spatial design of educational areas.
Usually, when we imagine a school or a classroom, we immediately think of the traditional model, with rows of desks, a blackboard, and the teacher at the front of the class giving lectures. However, have you asked yourself why do most schools all over the world have this configuration? The “current” model is not new at all; it is at least 300 years old. Why do we keep designing spaces as we did in the 19th century?

一起来打破学校的常规束缚,建筑也可以是一种教育的工具第7张图片

C.O幼儿园|C.O Kindergarten and Nursery / HIBINOSEKKEI + Youji no Shiro. Image © Studio Bauhaus

一起来打破学校的常规束缚,建筑也可以是一种教育的工具第8张图片

澳大利亚悉尼NUBO儿童游乐中心|NUBO / PAL Design. Image © Michelle Young, Amy Piddington

时间流失,但建筑空间的模式却没有变。而且,这也许并不是最好的选择。教学方法已经改变,但却只有一小部分项目得以遵循。

随着翻转课堂( inverted classroom )、整体教育(holistic education)、建构主义(constructivism)、Waldorf等新的教学方法的出现,教育的方式正在拓宽。

这些的共同点是一个空间的设计不仅考虑到儿童的人体工程学,同时要把他们作为空间的主要使用者,通过允许空间的重组,设置开放式布局,并以设计符合他们生理,智力和心理成长的空间体系。

Time has passed, but the model has remained the same. And, it may not be the best option. Teaching methodologies have changed, but only a fraction of projects have followed.  
With the emergence of alternative teaching methods such as the inverted classroom, holistic education, constructivism, Waldorf, etc, the discourse has broadened.
The common ground is a design which considers not only children's ergonomics, but places them as co-authors, by allowing for spatial reconfiguration, open layouts, and featuring designs to work the physical, intellectual, and psychological systems.

一起来打破学校的常规束缚,建筑也可以是一种教育的工具第9张图片

Makoko漂浮学校|Makoko Floating School / NLé Architects. Image via Gizmag

这些项目不仅是教育工具,同时还可以为社会得发展提供可能的解决方案。

另一个相关的主题是人人平等的教育,包括生活在贫困条件下的儿童。这一运动为教育带来了更为巧妙的结构想法,例如使用当地技术的流动学校。Makoko漂浮学校是由NLE建筑事务所设计的,不幸的是,由于自然灾害,学校倒塌了。

The projects are not only educational tools, but can also provide possible solutions in social development.
Another relevant topic is equal education for all, including children who live in underprivileged conditions. This movement has led to ingenious structures for education, such as floating schools that make use of vernacular techniques. The Makoko Floating School was designed by NLé Architects – unfortunately, the school collapsed due to a natural disaster.

一起来打破学校的常规束缚,建筑也可以是一种教育的工具第10张图片

Gando小学|Gando Primary School / Kéré Architecture. Image © Erik-Jan Ouwerkerk

小时候,著名建筑师Francis Kere会步行40公里去布基纳法索最近的村庄上学。学校的照明和通风设备都很差。在欧洲的大学学习之后,Kere决定将他所学的知识用于他的家乡甘多小学(Gando Primary School)。

As a child, famed architect Francis Kéré would walk 40 kilometers to attend school in the nearest village in Burkina Faso. The school had poor lighting and ventilation. After studying in a European university, Kéré decided to direct his knowledge to build the Gando Primary School, a school in his hometown.

一起来打破学校的常规束缚,建筑也可以是一种教育的工具第11张图片


一起来打破学校的常规束缚,建筑也可以是一种教育的工具第12张图片

Wish School / grupo garoa. Image © Pedro Napolitano Prata

就像前面所提到的那样,我们现在正在按照特定的方法发展教育项目,希望能为下一代提供最好的环境。

在巴西,Wish School是一所双语的、全面的机构,它把“人”看作一个整体。他们认为,“身体、情感、社会、文化、身体、创造力、直觉和精神方面与理性思维一样重要。”

As mentioned before, educational projects are being developed in line with particular methodologies, hoping to provide the best environment for the next generation.
In Brazil, The Wish School is a bilingual and holistic institution that views the “person as a whole.” They believe that the “physical, emotional, social, cultural, corporal, creative, intuitive and spiritual aspects are just as important as rational thinking.”

一起来打破学校的常规束缚,建筑也可以是一种教育的工具第13张图片

Wish School / grupo garoa. Image © Pedro Napolitano Prata

一起来打破学校的常规束缚,建筑也可以是一种教育的工具第14张图片

Wish School / grupo garoa. Image © Pedro Napolitano Prata

在此基础上,设计的过程是由学生和老师合作完成的。四位建筑师分别与一群孩子、老师、协调员和维护人员一起,讨论与空间相关的不同主题,这让他们能够理解“实用性和功能性的问题,同时也有一些感官上的的期望,有些是抽象的,有些不是;有些是不切实际,有些是可行的。

With this being said, the design process was collaborative and co-authored by students and teachers. The four architects sat down separately with a group of children, teachers, coordinators, and maintenance workers to discuss different subjects that related to space, which enabled them to understand the “practical and functional matters, but also sensorial expectations, some abstracts and others not; sometimes impractical, others feasible” [4].

一起来打破学校的常规束缚,建筑也可以是一种教育的工具第15张图片

巴塞罗那'Els Colors' 幼儿园|Jardim de infancia 'Els Colors' / RCR Arquitectes. Image Cortesia de RCR Arquitectes

因此,他们指出,“这个计划是通过扩展和收缩一些便捷来制定的,这些区域的边界是微妙的,允许越界,使人产生想象力,并将儿童理解为一种活跃的存在。”走廊——唯一的目的就是来来去去的地方——根本不存在。所有的地方都是教室,因此,为了从另一个点到达另一个点,可以采取许多路径,通过不同的交互,来选择在何处相遇,在何处不相遇。此外,搁置的墙壁上的架子可以移动和转换成教室或循环使用。

另一个项目是巴塞罗那的“Els Colors”幼儿园,由RCR Arquitectes设计。明亮的色彩的使用提高了视觉上的感受,按照一个孩子的观点精心设计。

As a result, they pointed out that “the plan is a territory made by expanding and contracting zones, where borders are subtle, allowing for transgressions, enabling imagination, and understanding children as active beings. The corridors, places which sole purpose is to come and go, don’t exist. All places are classroom expansions and can be used as such. Therefore, to get to one point from another, many paths can be taken, with different interactions, to choose where to meet and where not to” [5]. Also, the shelved walls can be moved and transformed into classrooms or circulations.
Another project is 'Els Colors' Kindergarten, in Barcelona, designed by RCR Arquitectes. The use of bright colors sharpens visual perception, meticulously designed for a child's point of view.

一起来打破学校的常规束缚,建筑也可以是一种教育的工具第16张图片

Zaldibar托儿所和幼儿园|Novo edifício de educação infantil e creche em Zaldibar / Hiribarren-Gonzalez + Estudio Urgari. Image Cortesia de Egoin

以下是我们在Archdaily上发表的一些教育项目:

Below, we have selected educational projects published on Archdaily:


MOPI 小学扩建项目|Primary School MOPI Extension / Mareines+Patalano Arquitetura

一起来打破学校的常规束缚,建筑也可以是一种教育的工具第17张图片



法国长颈鹿儿童看护中心|Giraffe Childcare Center / Hondelatte Laporte Architectes

一起来打破学校的常规束缚,建筑也可以是一种教育的工具第18张图片



斯洛文尼亚Šmartno幼儿园|Šmartno Timeshare Kindergarten / Arhitektura Jure Kotnik

一起来打破学校的常规束缚,建筑也可以是一种教育的工具第19张图片



法国圣德尼的幼儿园和小学|Nursery and Primary School in Saint-Denis / Paul Le Quernec

一起来打破学校的常规束缚,建筑也可以是一种教育的工具第20张图片



越南乡下结形幼儿园|Farming Kindergarten / Vo Trong Nghia Architects

一起来打破学校的常规束缚,建筑也可以是一种教育的工具第21张图片



莫斯科Vashavskoye Hwy 141 幼儿园|Kindergarten Vashavskoye Hwy 141 / Buromoscow


一起来打破学校的常规束缚,建筑也可以是一种教育的工具第22张图片


Notes:
[1] (EBC, 2016)
[2] (GALANTE, Helena; ROSARIO, Mariana. Veja São Paulo, 2018).
[3] (Archdaily. Wish School).
[4] Idem.
[5] Idem.

References
EBC. Babies are born having 5 million more neurons than when adults. Available on: <http://www.ebc.com.br/infantil/voce-sabia/2016/07/bebes-nascem-com-5-vezes-mais-neuronios-do-que-terao-quando-adultos>. Access in Março 28, 2018.
GALANTE, Helena; ROSARIO, Mariana. Architects design bold functioning projects for schools. Veja São Paulo, March 2018. Available on: <https://vejasp.abril.com.br/cidades/escolas-arquitetura-novos-formatos/>. Access in Março 28, 2018.
IBGE. National Household Sample Survey. Aspects of child care of children under 4. 2015. Available on: <https://biblioteca.ibge.gov.br/visualizacao/livros/liv100137.pdf>. Access in Março 28, 2018.
Wish School/ Grupo Garoa. Archdaily Brasil. Available on: <https://www.archdaily.com.br/br/891456/wish-school-grupo-garoa>. Access in Março 28, 2018.

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