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融入地形的游客中心,独具匠心的建筑设计第1张图片

The Weston是由Feilden Fowles设计的游客中心,位于约克郡雕塑公园/The Weston is a new visitor’s centre for Yorkshire Sculpture Park designed by Feilden Fowles. Photography: Peter Cook

约克郡雕塑公园游客中心
Yorkshire Sculpture Park opens visitor centre designed by Feilden Fowles

由专筑网小满,李韧编译

路过约克郡雕塑公园的人们,可能已经留意到起伏的山丘和开阔的草场上新立起了一座建筑。造价340万英镑的Weston游客中心,由伦敦Feilden Fowles建筑事务所设计,建筑堡垒似的镶嵌在景观中,3月20日起面向公众开放。

Weston游客中心,因Garfield Weston基金会的慷慨捐赠而得名,坐落在占地500英亩(约202公顷)的雕塑公园里,项目旧址是一个横跨公园东门高速公路的采石场。游客中心像从独有的地形中生长出来的一样,欣然接受周边的场所,而不是与之环境逆向而行。“我第一次踏勘场地时,遭遇了一场风暴,就躲到旧采石场里避风。”Fergus Feilden回忆道,“我们希望展览馆也能拥有这种庇护感。”

展览空间、餐厅、公共休息厅和商店在660㎡内宽松排布,稍作弯曲以融入地形。设计方案参考了20世纪诸如Robert Morris等艺术家的作品,以及雕塑公园的历史文化,其中包括场地中取代了旧鹿棚的James Turrell大厦,以及Feilden Clegg Bradley工作室2006年的设计项目地铁展览馆,Weston游客中心是闹市里的一方净土,为人们提供新景观。

Those passing the Yorkshire Sculpture Park on the six-lane M11 might notice a new figure amongst the rolling hills and open pastures. Nestled squat into the landscape like a hobbit’s fortress is the spectacularly spritely new £3.4m visitor centre by London-based architecture practice Feilden Fowles, opening to the public on 30 March.
Occupying the site of a former quarry straddling the motorway on the eastern threshold of the 500-acre sculpture park, the Weston – so named for a generous donation from the Garfield Weston Foundation – has grown out of embracing the challenges inherent to its particular geography rather than fighting against them. ‘There was a terrible storm on my first visit, and I took shelter in the old quarry,’ recalls Fergus Feilden. ‘We wanted the gallery to offer that same sense of shelter.’
A new gallery, restaurant, public foyer and shop fit spaciously within its 660sq m expanse that curves slightly to embrace the landscape. Drawing on the work of 20th century land artists like Robert Morris, as well as the sculpture park’s own history – including the James Turrell Skyspace occupying an old deer shelter on the grounds and the Underground Gallery completed in 2006 by Feilden Clegg Bradley Studios – it is a sanctuary from the noisy road and offers new vistas from above the parkland.

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Photography: Peter Cook

从地势低的草地走近展廊时,建筑掩蔽在自然景色之中。旧采石场施工期散落的石块被打造成一条蜿蜒小径,通向建筑的入口。脚力尚佳的游客们可以爬上绿草盈盈的山丘,迎面就是建筑的东面,沿着半圆形的岩石下行,就能看到露台上高高的大门。

野花在展览馆混凝土屋顶上探头探脑,阳光透过屋顶上鱼鳃状的透明塑料板材,撒下锯齿形的光线,光影成趣。可惜的是,人们无法看见屋面精心染白的混凝土。

从外面来看,建筑像一块千年的沉积岩。墙体由混凝土现浇而成,经历了从尺寸调整、颜色选择、阻燃剂比率调配、表面喷洗等一系列细致的步骤。“我们想让一切看起来都没怎么花过心思,但其实这样最费心。”Feilden笑着说。

由花岗岩、石灰岩和砂岩组合而成的骨料,从附近的采石场收集而来,每块的尺寸都比常见的大得多,经过细微着色,使建筑外表有一种朴实而不失优雅的完成感。“在约克郡,我们常常说起岩层的历史。”约克郡雕塑公园项目主管Claire Lilley解释道,“3.5亿年前的石灰岩筑成了一座新展览馆。”

Approaching the gallery from the grassland below, the building is blanketed by nature. Scattered chunks of limestone salvaged from the old quarry during construction frame the winding path leading to the Weston’s entrance. Nimble-footed visitors can scale the grassy hill embracing the building’s east side and descend a semicircle of rocks to meet the tall galley doors.
Wildflowers poke their sunny heads over the gallery’s concrete rooftop, its sawtooth lights guarded by a translucent gill-like plastic panels. The glass-reinforced gills enable enchanting shadowplay, although their painstakingly white-dyed concrete is unfortunately kept out of sight.
From the outside, the Weston appears like a millennia-old sedimentary rock. Its walls are made from bands of cast concrete: the result of a meticulous process of modulating the size and color of aggregate, retardant ratios and jet wash finish. ‘We wanted everything to look uncontrolled, but that took a lot of control,’ grins Feilden.
The aggregate—a combination of granite, limestone, and sandstone—was collected from nearby quarries and kept at a far larger diameter than average, giving the exterior an earthy elegance complemented by the subtle coloration of aggregate. ‘Here at Yorkshire, we often talk about layers of history,’ explains Claire Lilley, director of programming at Yorkshire Sculpture Park. ‘Three-hundred-and-fifty million years of limestone has become a new gallery.’

融入地形的游客中心,独具匠心的建筑设计第3张图片

Photography: Peter Cook

光从每一扇锯齿状的天窗投射进入展廊,球茎状的混凝土自天花板处垂悬下来,定义出了一个新的空间。这里即将举办印度艺术家Thukral和Tagra关于摔跤角斗场主题的开幕展。

Feilden Fowles和环境建筑师Skelly和Couch一起,在展览馆使用了10,000块免烧砖作为自然加湿器,这是英国最早调节湿度的关键技术。此举使展览馆能够保持50%的湿度和15-25℃的温度(与18-20℃的标准室温相比),并已被英国标准协会列为博物馆展览馆类建筑的保护要求。

光线透过黄杉木框的玻璃窗洒在餐厅里,餐厅微微折曲直至建筑下沉的西南端。石膏墙体和混合混凝土地板外观美丽、舒适。

室外的小花园里种植着当地的高山耐寒树种,它们由19世纪约克郡的植物学家Reginald Farrer首次发现。从公园广袤的草场向外望去,Weston游客中心在人迹罕至的地方像定海神针一样吸引着人们。设计方案有明确的目的性,并富有禅意地与周围环境相呼应。毫无疑问,当一位饱受热议的颓废派英国艺术家,在今夏揭开两尊新的铜制雕塑的神秘面纱时,人们更能感受到巧妙设计手法中所带有的那一丝顽皮气息。

Light streams into the gallery from each sawtooth light’s bullnose underbelly, the bulbous concrete forms dropping down from the ceiling to sniff out the new space, which will soon be transformed into a cozy wrestling ring for the inaugural exhibition by Indian artists Thukral and Tagra.
Working with environmental architects Skelly and Couch, the Weston’s gallery utilizes a 10,000 unfired brick labyrinth as a natural humidifier—a radical technology among the first of its kind in the UK. The labyrinth keeps the gallery at 50 per cent humidity and 15-25 degrees celsius (as opposed to the standard 18-20 degrees) and has been signed off by the British Standards Institute’s conservation requirement for museums and galleries.
A timber-glazed frame of douglas fir allows light to stream into the new restaurant, which curves ever so slightly to the building’s sunken southwest end. Lime plaster walls and mixed concrete flooring keep a careful balance of beauty and ease.
Just outdoors, a small garden of local alpine species and hardy succulents takes its cues from species first discovered by the Yorkshire botanist Reginald Farrer in the 19th century. Looking out over the mind boggling expanse of the Park, the Weston visitor centre will behave as a magnet to this oft-untrodden area of the park. The building exudes a clear sense of purpose and a zen-like complacency with its surrounds. Its subtle tricks carry a slight aura of mischief that will no doubt be amplified when a certain decadent and controversial British artist will unveil two new bronze sculptures in the summer.

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项目地点:英国,约克郡雕塑公园,Weston游客中心

ADDRESSThe Weston at Yorkshire Sculpture Park
West Bretton
Wakefield
WF4 4LG
UK

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