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令人震撼的经典,来看看上个世纪建筑大师们的杰作第1张图片


13座有辉煌岁月的建筑
13 Buildings That Have Aged Magnificently

由专筑网芮万里,杨帆编译

人类总是珍视那些能够经受住时间考验的伟大艺术作品。

例如,今年6月是披头士的迷幻音乐专辑《Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band》的50周年纪念,以及Radiohead的反乌托邦的专辑《dystopian》的20周年纪念。

这些纪念日在心理上满足了人们一系列的赞赏和怀旧之情。同样,我们也热衷于赞扬那些长期屹立不倒的具有创新性的建筑。

AIA通过每年设置一个“25年大奖”来向能“经受住时间考验”和“体现设计持久不衰的意义”的建筑致敬。

但是每年只向一座建筑致敬看起来似乎略显小气。

以下是13个经典的现代主义建筑,这些建筑虽然不总是使我们在生活中获得最简单的开始,但是我们仍然对这些建筑投以崇拜之情:

Humanity always cherishes great works of art that stand the test of time.
This June, for example, marks the 50th anniversary of The Beatles’ psychedelic Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, and the 20th anniversary of Radiohead’s dystopian Ok Computer.
These psychologically satisfying birthdays have generated serious appreciation and nostalgia. Similarly, we also love to praise the longevity of innovative architecture.
The AIA bestows an annual “Twenty-five Year Award” to acknowledge projects that have "stood the test of time” and “exemplify design of enduring significance.”
But one project a year seems stingy.
Below are 13 modern classics which, though not always given the easiest start in life, we’ve come to adore:

令人震撼的经典,来看看上个世纪建筑大师们的杰作第2张图片

© Flickr user Leandro Neumann Ciuffo licensed under CC BY 2.0

1.卢浮宫金字塔/贝聿铭

2017年AIA的25年大奖的获得者是贝聿铭所设计的令世人震惊的将金属和玻璃完美结合的卢浮宫金字塔。

这栋建筑修建于1989年,取代了巴黎卢浮宫博物馆拥挤的传统入口,这栋透明的建筑成为了博物馆新的地下入口通道。

由于许多人认为现代主义作品与卢浮宫华丽的法国文艺复兴时期的建筑风格不一致,所以这个项目在其早期的岁月中饱受争议。

但是,由于该项目如预期的那样有效缓解了卢浮宫人员拥挤的困境,因此这座金字塔作品开始深入巴黎人民的心中。

1. Pyramide du Louvre, / I.M. Pei
2017’s AIA Twenty-five Year Award winner is I.M. Pei’s striking steel and glass pyramid.
Built to replace the overcrowded traditional entrance of Paris’s Louvre Museum in 1989, the transparent structure marked the museum’s new subterranean egress channel.
The project’s early years were marred in controversy as many thought the modernist addition to be inconsistent with the Louvre’s ornate French Renaissance architecture.
But, since the project effectively eased the circulation woes as intended, the pyramid worked its way into Parisian hearts.

令人震撼的经典,来看看上个世纪建筑大师们的杰作第3张图片

© Wikimedia user Superchilum licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

2.泛美金字塔/威廉•佩雷拉

这座建筑现在被广泛地认为是有史以来最帅的粗野主义建筑,虽然在最初的时候它总是被人们厌恶。

本世纪中叶的大师威廉•佩雷拉在1969年被委托设计了旧金山这座最高的摩天大厦。

然而这座260m高的大厦却被许多城市的居民认为是以自我为中心的建筑,他们甚至将这座摩天大楼戏称为“佩雷拉留下的尖刺。”

幸运的是,这个戏称的名字并没有被保留下来,而且这座建筑现在成为美国最独特的天际线之一。

在2009年,旧金山纪事报公开表达了对这座高塔的崇拜之情:“这座建筑是最好的建筑标志——它也处于最适合它的位置,并且随着时间的推移会变得更好。”

2. Transamerica Pyramid / William Pereira
What’s now widely considered one of the most handsome brutalist buildings of all time was initially loathed.
Midcentury master William Pereira was commissioned in 1969 to design San Francisco’s tallest skyscraper.
The 260-meter-tall project was seen as egotistical by much of the city’s residents, who would go on to refer to the skyscraper as “Pereira's Prick.”
Fortunately, the name didn’t stick, and the building now anchors one of America’s most distinct skylines.
In 2009, the San Francisco Chronicle confessed its adoration for the tower: "an architectural icon of the best sort--one that fits its location and gets better with age."

令人震撼的经典,来看看上个世纪建筑大师们的杰作第4张图片

© Flickr user Andrew Moore licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

3.花旗集团中心/休•斯塔宾斯+William Le Messurier

休•斯坦宾斯和William LeMessurier设计的花旗集团中心(1977)是在1970年代的纽约出现的更为奇特的一座建筑。它的屋顶倾斜了45度,这主要是为了使用太阳能电池板,悬臂角以及美国首个调整好的质量阻尼器。

通过给建筑设置角柱,工程师们避开了场地角落的一座教堂,还顺便在建设过程中创造了一个小型的街道广场。

然而,这座建筑不同寻常的特点来得并不容易:在1977年竣工以后,建筑本科的学生Diane Hartley 计算出,该建筑在相对常见的风环境下会很容易倒塌。

接下来,业主加强了这座建筑的结构强度,这在当时是一项绝密行动,直到1995年才被公众所知晓。

3. Citigroup Center / Hugh Stubbins + William Le Messurier
With a roof sloped at 45 degrees that was intended for solar panels, cantilevering corners, and the first tuned mass damper in the United States, Hugh Stubbins and William LeMessurier’s Citigroup Center (1977) is one of the more bizarre buildings to come out of 1970’s New York City.
By placing the tower on stilts, engineers conveniently avoided a church at the corner of the site, and created a small street level plaza in the process.
However, the building's unusual features didn't come easily: after its completion in 1977, undergraduate architecture student Diane Hartley calculated that the building could easily collapse under relatively common wind conditions.
What followed was a top-secret operation to strengthen the building's connections which was completely unknown to the public until 1995.

令人震撼的经典,来看看上个世纪建筑大师们的杰作第5张图片

© via Pixabay. Photo by Pixabay user Unsplash in public domain

4.熨斗大厦/Daniel Burnham

建筑师Daniel Burnham在世纪之交的杰作证明了钢结构是建筑设计的未来。

当Burnham知道自己要在曼哈顿市中心的一块非对称的三角形土地上设计建筑时,他告诉自己绝对不能使用传统的砖石材料来建造建筑。

砖石材料的强度太低以至于地板上的墙壁会厚得让空间无法使用。

Burnham将钢结构框架和非承重的砖石表面结合在了一起。

尽管人们普遍都会担心这栋钢结构的摩天大厦会在风中轻易地被吹倒,但是熨斗大厦(1902)取得了胜利并且成为了纽约的象征。

4. The Flatiron Building / Daniel Burnham
Architect Daniel Burnham’s turn-of-the-century masterpiece proved that steel construction was the future of design.
When presented with an asymmetrical triangular plot of land in midtown Manhattan, Burnham knew that he couldn’t use traditional masonry construction.
Stone’s material strength was so low that the walls on the bottom floors would be thick enough to render the space unusable.
Burnham concocted a steel framed design with a nonstructural stone facade.
Despite the widespread concern that a steel skyscraper would simply blow over in the wind, the Flatiron Building (1902) emerged a triumph, and has become an icon of the Big Apple.

令人震撼的经典,来看看上个世纪建筑大师们的杰作第6张图片

© Wikimedia user Ashley Crum licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

5. 滨海城塔 / 贝特朗•戈德伯格

贝特朗•戈德伯格在马利纳城的芝加哥河畔设计的高容积率的乌托邦-粗野主义的高层建筑仍然是西方世界最高密度的住宅项目之一。

这两栋混凝土高楼旨在成为“城市中的城市”,并且经常被认为推动了美国城市在战后高层住宅发展的浪潮。

这个具有创新性的项目是美国第一个使用塔式起重机的项目并且也是第一个使用露天螺旋式停车库的项目。

芝加哥的摇滚乐队Wilco通过他们在2002年发行的唱片《Yankee Hotel Foxtrot》赞美了马利纳城的永垂不朽,并且在专辑的封面展示了这个循环的如“玉米穗”般的建筑。

5. Marina City Towers / Bertrand Goldberg
Bertrand Goldberg’s ultra-efficient utopian-brutalist towers of Marina City on the Chicago riverfront remain one of the highest-density housing projects in the western world.
The concrete towers were intended to serve as a “city within a city” and are often credited with spurring a wave of post-war residential high-rise development in American cities.
The innovative project was the first in the United States to employ the use of a tower crane and include an open-air spiral parking garage.
Chicago rock band Wilco immortalized Marina City through the album artwork of their acclaimed 2002 release Yankee Hotel Foxtrot, which featured the Loop’s "corn cobs" on its cover.

令人震撼的经典,来看看上个世纪建筑大师们的杰作第7张图片

© Wikimedia user Staib licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

6.玻璃屋/菲利普•约翰逊

菲利普•约翰逊设计的玻璃屋获得了1975年AIA的25年大奖,这栋建筑是现代主义设计的奇迹。

它同密斯•凡•德•罗设计的范斯沃斯住宅一样,1949年的住宅被证明是一种国际风格住房类型的主要推动力。

由于它大面积地使用了玻璃并且依靠附近的植物提供私密性,这栋住宅至今仍然看起来非常地优雅别致。

6. The Glass House / Philip Johnson
The winner of the AIA’s 1975 Twenty-Five Year Award, Philip Johnson’s Glass House is a marvel of modernist design.
Along with Mies van der Rohe’s Farnsworth House, the 1949 residence proved a major boost for the international style as a housing genre.
Due to its extensive use of glass and reliance on nearby foliage as privacy, the residence still looks chic.

令人震撼的经典,来看看上个世纪建筑大师们的杰作第8张图片

© Flickr user Jason Taellious licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

7.萨克生物研究学院/路易斯•康

路易斯•康在1965年设计的这座生物研究所在1992年获得了AIA的25年大奖。

在1959年,路易斯•康被Jonas Salk 医生委托设计一座“智力衰退研究”的建筑,而Jonas Salk本身则是小儿麻痹症疫苗的发明者。

项目的设计相当独特和别致,这是一座卓越的研究机构,它的一侧濒临太平洋,而另一侧是加州大学圣地亚哥的分校。

7. Salk Institute for Biological Studies / Louis Kahn
Louis Kahn’s 1965 Biological research facility is also an AIA Twenty-Five Year Award winner, taking the prize in 1992.
Kahn was commissioned to design an "intellectual research retreat" in 1959 by Dr. Jonas Salk himself, the inventor of the polio vaccine.
Kahn’s picturesque final design is still a preeminent research facility flanked by the Pacific on one side and UC San Diego on the other.

令人震撼的经典,来看看上个世纪建筑大师们的杰作第9张图片

© Wikimedia user LERA Engineering licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

8.中国银行大厦/贝聿铭

贝聿铭设计的中国银行大厦是1990年代香港第一批改变这座城市的摩天大厦之一。

这栋建筑黑白相间的LED照明方案结合它漂亮的突出的四面体结构给予了该项目独特的外观,并且在21世纪大部分高层建筑中这栋大楼仍然相当突出。

8. Bank of China Tower / I.M. Pei
I.M. Pei’s Bank of China Tower was the first of a slew of 1990s Hong Kong skyscrapers to transform the city.
The building’s black and white LED lighting scheme combined with its nifty tetrahedral extrusion logic give the project a unique look, and still stands out, towering over most of the city’s 21st-century buildings.

令人震撼的经典,来看看上个世纪建筑大师们的杰作第10张图片

© via Wikimedia. Photo by Wikimedia user Dong L. Zou in public domain

9.汉考克大厦/贝聿铭

贝聿铭屡次获得25年大奖,但是他于1976年在波士顿设计的摩天大楼的初次亮相却并没有这么顺利。

由于这栋建筑使用了史无前例的玻璃表面,当时人们对于它的安装方式和所能承受的风荷载并不熟悉,因此,在早期,一些窗户被从高层建筑上吹落并且掉落在周围的建筑和汽车上。

在一片混乱之中,临时的木板被钉在了建筑结构上以填补空白,以至于这座建筑获得了“三合板宫殿”的称谓。

但是在四十年之后,在完全更换了建筑玻璃表面之后,这个项目成为了波士顿最高的建筑并且惊人地成为了玻璃幕墙建筑的里程碑。

9.John Hancock Tower / I.M. Pei
I.M. Pei’s Twenty-five Year Awardwinning 1976 Boston skyscraper did not debut smoothy.
Due to the unfamiliarity of its unprecedented glass facade, high winds, and questionable installation practices, some of the early windows were blown off of the high-rise and onto surrounding buildings and cars.
In the chaos of this failure, temporary wooden panels were tacked onto the structure to fill the gaps, gaining the building the nickname the “plywood palace.”
But four decades later, and after a total replacement of the building's glass facade, the project stands as Boston’s tallest building and an incredible milestone in glass curtainwall facades.

令人震撼的经典,来看看上个世纪建筑大师们的杰作第11张图片

© Flickr user Gavin Firkser licensed under CC BY 2.0

10.马来西亚石油双塔/西萨•佩里

西萨•佩里设计的双子塔摩天大楼在1996年被建立起来时成为了世界上最高的建筑。

这个大胆的设计以一座天桥,双层电梯和细长的塔尖为特点。

尽管这栋建筑只享有世界最高建筑的称号了5年,但是它们仍然是有史以来世界上最高的“双子”建筑。

10. Petronas Towers / César Pelli
Cesar Pelli’s twin tower skyscrapers were the tallest buildings in the world when they were erected in 1996.
The daring design featured a skybridge, double stacked elevators, and slender spires.
Even though the towers only held the title of world’s tallest for half a decade, they are still the tallest two "twin" buildings ever constructed.

令人震撼的经典,来看看上个世纪建筑大师们的杰作第12张图片

© Flickr user Andrew Seles licensed under CC BY-ND 2.0

11.Sheats Goldstein 住宅/约翰•劳特纳

来自加利福尼亚的约翰•劳特纳的设计为动作电影中的反派角色们的住所提供了完美的取景场地:1998年的《谋杀绿脚趾》,以及在《贝弗利山庄》中 Sheats Goldstein 住宅作为了这部色情小说中的主要人物Jackie Treehorn的在Malibu的府邸。

这座建筑也被认为是约翰•劳特纳最引人注目的设计,Sheats Goldstein住宅已经被翻新并且增加了夜总会,办公室,巨大的网球场和James Turrell的光线充足的房间。

这座1963年的住宅最近被洛杉矶艺术博物馆收购,并且计划对它进行翻新和记录并且为游客提供独特的参观空间。

11.Sheats Goldstein Residence / John Lautner
This South-Californian John Lautner design makes the perfect abode for motion picture antagonists: in 1998’s The Big Lebowski, the Beverly Hills Sheats Goldstein house plays the Malibu mansion of a pornography kingpin that goes by the name of Jackie Treehorn.
Often considered his most striking design, the Sheats Goldstein residence has since been refurbished with an additional nightclub, office, infinity tennis court, and James Turrell light room.
The 1963 residence was recently acquired by the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, which plans to refurbish, document, and give tours of the unique space.

令人震撼的经典,来看看上个世纪建筑大师们的杰作第13张图片

© Flickr user lawrence_baulch licensed under CC BY 2.0

12.萨伏伊别墅/勒•柯布西耶

位于巴黎郊区的由勒•柯布西耶设计的萨伏伊别墅已经破损严重,并且准备对它大部分进行拆除。

这座1931年的建筑挑战了当时的装饰艺术,并且作为国际风格的建筑第一次涉足了这一领域,同时也证明了勒•柯布西耶提出的“现代建筑五要素”的宣言。

在1963年和1985年一系列的修复工程使得该建筑恢复了它原有的辉煌。萨伏伊别墅是目前乐高建筑最畅销的设计套件之一。

12. Villa Savoye / Le Corbusier
Located on the outskirts of Paris, Le Corbusier’s Villa Savoye was rundown and slated for demolition for much of its existence.
Erected in the height of art deco, the 1931 structure stands defiantly as one of the field’s first forays into the international style, and a proof of concept for Le Corbusier’s “five points” architecture manifesto.
An extensive series of restorations in 1963 and 1985 returned the building to its original glory. Currently, Villa Savoye stands as one of Lego Architecture’s best selling design kits.

令人震撼的经典,来看看上个世纪建筑大师们的杰作第14张图片

© Wikimedia user Markus Leupold-Löwenthal licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

13.东京都国会大厦/丹下健三

丹下健三在1990年设计的这栋摩天大楼仍然是东京最壮观的建筑之一,这栋错综复杂的建筑被分为两个对称具有相同高度的“山峰”。

这位日本的建筑师将该项目作为平衡了现代与传统的作品。

虽然大型建筑推动了钢结构和玻璃幕墙结构的发展,但是这栋建筑在完成的时候是为了使其像两栋被分开的哥特式教堂一样。

这栋建筑立面的图案被用来模仿了日本典型住宅中的屏风板。

13. Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building / Kenzō Tange
Kenzō Tange’s 1990 skyscraper still stands as one of Tokyo’s most imposing buildings, its intricate footprint resolving into two symmetrical peaks of identical height.
The Japanese architect envisioned the project as a balance between modernity and tradition.
While the massive building pushed the bounds steel and glass construction, the finished structure was intended to resemble the two divided towers
of a Gothic cathedral.
The facade patterns were used to mimic screen paneling in typical Japanese residences.


出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。

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