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呼吁和平!——一组卫星图像揭示那些饱受战争的古老建筑文化遗产第1张图片

伊拉克,萨马拉考古城/Samarra Archaeological City, Iraq. Image © Deimos Imaging

从天空中看6大世界濒危遗产
6 Endangered World Heritage Sites as Seen from Space

由专筑网李韧,韩平编译

底格里斯河和幼发拉底河之间的古美索不达米亚平原是人类的一大起源,也称作“两河之间的土地”,是人类文明的摇篮,至少这是一个主要发源地。考古发现在这个肥沃的新月地带,是农业的最早起源地,文字和宗教、政府和社会秩序都在此诞生。

当今,这里大部分属于伊拉克、科威特,而叙利亚、土耳其以及伊朗只占据很小的部分,这些都是历史地域,这些国家,甚至整个中东,都是宝贵的古代珍宝的家园。然而,这些文化遗址正面临着巨大的威胁,因为这里已经陷入了持续不断的战争冲突中。因此,联合国教科文组织将这些场所列入濒危的世界遗产名录之中,希望国际社会能够共同努力来挽救这些濒临灭绝的古代遗产。

为了强调这一消息,Earth Observation公司发布了在这六处叙利亚、伊拉克和也门濒危的世界遗产的卫星图片。该图像是由卫星Deimos-2拍摄,于2014年发布,这是一些高分辨率、75cm /像素全色锐化的图像。

Born between the Tigris and the Euphrates, ancient Mesopotamia, "the land between two rivers," is considered the cradle of human civilization or, at least, one of its main birthplaces. Archaeological discoveries place in this fertile crescent the earliest origins of agriculture, the birth of writing and the first religions, governments and social orders.
This historical land corresponds to most of the current Iraq and Kuwait, as well as to smaller parts of Syria, Turkey and Iran. Not only these countries, but the whole Middle East in general, is home to invaluable ancient treasures. However, a great number of the cultural sites there are faced with major threats, as they have been caught up in the middle of ongoing conflicts that are ravaging the region. As a consequence, UNESCO included several sites in the List of World Heritage in Danger, in the hope that the international community could join in an effort to save these endangered properties.
To reinforce this message, the Earth Observation company Deimos Imaging has released satellite images of six World Heritage sites in danger in Syria, Iraq and Yemen. The images were captured by the satellite Deimos-2, launched in 2014 and designed for cost-effective, dependable very-high-resolution Earth Observation applications, providing 75cm/pixel pan-sharpened images.

呼吁和平!——一组卫星图像揭示那些饱受战争的古老建筑文化遗产第2张图片

叙利亚,巴尔米拉/Palmyra, Syria. Image © Deimos Imaging

叙利亚,巴尔米拉

巴尔米拉位于大马士革市的东北部,也被称为沙漠中的“明珠”。 这座城市建于公元前2000年,是叙利亚沙漠中的绿洲。自古以来巴尔米拉一直保存得很好,直到2015年5月这片绿洲被ISIS所占领,这片土地被夷为一片废墟,古代庙宇、廊柱,宏伟的拱门、雕像和坟墓则被一个个摧毁。

Palmyra, Syria
Palmyra, also known as the “pearl of the desert,” is located northeast of Damascus. Founded in the second millennium BC, the city reached its peak between the 1st and 3rd centuries AD as an oasis of date palms and gardens in the Syrian desert. For 1,500 years, Palmyra remained one of the best-preserved sites from antiquity, until ISIS seized the site in May 2015, razing ruins from it, blowing up the magnificent Temple of Bel and the Temple of Baal Shamin, ancient colonnades, arches, statues and even tombs.

呼吁和平!——一组卫星图像揭示那些饱受战争的古老建筑文化遗产第3张图片

叙利亚,骑士堡/Crac des Chevaliers, Siria. Image © Deimos Imaging

叙利亚,骑士堡

公元1031年,这座中世纪的城堡建成了,在1170年经历地震毁坏后重建。它坐落在俯瞰叙利亚平原的600米山脊上,它反映了十字军东征时期东西方建筑之间的相互影响与融合。2013年,联合国教科文组织将其列入世界濒危遗产名录。在叙利亚冲突中,这里至少经历了三次的炮击破坏。

Crac des Chevaliers, Syria
Built for the first time in 1031, this medieval castle was rebuilt and completed again in 1170, after an earthquake damaged it. It is located on a 600-meter ridge overlooking the Syrian plains and it illustrates the exchange of influences between Eastern and Western architectures at the time of the Crusades. UNESCO included it in the List of World Heritage in Danger in 2013. During the ongoing Syrian conflict, it has been reportedly damaged by shelling at least three times.

呼吁和平!——一组卫星图像揭示那些饱受战争的古老建筑文化遗产第4张图片

伊拉克,萨马拉考古城/Samarra Archaeological City, Iraq. Image © Deimos Imaging

伊拉克,萨马拉考古城

萨马拉成立于836年,是从突尼斯延伸到中亚的阿巴斯王朝的第二首都。这里保护得最好的遗产是阿拔斯王朝的建筑和城市规划,同时最大的清真寺和螺旋形宣礼塔也很好地保存下来。由于伊拉克的冲突状况,当地政府无法更好地保存这些遗产,因此在2007年萨马拉也被列入了濒危名单。

Samarra Archaeological City, Iraq
Founded in the year 836, Samarra was the second capital of the powerful Abbasside Empire that extended from Tunisia to Central Asia. It is the finest conserved example of the Abbasside’s architecture and city planning, and it preserves two of the largest mosques and the most unusual spiral-shaped minarets. Samarra was included on the list of endangered sites in 2007, given that the state of conflict in Iraq does not allow the responsible authorities to assure its protection and management.

呼吁和平!——一组卫星图像揭示那些饱受战争的古老建筑文化遗产第5张图片

伊拉克,哈特拉/Hatra, Iraq. Image © Deimos Imaging

伊拉克,哈特拉

作为阿拉伯王国的第一个首都,哈特拉是一个于公元前二世纪初至三世纪末建立的古老城市。其厚重的墙壁和塔楼,它抵御住了116年和198年的罗马人入侵,由于ISIS造成的损害,2015年7月联合国教科文组织把它列入濒危世界遗产名单之中,在2015年3月,ISIS甚至还对这里进行了破坏。

Hatra, Iraq
Capital of the first Arab Kingdom, Hatra was an ancient fortified city built around the end of the 3rd or beginning of the 2nd century BC. Thanks to its thick walls and towers, it withstood Roman invasions in 116 and 198 AD UNESCO inscribed it on the List of World Heritage in Danger in July 2015, following the damage inflicted by ISIS. The group had bulldozed the place in March, 2015.

呼吁和平!——一组卫星图像揭示那些饱受战争的古老建筑文化遗产第6张图片

萨那古城/Old City of Sana'a. Image © Deimos Imaging

萨那古城

萨那古城坐落在一个山谷中,当地人民至少在这里生存了2500年,在第七和第八世纪萨那古城成为主要的伊斯兰中心。这里有第一个建在麦加和麦地那的大清真寺。此外,旧城的许多房屋都是一些独一无二的建筑,这些建筑是装饰着几何图案的塔式住宅。在持续的冲突中,旧区的一些历史性房屋被摧毁。

Old City of Sana'a
Located in a mountain valley and inhabited for more than 2,500 years, the Old City of Sana’a became a major Islamic center during the 7th and 8th centuries. Its Great Mosque was the first one built outside Mecca and Medina. Moreover, many of the houses within the old fortified city present a unique architecture with its many-storeyed tower-houses decorated with geometric patterns. During the ongoing conflict, strikes have destroyed some of these historic houses in the old quarter.

呼吁和平!——一组卫星图像揭示那些饱受战争的古老建筑文化遗产第7张图片

希巴姆古城/The Old Walled City of Shibam. Image © Deimos Imaging

希巴姆古城

老希巴姆城是哈德拉毛王国的首都,它以其杰出的泥砖房屋而被世人所知,这里被称为沙漠中的“曼哈顿”。周围的防御墙是古老城市规划的代表,这是一个多层建筑。尽管它还没有受到更严重的破坏,但这一宝贵的文化遗产仍然受到持续的威胁。

The Old Walled City of Shibam
The Old Walled City of Shibam was the capital of the Hadramawt Kingdom after the destruction of the earlier capital Shabwa in 300 AD. Known for its remarkable sun-dried mudbrick-made tower houses, it has been described as the “Manhattan of the desert.” Surrounded by a fortified wall, it is one of the oldest and best examples of urban planning based on multi-storeyed construction. Even though it hasn’t been damaged by the conflict yet, this precious cultural heritage remains under constant threat.


感谢Deimos Imaging与UrtheCast Corp.,文字由Deimos Imaging提供。
   
Thanks to Deimos Imaging and UrtheCast Corp. Text provided by Deimos Imaging.


出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。

        
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