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解救难民!丨摩苏尔住房竞赛获奖方案第1张图片
Courtesy of The Rifat Chadirji Prize

摩苏尔住房竞赛的获胜者解决了伊拉克住房危机
Winners of the Mosul Housing Competition Address the Housing Crisis in Iraq

由专筑网李韧,曹逸希编译

在伊拉克,大约有900000人在解放后返回摩苏尔市,然而当地却是一片狼藉。因此,Tamayouz Excellence奖项和Rifat Chadirji奖项计划通过设计竞赛的方式唤起世界人民对于伊拉克所面对的社会问题进行关注,并提出恰当的解决方案。

今年的竞赛主题是“重建伊拉克解放区:摩苏尔住房设计竞赛”,本次竞赛的要求是参赛者设计合理适用、适应性强的经济适用房。在竞赛中,主办方共收到来自42个国家的223份设计方案。其中排名前20的设计作品将在安曼、巴格达、波士顿、贝鲁特、米兰、伦敦等城市巡回展出。以下作品是本次竞赛中前三名获奖者的设计方案,以及七名荣誉提名奖获得者的设计方案。

Rifat Chadirji奖项由伊拉克建筑师、理论家及知名作家Rifat Chadirji博士创立。无论是理论著作还是实际项目,Chandirji的作品都对当今社会的发展产生了重大影响。Tamayouz Excellence奖项的创始人Ahmed Al-Mallak说:“这些基于人道主义的构思理念非常感人,这种竞赛实实在在地反应了社会困难且有争议的一面,但也为未来的发展指引了方向。现在竞赛已经结束,但我们的重建工作才刚刚开始。”

In Iraq, as an estimated 900,000 people return home to the city of Mosul after liberation, many of the returnees will only find desolation. The Tamayouz Excellence Award, Rifat Chadirji Prize focuses on bringing global awareness as well as global talent toward addressing the social issues Iraq faces through design.
This year’s theme, “Rebuilding Iraq’s Liberated Areas: Mosul’s Housing Competition” asked applicants design prototypes for affordable housing. The winning housing proposals selected by the jury are practical, inspiring, and scalable, while adding capacity and density. The competition received 223 submissions from 42 countries. The Top 20 entries will be featured in a traveling exhibition that will visit Amman, Baghdad, Boston, Beirut, Milan, and London.  Read on to learn about the three winning proposals and seven honorable mentions.
The Rifat Chadirji Prize got its namesake from Iraqi architect, theorist and author, Dr Rifat Chadirji. Chandirji’s work, both in thought leadership and built projects, has influenced the built environment and holds significance today. The founder of the Tamayouz Excellence Award, Ahmed Al-Mallak said, “all contributing ideas responding to the humanitarian crisis is heartwarming. This competition had the value of reflecting difficult and controversial situations but through a reasonably optimistic lens. Although the competition finished, our work starts now to help organizations responsible for the reconstruction efforts.”

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一等奖:《安置房的重建工程》,作者:Anna Otlik,地区:波兰,弗罗茨瓦夫

Anna Otlik的安置房重建工程项目考虑了摩苏尔市的直接需求,不仅考虑了900000人民的住所问题,也考虑了社会及公共服务的长期需要。该项目的第一阶段是意识的形成过程,通过让人们内心社区感的回归从而明确项目的发展节点,设计者运用了矩阵的形式,让这些居住区域能够按照一定的规模再生长。评审团认为,该方案“从住宅的原始发展阶段到其成熟阶段,设计者都充分地考虑了当地的实际情况”。 Otlik的设计灵感来自传统的伊拉克建筑,并适当地结合了室外空间,评审团认为:“该方案与城市肌理密切结合。”

First Place: Re-Settlement by Anna Otlik of Wroclaw, Poland
The tessellating and evolutionary project, Re-Settlement by Anna Otlik, takes into consideration the immediate needs of the city of Mosul, as the anticipated 900,000 displaced citizens return, but also longer-term needs for community and public services. The first phase of re-settlement is an informal process, with catalyst points determined organically by the returning community. With a matrix of modules, the settlements can then grow, densify, and evolve through the proposed rule-set. The judges panel states that Re-Settlement “considers the situation at all the relevant scales and stages, from initial emergency housing to a full-fledged neighborhood.” Otlik’s design takes inspiration from the vernacular Iraqi architecture, with the incorporation of outdoor spaces “it complements the fabric and the density of the city,” as described by the Judging Panel.

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二等奖:作者:Mariia Chorna & Oleksandr Kostevych,地区:波兰,弗罗茨瓦夫

该方案由波兰矿业冶金学院的两名学生合作完成,“该方案让人产生亲切感,并且具有多样性与适应性。设计者鼓励自主建造的建筑方式,而非机械化的工业策略,这是一个具体化的设计方案。”评审团成员说。该方案运用了5x5x3米的网格基础设施,然后让居住者来自行规划。这种让居住者自己创建家园的方式不仅有助于提升社区的审美多样性,同时还大大增加了人们的归属感。每个家庭可以按照实际人数来使用这些基础模块,在本方案中,设计师所规划的家庭单元的适用人数最少为3人,最多为8人。

Second Place by Mariia Chorna & Oleksandr Kostevych of Wroclaw, Poland
“It has a kind of familiarity. It has got variety and expandability. It encourages self-build, but not manufacturing. It is a building approach, not industrial. It brings it to a personal level,” commented the Judging Panel. Two students of the Wroclaw University of Science and Technology came together to make this proposal. It begins with a 5x5x3 meter grid infrastructure provided by the city, that then will be fitted-out by the tenants. Having the individual returnees build their own partitions creates an aesthetic diversity but also creates a sense of ownership. The infrastructure allows family units to take on as many modules as needed for the number of occupants. The team designed fit-outs for these units for as few as 3 and as many as 8 occupants.

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三等奖:《五座农业桥》,作者:Vincent Callebaut建筑事务所,地区:法国,巴黎

该方案是为了重建原先跨越底格里斯河的五座摩苏尔桥,原有的桥体被恐怖组织ISIS摧毁。设计师参考了古巴比伦的空中花园,Vincent Callebaut建筑事务所的目的是为“饱受战争折磨的难民们带来一丝希望”。新的桥梁不仅可以居住,还可以用于农业生产,在该项目中,设计师运用了许多被动系统,从而实现可持续发展,并且提高居住者的生活质量。评委会认为该方案“满足摩苏尔地区的两大迫切需求,即住房和桥梁修复,并通过传统的居住式桥梁,来呼应未来的发展与建设”。

Third Place: The Five Farming Bridges by Vincent Callebaut Architectures of Paris, France
The Five Farming Bridges is a proposal to rebuild the 5 Mosul bridges that crossed the Tigris River which were destroyed to encircle ISIS. With a reference to the hanging gardens of Babylon, this proposal “offers a vision of a positive future to restore the self-confidence of war refugees” as described by Vincent Callebaut Architectures. The new bridges are to be inhabited and contain urban farms and agriculture for food production. The design proposes many passive systems for a sustainable future and improved quality of life for the tenants. The Judging Panel selected the Five Farming Bridges because “this proposal directed to two of Mosul’s most immediate needs: housing and the reconsideration of its bridges, and yet at the same time uses the historical precedent of an inhabited bridge and yet speaks to the future in its morphology and construction”.

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荣誉提名:《摩苏尔大家庭》,作者:Ali Nashwan、 Fatima Ehsan,地区:伊拉克,摩苏尔

方案《摩苏尔大家庭》建议针对不同需求的家庭采取不同的方式,目的是为那些无家可归者、孤儿以及老人提供住房,同时为人们创建一个健康的、有益未来发展的社会环境。

Honorable Mention: The Big Mosulian Family by Ali Nashwan and Fatima Ehsan of Mosul, Iraq
The Big Mosulian Family proposal takes a different approach, providing a home for those that lack family -- the homeless, orphaned, and elderly. The project aims to provide a network for the community to raise future generations in a healthy society.

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荣誉提名:《废墟之上》,作者:Mina Saadatfard Ali Arzaghi、Parham Ostovar & Zahra Haghi,地区:伊朗,Shiraz

《废墟之上》从摩苏尔的断壁残垣入手,建议在一片废墟中重建家园,在这里设有街边集市,从而复兴当地的商业市场,同时为社区空间带来邻里感与归属感。评审团认为:“在一片废墟中重建家园,并且将废墟继续保留,把这段并不美丽的记忆溶解在未来的美好生活中,这个想法很有创造力。”

Honorable Mention: Over Ruins by Mina Saadatfard Ali Arzaghi, Parham Ostovar & Zahra Haghi of Shiraz, Iran
Over Ruins responds to the rubble of the previous Mosul, and offers a housing complex that is raised, to allow for a street level market, to revive local businesses, and create a sense of belonging and community. The Judging Panel adds, “building the market over the ruins, which allows of the the ruins to remain, so there is the incorporation of memory into everyday life which makes a powerful idea [...]”

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荣誉提名:《人民公社》,作者:Marek Rytych、Natalia Ciastoń & Tomasz Hryciuk,地区:波兰,华沙

在方案《人民公社》中,设计师从传统阿拉伯建筑中提取灵感,设计了4x4米的网格系统,其中包括院落、空中花园和住房单元。

Honorable Mention: People’s Habitat by Marek Rytych, Natalia Ciastoń & Tomasz Hryciuk of Warsaw, Poland
People’s Habitat takes solutions from Arab architecture to create modules for the 4x4 meter grid modular system which incorporates patios, elevated gardens, and housing units.

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荣誉提名:作者:Mostafa Alani,地区:美国

在该方案中建筑师解决了两个阶段的问题,Alani认为应当从源头与后期改造分别入手,首先应立即解决住房问题,然后再随着城市的发展拓展城市规模。

Honorable Mention by Mostafa Alani of the United States
Taking the larger problem, and addressing it in two phases, Alani’s proposal is comprised of the Seeds, and the Metamorphosis. The Seeds addresses immediate relief with housing necessities, while the second phase, Metamorphosis addresses the larger urban scale, as the city develops.

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荣誉提名:《没有围墙的城市》,作者:Tay Othman,地区:美国,旧金山

该方案主要目的是消除城市内部的各项障碍,从而为摩苏尔创建一个更加安全、并且充满活力的空间环境。建筑师通过方案表达了对战争的强烈反对,该项目位于Al Kindy军事基地,具有住宅与公共空间等多重用途。

Honorable Mention: A City without Fences by Tay Othman of San Francisco, United States
A City without Fences focuses on removing barriers within the city, visually and physically to create a safer for vibrant Mosul. As a strong anti-war statement, the project is proposed on the Al Kindy military site, and repurposes the site for mixed-use residential with amenities and shared public spaces.

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荣誉提名:《TIE》,作者:Triplicity建筑事务所,地区:德国,斯图加特

为了创建适应性强的社区,建筑师计划运用原有的城市框架建造新的住宅系统。该方案使用了ISIS的基础设施,并将它们用于城市的交通以及公共事业。

Honorable Mention: TIE by Triplicity Architects of Stuttgart, Germany
In order to created a resilient and independent community, the new development will build off the remaining patterns the city has left behind through the framework. The proposal uses the infrastructure from ISIS and adapts it for urban needs such as transportation and utilities.

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荣誉提名:《建造家园》,作者:Philip Turner、Andrew Weston & Chris Williamson,地区:英国 伦敦

该项目由Weston Williamson及其合作伙伴共同完成,《建造家园》为迫在眉睫的住房危机提供了解决方案,并且就城市的长期发展提供了再生策略。在该方案中,建筑师重点关注了住宅单元建造的适应性能力,例如通过战争遗留下的废墟瓦砾来建造建筑的墙体。

Honorable Mention: Becoming Home by Philip Turner, Andrew Weston & Chris Williamson of London, United Kingdom
Designed by Weston Williamson + Partners, Becoming Home is a type of masterplan strategy to address the imminent needs for building homes while also responding to the long-term needs of the city to regrow. The proposal focuses a lot of attention on the skills available the the buildability of the units, such as a gabion walls constructed with rubble.


出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。


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