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美国各州的古老建筑
The Oldest Building in Every US State

由专筑网李韧,王帅编译

美国的历史丰富多彩。从新墨西哥的古村落,到佛罗里达州早期西班牙殖民地,再到阿拉斯加的俄罗斯人商人,以及19世纪的犹他州传教士,美国的每个州似乎都有着属于自己的历史传统。

通过建筑也许是快速了解历史的方式,大神们绘制出了美国各州的古老建筑,其中有农舍、豪宅、堡垒、教堂,每座建筑都能让我们感受到当地的历史气息,我们也能从中了解到当时的居民生活方式。

这些建筑有的只是昙花一现,例如内达华州的Old Mormon堡垒,在犹他战争之后的几年里就被荒废,而有的建筑已屹立上百年,例如密苏里州的Louis Bolduc住宅,这座建筑建造于1798年,其业主为法籍加拿大人,而他们的后人一直在这里居住到上世纪40年代。

另外,还有一些建筑令人赏心悦目,比如爱达荷州的Cataldo Mission,整座建筑完全不使用钉子进行固定。另外,还有夏威夷的新英格兰风格的Ka Hale Lāʻau,而后来在使用中才发现,这类建筑并不适合建造于炎热地区。

无论如何,这些建筑都是美国历史的重要组成部分,也许你能从中发现惊喜。

The United States is a comparatively young country, but one with a rich and diverse history. From the ancient villages of New Mexico’s Pueblo people and the early Spanish settlers in Florida, to the Russian traders of Alaska and 19th-century missionaries in Utah, each of the 50 states has its own story to tell.
There’s no better way to trace this history than through buildings, which is why we’ve mapped out the oldest intact building in each US state. Whether they’re cottages, grand mansions, fortresses or churches, these historic sites offer us a glimpse into the early days of the regions. They help us to understand what brought early inhabitants to the state – and what their lives might have been like.
Some of the buildings we’ve chosen only had a brief moment in the spotlight, like Nevada’s Old Mormon Fort, abandoned just a few years after the Utah War. Others have built up centuries of history, such as the Louis Bolduc House in Missouri. It was built for French-Canadian settlers in 1798, and their descendants continued to occupy it right up until the 1940s.
Some are impressive feats of construction, such as the wattle-and-daub Cataldo Mission in Idaho. Not a single nail was used in the entire building! Others, though, were less successful. Ka Hale Lāʻau in Hawaii was designed in and brought over from New England, with only a later realization that the structure was completely unsuitable for comfortable living in a tropical climate.
Whatever the case, these structures are all an important part of their respective state’s past. So get exploring – you might discover some buildings you didn’t expect!

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阿拉巴马

项目建造于1808年,并且在2007年修复,建筑原先位于Ardmore,而后移动到Burritt,并且后来被列入国家历史名录。

Alabama
Built in 1808 and restored in 2007, the log cabin was moved from its original location in Ardmore to Burritt on the Mountain and is now listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

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阿拉斯加

这座建筑原先名为“Magazin”,而现在名为Baranov博物馆,是阿拉斯加的俄罗斯移民建造而成,当时用作俄罗斯美国跨国公司的物资存储。

Alaska
The Magazin, now the Baranov Museum, dates from the Russian colonization of Alaska, when it was used as a storage facility for the Russian-American Company.

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亚利桑那

这座建筑是美国西班牙殖民建筑的一大代表,它仍然由Franciscan Order负责管理,并且当前十分受欢迎。

Arizona
Considered one of the best examples of Spanish colonial architecture in the U.S., the complex is still in the hands of the Franciscan Order and is a popular pilgrimage site.

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阿肯色州

Woodruff印刷店是William Woodruff的商业事务所,阿肯色州的第一份报纸就由他印刷而成,现在这里也成为了阿肯色州历史博物馆的展览部分。

Arkansas
The Woodruff Print Shop was the business premises of William Woodruff, who printed Arkansas’ first newspaper, and is now part of the Historic Arkansas Museum.

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加利福尼亚

该项目由来自西班牙的Franciscans负责,后来也用于早期好莱坞电影的拍摄。

California
The Mission was founded by Franciscans from Spain and has since been used as a backdrop for early Hollywood films like The Two Brothers.

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科罗拉多州

这是位于Mesa Verde的最大住宅,项目名为悬崖宫殿,大约能容纳100人,并且常常用于庆典。

Colorado
The largest dwelling in Mesa Verde, Cliff Palace was home to an estimated 100 Pueblo people and thought to have been used often in ceremonies.

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康涅狄格州

这是新英格兰时期的古老石屋,为英国清教徒社区的领导人Reverend Henry Whitfield而建造,从1904年起,这座建筑便用于展览。

Connecticut
New England’s oldest stone house was built for Reverend Henry Whitfield, the leader of an English Puritan community and the founder of Guilford. It’s been a museum since 1904.

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特拉华州

建筑为2层,建造于新瑞典的最后一位州长Johan Risingh的在职时期,这座建筑的建造目的是抵御进攻。

Delaware
This two-story structure dates from the time of the last Governor of New Sweden, Johan Risingh, who ordered its construction to defend against attacks.

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华盛顿州

这座石屋是华盛顿的古老建筑,是革命前建筑的一大代表。

Washington, DC
Old Stone House is DC’s oldest structure on its original foundation and serves as an example of pre-Revolutionary architecture.

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弗罗里达州

这是一座防御堡垒,由弗罗里达州的西班牙统治者建造,主要用于保护圣奥古斯丁(美国地名),这座城市当时仍然属于西班牙殖民地。

Florida
This defensive fort was ordered by Florida’s Spanish Governor to defend the city of St Augustine at a time when it was still part of the Spanish Empire.

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佐治亚州

这座建筑代表了国家殖民历史,项目由英国军事人员Major William Horton负责建造,由佐治亚州十分常见的混凝土建造而成。

Georgia
A reminder of the state’s colonial history, this house was built by British military aide Major William Horton and is constructed of tabby, a unique concrete that was common in Georgia.

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夏威夷州

Ka Hale Lāʻau的意思是“木屋”,这是一座预制木架结构,在新英格兰时期设计建造,但忽视了夏威夷的当地气候,其业主为传教士。

Hawaii
Ka Hale Lāʻau, meaning the ‘wood house,’ was a pre-cut wooden frame structure designed in New England with little consideration for the Hawaiian climate, but nonetheless housed missionaries for about 60 years.

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爱达荷州

这座建筑由Nez Perce和Flathead部落成员要求建造,建造方式为传统的编织和抹灰,甚至完全没有钉子。

Idaho
Built at the request of members of the Nez Perce and Flathead tribes, the Cataldo Mission was constructed using an old wattle and daub method – without using a single nail.

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伊利诺斯州

法国防御堡垒de Chartres的建造目的是为了防御当地Meskwaki人,后经大规模重建,这座建筑仍然矗立。

Illinois
French fortification Fort de Chartres was built to defend against the local Meskwaki people, and while largely reconstructed, its original powder magazine buildings still stand.

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印第安纳州

这是印第安纳州的4个法律中心之一,1811年的会议也在这里召开,现在则在印第安纳国家历史场地中展出。

Indiana
One of Indiana’s four original legislative centers, the building was used for meetings in 1811 and is now on display at the Indiana Territory State Historic Site.

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爱荷华州

这座小木屋原先的使用者是Dubuque家庭,但后来两次搬到了现在的场所。

Iowa
This log cabin originally housed a settler family in Dubuque, but has since been moved twice to settle at its current location on the Mathias Ham House estate.

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堪萨斯州

这是一座著名的军事综合大楼,Fort Leavenworth同时也是堪萨斯州最古老的建筑,主要用作单身军官宿舍,而后来是Andrew Reeder的办公室。

Kansas
Most famous as the home of the Military Connections Complex, Fort Leavenworth also hosts Kansas’s oldest building, the Rookery, built as bachelor officer quarters and later used as the office of Governor Andrew Reeder.

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肯塔基州

这座建筑有着悠久的历史,使用者为William Clark姐妹,位于Appalachians西部场地,同时也是Lewis和 Clark的考察地点。

Kentucky
This historic estate, once owned by the sister of William Clark, is the only site west of the Appalachians to have sheltered the famous Lewis and Clark expedition.

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路易斯安那州

这座建筑建造于法国殖民时期,据说为走私人员Jean和 Pierre Lafitte用于走私活动。

Louisiana
Built in French Colonial style, it’s said that this building was used by privateers Jean and Pierre Lafitte as a cover for their illegal smuggling activities.

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缅因州

这是殖民时期最为古老的建筑,由英国殖民者建造而成,用于抵御当地美国人和法国人的攻击。

Maine
This is one of the oldest examples of a colonial guard house, built by English settlers to protect from Native American and French attacks.

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马里兰州

这座古老的教堂由英国殖民者所建造,建筑场地为85英亩,建筑有着典型的英国特征,例如西侧展览以及马里兰捐助者的盾徽。

Maryland
This old church was constructed by English settlers on an 85-acre plot and contains a number of typically English features, including its West Gallery and the coat of arms of Maryland’s benefactor, Queen Anne.

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马萨诸塞州

该项目为清教徒Jonathan Fairbanks及其家人建造,这大概是美国最古老的木结构建筑。

Massachusetts
Constructed for Puritan Jonathan Fairbanks and his family, this is the oldest timber-frame house verified by dendrochronology in the US.

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密歇根州

这座石材建筑是Mackinac碉堡综合体的一部分,在美国独立战争期间为英国士兵所用。

Michigan
This substantial stone building is part of the wider Fort Mackinac complex and housed British soldiers during the American War of Independence.

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明尼苏达州

国家文物保护机构将Fort Snelling列为“国家文物”,建筑的最初建造目的是用于强调1812年战后的法律实施。

Minnesota
Designated a ‘national treasure’ by the National Trust for Historic Preservation, Fort Snelling was set up to enforce law and order following the War of 1812.

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密西西比

这座古老的西班牙堡垒的名字来源于一名西班牙士兵的住所,但事实上这代表了靛青色植物种植园。

Mississippi
The Old Spanish Fort draws its name from a spell as the fortified residence of a Spanish soldier, but it in fact began life as an indigo and wax myrtle plantation.

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密苏里州

这座建筑有着明显的法式特征,例如建筑的四坡顶,其业主为法籍加拿大人及其家人。

Missouri
French features like the hip roof are clues to this house’s origins; it was built for French-Canadian settlers and remained in the same family until the 1940s.

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蒙大纳

这座旧堡垒曾是Mullan Road和 Upper Missouri皮草贸易路线的最后一个前哨基地。

Montana
This is all that remains of the old fortress, which was once the final outpost of the Mullan Road and the Upper Missouri fur trading route.

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内布拉斯加州

该建筑原先使用者是一位猎人,建筑位于密苏里平原,而后于1850年搬至贝尔维尤,有一户家庭在那里一直居住至20世纪50年代。

Nebraska
The cabin was built as a trappers’ residence in the Missouri floodplains and was later moved in 1850 to Bellevue, where it continued as a family home until the 1950s.

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内华达州

摩门教传教士在盐湖城和洛杉矶之间设计建造了这座土坯砖堡垒,这座建筑在犹他战争时期逐渐废弃。

Nevada
Mormon missionaries established this adobe-brick fort at the midpoint between Salt Lake City and Los Angeles, but abandoned it in the Utah War.

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新罕布什尔州

Richard Jackson住宅位于25英亩的住宅基地之中,建筑是典型的美式风格,建筑师运用了大量的木材,同时设计了较大的空间。

New Hampshire
Once part of a 25-acre homestead, the Richard Jackson House has a noticeably American style, with the use of wood and large spaces.

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新泽西州

这座小木屋由芬兰移民建造,建筑师运用了橡木,业主一直在这里居住至1918年。

New Jersey
This log cabin was built by Finnish settlers with close-fitting oak logs and was lived in until 1918.

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新墨西哥

该项目被联合国教科文组织列入世界遗产名录,至今仍然有人居住于此,这座建筑建造于700至1000年之前,建造者为当时的陶斯人,材料为土坯砖,其中能够容纳150人。

New Mexico
A UNESCO World Heritage Site and still inhabited today, Taos Pueblo was built 700-1000 years ago with adobe brick by the Taos people and is home to 150 residents.

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纽约

这座建筑的建造者是一名木匠,同时这也是纽约最早的殖民时期住宅。

New York
Although predated by a carpenter’s shed, the Old House is the earliest standing example of a colonial house in New York State.

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北卡罗来纳州

建筑原先是一座单层殖民住宅,在19世纪扩建了半层。

North Carolina
This house was originally a one-story colonial structure, with the half story added on in 19th century.

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美国北达科他州

美国皮革公司代理人Norman Kittson委托建造了这座贸易地点,从而充分地利用红河山谷的贸易市场。

North Dakota
The American Fur Company’s agent Norman Kittson established this trading post to take advantage of the local Red River Valley’s prosperous fur trade.

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俄亥俄州

这座建筑的源头并不明确记载,但大多数人们认为它由法籍加拿大探险家Pierre Le Moyne d’Iberville建造。

Ohio
Though no one knows for sure, it’s believed that this structure was built by French-Canadian explorer Pierre Le Moyne d’Iberville.

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俄克拉荷马州

这些兵营是Gibson堡垒中的古老建筑,同时也是较为重要的前哨基地,也是美国血泪之路的最后一个地点。

Oklahoma
These barracks are the oldest structure in Fort Gibson, a significant outpost that served as a final stopping point on the infamous Trail of Tears.

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俄勒冈州

这座小木屋可以追溯到Lewis和Clark Expedition时期,建造着是俄罗斯殖民者,而后来由Catherine the Great将其搬至Willamette山谷。

Oregon
This cabin predates the famous Lewis and Clark Expedition and is thought to be the work of Russian settlers, sent to the Willamette Valley by Catherine the Great.

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宾夕法尼亚州

项目位于新瑞典殖民区,这也是斯堪的纳维亚木建筑的一大代表,并于1980年被列入国家历史名录。

Pennsylvania
Built as part of the New Sweden colony, this is an interesting example of a Scandinavian log house and was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980.

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罗得岛州

这座红色的小木屋原先是一座私人住宅,而后于1673年改造为酒馆,罗德岛会员大会也在这里举办。

Rhode Island
Originally a private residence, this distinctive red, timber building was converted into a tavern in 1673 and has also held the Rhode Island General Assembly.

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南卡罗来纳州

建筑由粉红色的百慕大石材建造而成,因此有着独特的外观形态,这也是一座酒馆,而近期则用作艺术作品展览。

South Carolina
Pink Bermuda stone gives a distinctive appearance to this house, which has also been a tavern and, most recently, an art gallery.

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南达科塔

Sisseton堡垒现在位于国家历史公园,由Major General Pope要求建造,目的是防止殖民人员进入该地区。

South Dakota
Fort Sisseton, now a State Historical Park, was constructed under the orders of Major General Pope to protect settlers and surveyors moving into the territory.

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田纳西州

这是田纳西州的第一座设置有玻璃窗的住宅,该项目专为当地立法人员John Carter设计建造。

Tennessee
The first house in Tennessee to have glass windows, the Carter Mansion was built for settler and legislator John Carter.

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德克萨斯州

该项目位于阿拉莫之战的遗址中,建筑的最初用作当地美国人学习基督教教义的场所,而后来这里则驻扎着墨西哥和德州士兵。

Texas
Site of the famous Battle of the Alamo, the Alamo Mission was originally intended to be a place of Christian education for local Native Americans. It later garrisoned both Mexican and Texan soldiers.

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犹他州

摩门教人员在Antelope岛上建造了这座土坯建筑,Garr家族在这里居住到上世纪80年代。

Utah
Mormon pioneers established this ranch with adobe construction on Antelope Island, where it continued to be a Garr family home until the 1980s.

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佛蒙特州

这座建筑为Joseph Caruso住宅,有着典型的烟囱形态,这里居住者Brattleboro小镇边界的一批定居者。

Vermont
Also known as the Joseph Caruso house, this typical early center-chimney Cape Cod house was built by William Harris, one of the first settlers in the frontier town of Brattleboro.

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弗吉尼亚

这座古老的教堂已经经过6次重建,其大约建造于1639年,在1906年,其正厅也经过了改建。

Virginia
This old church has been amended or rebuilt six times. While the tower dates back to 1639, the nave was reconstructed in 1906.

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华盛顿

这是Hudson’s Bay公司在美国所保留下来的为数不多的作品,该建筑是一座谷仓,同时也是木框架结构代表。

Washington
The historically significant granary is one of the few surviving Hudson’s Bay Company structures in the US, and also an example of a rare post-on-sill timber construction.

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西弗吉尼亚

这座建筑为格鲁吉亚风格,其其他部分已被拆除,在内战时期它用作医院,而后来则用作休息区和餐厅。

West Virginia
This Georgian-style stone house was once part of a fortified complex, and though it was used as a hospital during the Civil War, it’s since been turned into a bed and breakfast.

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威斯康星州

Wakely住宅为典型的木框架对称结构,建造者是美国纽约某家庭。

Wisconsin
Wakely Home has a classic wooden-frame symmetrical construction and was built for a family of pioneers, who came from New York and were in the lumber business.

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怀俄明州

Laramie堡垒位于俄勒冈交通路线的交叉口,曾经是皮毛交易场所,而现在得以保留下来。

图片:NetCredit

Wyoming
Once an important fur trading post, Fort Laramie sits at one of the best crossing points on the Oregon Trail and is now preserved by the National Parks Service.

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