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建筑总避免不了时代的更迭,但背后的故事让人津津乐道第1张图片

Courtesy of The United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (in public domain)

13座轰然倒塌的建筑物,描绘了我们对建筑不断变化的态度
13 Tragically Demolished Buildings that Depict Our Ever-Changing Attitudes Toward Architecture

由专筑网邢子,韩平编译

通过照片、绘画和不朽的故事,被拆毁或完全翻新的建筑物被称为“失去的建筑”。无论是出于经济或审美原因,旧的建筑总是被新的所替代,而这些往往会让一个地区或者一些建筑师感到遗憾。 但被拆毁的建筑物也讲述了不断变化的故事 ——通常他们远远优于实际保存的建筑物。 随着建筑景观在我们周围不断变化,重要的是认识到我们的过去,即使它的痕迹已经从现实世界中消失了。

Immortalized through photographs, drawings, and stories, buildings that have been demolished or completely renovated exist in the realm known as “lost architecture.” Either for economic or aesthetic reasons, the old gets torn down for the new, often to the disdain of community members and architects. But demolished buildings tell a story about the ever-changing politics of preservation—and often, they tell it far better than buildings that were actually preserved ever could. As the architectural landscape continues to change around us, it is important to recognize our past, even if its traces have been eliminated from the physical world.


宾夕法尼亚车站(1910 – 1963)

建筑总避免不了时代的更迭,但背后的故事让人津津乐道第2张图片

Image via Library of Congress

1963年纽约市宾夕法尼亚火车站的拆除是历史上最具争议的一个拆除案例。 由麦肯、米德和怀特在1910年设计的火车站,为许多游客留下了进入国际城市的第一个印象。 它有高高的天花板,古典的柱子和粉红色的花岗岩饰面。 虽然部分地下基础设施得到保护,但外部建筑被拆除,为麦迪逊广场花园和两宾广场提供场地。 这个前所未有的国际争议行为激起了人们对拆迁活动的考量,刺激了城市的建筑保护工作的进行。 就在两年之后,纽约地标法案通过,使许多建筑物免于遭受类似的命运。

Pennsylvania Station (1910 – 1963)
The 1963 demolition of New York City’s Pennsylvania Station was one of the most contested in history. The Beaux Arts building, designed in 1910 by McKim, Mead, and White, was the railroad station that provided the first point of entry into the international city for many visitors. It featured high ceilings, classical columns, and pink granite. Though parts of the underground infrastructure were preserved, the exterior was torn down to make way for Madison Square Garden and Two Penn Plaza. The unprecedented international outrage spurred by the demolition energized architectural preservation efforts in the city. Just two years later, the New York Landmarks Law passed, saving many buildingsfrom a similar fate.


纽约世界大厦(1890 - 1955年)

建筑总避免不了时代的更迭,但背后的故事让人津津乐道第3张图片

Image via Wikimedia (public domain)

在报纸影响这个世界的高潮时期,纽约世界大厦于1890年建立,是同名出版物的出版社所在地。 由George B. Post设计,由报纸大亨约瑟夫•普利策(Joseph Pulitzer)委托,该建筑物超过三一教堂的尖顶,成为城市最高的城市。 但是,这座建筑在1955年被拆除,以容纳扩大的布鲁克林大桥的入口。 该建筑最具代表性的残余物是奥托•海因吉克(Otto Heinigke)设计的彩色玻璃窗,目前挂在哥伦比亚大学新闻学院。

New York World Building (1890 – 1955)
At the height of the influence of the newspaper, the New York World building was erected in 1890 to house the publication of the same name. Designed by George B. Post and commissioned by newspaper magnate Joseph Pulitzer, the building became the tallest in the city by surpassing the spire of the Trinity Church. But the building was demolished in 1955 to accommodate the expanded car ramp entrance to the Brooklyn Bridge. The most iconic remnant from the building is a stained glass window designed by Otto Heinigke that currently hangs in the Columbia University School of Journalism.


荷兰海牙舞蹈剧院(1987 - 2015年)

建筑总避免不了时代的更迭,但背后的故事让人津津乐道第4张图片

© Hans Werlemann via Metropolis Magazine

作为Rem Koolhaas及其公司OMA在1987年建成的第一个重大项目,荷兰海牙舞蹈剧院展现了他的想象力和设计方法。 最引人注目的是弯曲屋顶的结构创新和礼堂的声学设计。 该项目的建成价为800万美元,由于其节俭,项目也受到好评,尽管这样的便宜的品质最终导致了在2015年的公众不满中拆迁。后现代建筑曾经站立的地点很快就会成为一个新的文化中心与表演艺术综合体。

Netherlands Dance Theater (1987 – 2015)
As the first major project built by Rem Koolhaas and his firm OMA in 1987, the Netherlands Dance Theater in The Hague was a testament to his imaginative design approach. Most notable was the structural innovation of the curved roof and the acoustics of the auditorium. Built for 8 million dollars, the project was also lauded for its frugality—though the qualities that allowed it to be so cheap ultimately led to public dissatisfaction and demolition in 2015. The site where the postmodern building once stood will soon be home to a new cultural center with a performing arts complex.


电话大楼(1898-)

建筑总避免不了时代的更迭,但背后的故事让人津津乐道第5张图片

Image via Wikimedia (public domain)

虽然没有完全被拆除,但旧金山的1898年电话大楼在20世纪30年代进行了大规模的门面装修,使其与原貌大不相同。 其独特的装饰,如装饰带和拱形窗户被替换为一个未装饰的混凝土塔。 甚至建筑物顶部的圆顶被拆除。 由James和Merritt Reid最初设计的建筑物的改造是为了使二十世纪的建筑物现代化而完成的。

The Call Building (1898–)
Though not completely demolished, San Francisco’s 1898 Call Building underwent massive facade renovations in the 1930s that left it unrecognizable. Its distinguishing ornamentation such as decoratives friezes and arched windows was replaced in favor of an unadorned concrete tower. Even the dome at the top of the building was removed. The remodeling of the building, originally designed by James and Merritt Reid, was done in an effort to modernize the building for the twentieth century.


佐尔实验室(1970 - 1999年)

建筑总避免不了时代的更迭,但背后的故事让人津津乐道第6张图片

via La Gaceta

由于它与经典的亚洲建筑形式在视觉相似,通常被称为“宝塔”,Jorba实验室是Miguel Fisac理性主义设计原则的一个例子。 设计于1970年,位于马德里,以其偏移的方形地板而闻名根据光的质量创建了一个有多个重叠读数的建筑物。 1999年,开发商决定在现场建立一座较大的建筑物,使经济利益最大化。 公众绝大多数都出来捍卫了这样一个建筑,这一举动非常令人吃惊的,但不幸的是,这并没有改变它的命运。

Jorba Laboratories (1970 – 1999)
Oftentimes referred to as “The Pagoda” because of its visual similarities to the classic Asian building form, the Jorba Laboratories were an example of Miguel Fisac’s rationalist design principles. Designed in 1970 and located outside of Madrid, the campus was most known for its tower that featured offset, square shaped floors. The overlapping created a building that had multiple readings depending on the quality of light. In 1999, developers decided it would be in their best economic interest to erect a larger building on the site and the original was demolished. The public overwhelmingly came out in defense of the building, which was remarkable for such a contemporary work, but unfortunately this was not enough to change its fate.


范德比尔特房屋(1870s至1920s)

建筑总避免不了时代的更迭,但背后的故事让人津津乐道第7张图片

Image via Wikimedia (public domain)

美术学院派建筑最优秀的例子是位于纽约第五大道的著名范德比尔特家族的住宅。 在20世纪70年代后期,该家庭委托理查德•莫里斯•亨特(Richard Morris Hunt)等建筑师设计了一座豪宅。 随着镀金时代的到来,许多房屋被拆毁,为今天在第五大道上看到的商业建筑和摩天大楼腾出空间。

Vanderbilt Houses (1870s – 1920s)
Some of the most superior examples of Beaux-Arts architecture were the residences of the famous Vanderbilt family located on New York’s Fifth Avenue. In the late 1870s the family commissioned architects such as Richard Morris Hunt to design their massive mansions. As the Gilded Age came and went, many of the houses were demolished to make room for the commercial buildings and skyscrapers seen on Fifth Avenue today.


普伦蒂斯妇女医院(1975 - 2013年)

建筑总避免不了时代的更迭,但背后的故事让人津津乐道第8张图片

© Wikimedia user Umbugbene licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

Bertrand Goldberg在1975年设计的Prentice妇女医院是结构技术和病人护理架构的创新实践。 九层混凝土塔悬挂在一座五层矩形基座的顶部,这里作为医院的研究所和外科用房。 医院的四面苜蓿叶塔响应了戈德堡的社会学启发计划,并设有一个中央护理站,方便病人进出辐射病房。 然而,西北大学要求建造一个新的生物医学实验室,在漫长的公开辩论后,建筑于2013年被拆除。

Prentice Women’s Hospital (1975 – 2013)
Bertrand Goldberg’s 1975 Prentice Women’s Hospital was an innovative moment in both structural technology and the architecture of patient care. The nine-story concrete tower cantilevered on top of a five-story rectangular base that held the research and surgical programs of the building. The hospital’s four-sided cloverleaf tower responded to Goldberg's sociologically-inspired plan to have a central nursing station that provided easy access to the radiating patient rooms. However, after Northwestern University’s request for a new biomedical lab on the site and a lengthy public debate, it was torn down in 2013.


加里剧场(1891 - 1961)

建筑总避免不了时代的更迭,但背后的故事让人津津乐道第9张图片

Image via Wikimedia (public domain)

作为Dankmar Adler和Louis Sullivan最伟大的作品之一,1891年的Garrick剧院大楼(原名Schiller剧院),拥有1300座位的演出空间,承办过芝加哥最重要的文化活动,是当时城市中最高的建筑之一。剧院的装饰也是独特的沙里文的装饰风格。 随着现场戏剧的流行,这座建筑被转化为电影院,后来又成为电视台。 尽管公众大力维护该建筑物,但该剧院还是在1961年被拆除,并被停车场所取代。

Garrick Theater (1891 – 1961)
Lauded as one of the greatest works by Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan, the 1891 Garrick Theater Building (originally known as the Schiller Theater), featured a 1300-seat performance space that hosted some of Chicago’s most important cultural events. One of the tallest buildings in the city at the time, the theater was also adorned with the unique style of ornamentation Sullivan pioneered. As live theater lost popularity, the building was reincarnated as a movie theater and later a television studio. Despite substantial public efforts to preserve the building, it was torn down and replaced with a parking lot in 1961.


Sutro 浴场(1894 – 1964)

建筑总避免不了时代的更迭,但背后的故事让人津津乐道第10张图片

Image via Wikimedia (public domain)

位于旧金山太平洋附近的旧金山,建于1894年的Sutro 浴场为城市居民提供了大量的游泳设施。 公共浴室的玻璃围墙内设有不同温度的七个泳池。 但由于大萧条的经济困境,业主寻求其他选择,例如溜冰场和高层公寓,1964年该建筑物被拆毁,该地点被遗弃。 Sutro浴场的废墟被列为金门国家游乐区的一部分。

Sutro Baths (1894 – 1964)
Located by the Pacific Ocean near San Francisco, the 1894 Sutro Baths offered a massive swimming facility to city inhabitants. The glass enclosure that held the public bathhouse featured seven pools at different temperatures. Due to financial woes from the Great Depression, the owners sought other options for the site such as an ice-skating rink and high-rise apartments, but in 1964 the building was destroyed and the site was left barren. The ruins of the Sutro Baths are included as part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area.


帝国学院(1893 - 1957年)

建筑总避免不了时代的更迭,但背后的故事让人津津乐道第11张图片

Image via Wikimedia (public domain)

帝国学院于1893年由维多利亚女王在伦敦设立,旨在管理帝国的资产,是维多利亚时代晚期的建筑,由建筑师托马斯•科切特(Thomas Collcutt)完成,是一座代表该国影响力的建筑。 多年来,建筑物的使用被证明是无效率的,并在1965年被拆毁,被英联邦学院大楼(现在位于伦敦其他地方的设计博物馆)所取代。 今天,帝国学院的主塔仍然是伦敦帝国学院校园的一部分。

Imperial Institute (1893 – 1957)
Opened in 1893 by Queen Victoria in London, the Imperial Institute was designed to house the assets from across the Empire. Completed in the late Victorian style, architect Thomas Collcutt aimed to create a building that would represent the influence of the country. Over the years, the use of the building proved inefficient and it was demolished in 1965 to be replaced by the Commonwealth Institute building (which is now home to the Design Museum) located elsewhere in London. Today, the Imperial Institute's main tower still survives as part of the campus of Imperial College London.


伊利县储蓄银行(1893 - 1968年)

建筑总避免不了时代的更迭,但背后的故事让人津津乐道第12张图片

Courtesy of United States Library of Congress's Prints and Photographs division (in public domain)

伊利县储蓄银行位于纽约布法罗,是1893年建成的罗马复兴式建筑。 该银行由George B. Post设计,由红色和粉红色的花岗岩门面构成。 最引人注目的是托马斯•爱迪生参与其电气安装。 作为1968年的市区重建项目的一部分,该建筑物被拆除,并被主广场塔所取代。

Erie County Savings Bank (1893 – 1968)
The Erie County Savings Bank was an 1893 Romanesque Revival building located in Buffalo, New York. The bank, designed by George B. Post, was finished in a red and pink granite facade. Most notable about the building was Thomas Edison’s involvement in its electrical installation. As part of an urban renewal project in 1968, the building was demolished and replaced by the Main Place Tower.


马尔堡 - 布伦海姆酒店(1902 - 1978)

建筑总避免不了时代的更迭,但背后的故事让人津津乐道第13张图片

Image via Library of Congress (public domain)

马尔堡 - 布伦海姆酒店位于新泽西州的大西洋城,是1902年首个使用Hennebique钢筋混凝土系统建成的酒店之一。建筑师Will Price为酒店的设计和装饰提供了西班牙和摩尔人的风格。 虽然通过遗产保护保留了在木板路上突出的圆形地板部分,但其余部分在1978年被拆除。

The Marlborough-Blenheim Hotel (1902 – 1978)
Located in Atlantic City, New Jersey, the Marlborough-Blenheim Hotel is remembered as one of the first hotels to be built using the Hennebique system of reinforced concrete in 1902. The architect Will Price took Spanish and Moorish references for the hotel’s design and ornamentation. Though its rotunda portion that protrudes onto the boardwalk was saved through preservation efforts, the rest was torn down in 1978.


Pruitt-Igoe(1954 - 1972)

建筑总避免不了时代的更迭,但背后的故事让人津津乐道第14张图片

Courtesy of Detroit Publishing Co. collection at the Library of Congress (in public domain)

Pruitt-Igoe于1954年建造,是一个33层的社会住房综合体,旨在创造健康环境给大量低收入家庭。 11层楼的建筑物包括促进社区互动的功能,例如仅在每三层楼停下的电梯。 但它使用后不久就成为社会退化、种族紧张和犯罪的代名词。 尽管许多人指出其架构是其失败的起源,但另一些则指责更大的系统性问题,这为已经延续了几十年建筑的辩论创造了一个讨论话题。 这些建筑在1972年遭到破坏,标志着历史学家查尔斯•詹克斯(Charles Jencks)所说的“现代建筑死亡”的这一天,代表了人们对文化和社会以及住房和建筑的态度转变。

Pruitt-Igoe(1954 - 1972)
First occupied in 1954, Pruitt-Igoe was a 33-building social housing complex designed to accommodate a large amount of low-income families in a healthy environment. The 11-story buildings included features designed to promote community interaction such as elevators that only stopped at every third floor. Soon after its inhabitation, it became synonymous with social degradation, racial tension, and crime. Though many point to its architecture as the origin of its failures, others blame larger systemic issues, creating a touchpoint for a debate that has defined architecture for decades. The destruction of these buildings in 1972, infamously labeled the day that "Modern architecture died" by historian Charles Jencks, represented a shift in cultural attitudes to social housing and architecture.


出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。

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