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你未曾听过的13个奇特的建筑小故事第1张图片


13个令人惊讶的建筑故事,也许你从未听说过
13 Weird, Surprising Architecture Facts You've Probably Never Heard

由专筑网李韧,朱王倩编译

人类的建筑历史可以追溯到10000多年前。在这段时间里,人类对于建筑的需求逐渐提炼成建筑学专业,在这个过程中,出现了许多思维古怪、眼光长远的建筑师。建筑悠久的历史和丰富多彩的人物传记,让世界上充满了许多令人惊讶的建筑故事。从林肯日志到奥运会碟仙占卜板,这里有13个你也许从未听说的建筑故事。

The history of humans building shelters goes back over 10,000 years. Over this time, the human need to build was distilled into the profession of architecture, and in the process it attracted all manner of eccentric, visionary, and stubborn individuals. In light of both architecture's long history and its abundance of colorful characters, it's no surprise that it's full of surprising and unlikely stories. From Lincoln Logs and the Olympics to Ouija boards and 9/11, here are 13 architecture-related facts you may not have previously known.


1、建筑曾经是奥运会的运动项目

你未曾听过的13个奇特的建筑小故事第2张图片

Image via Wikimedia in public domain

在现代奥运会最初的四年里,音乐、绘画、雕塑、文学和建筑领域共有151枚奖牌。Baron Pierre de Coubertin恢复了现代运动会,创立了国际奥委会,他认为艺术是比赛的重要组成部分。后来便有了这样的要求:所有参赛项目必须与体育有关。

1. Architecture Was Once an Olympic Sport
During the first four decades of the modern Olympic Games, 151 medals were awarded for music, painting, sculpture, literature, and architecture. Baron Pierre de Coubertin, who revived the modern games and founded the International Olympic Committee, considered art an essential part of the competition. The one caveat: every submission had to be sports-related.


2、弗兰克•劳埃德•赖特的儿子发明了Lincoln Logs

并不是所有的标志性图案的设计都来源于赖特,Lincoln Logs则是赖特的儿子John Lloyd Wright所发明,这是一位“建二代”。他的设计灵感则来源于父亲赖特的东京帝国饭店横梁下方的联锁。

2. Frank Lloyd Wright's Son Invented Lincoln Logs
Not all iconic Lloyd Wright designs can be attributed to Frank. Lincoln Logs were the brainchild of John Lloyd Wright, son of the legendary architect. An architect in his own right, John was inspired by the interlocking beams of the foundation below Lloyd Wright Senior's Imperial Hotel in Tokyo.


3、由伊斯兰建筑师几百年来使用的Girih 瓷砖,类似数学中的Penrose Tiling,发明于上世纪70年代

你未曾听过的13个奇特的建筑小故事第3张图片

Image © Wikimedia user Pentocelo licensed under CC BY 3.0

彭罗斯瓷砖是以数学家和物理学家罗杰•彭罗斯(Roger Penrose)的名字命名,他在上世纪70年代尝试了一组五种不同形状的瓷砖,从而创造具有特殊几何性质的图案。伊斯兰建筑师在5个世纪以前创造了Girih瓷砖,但直到2007年,物理学家Peter J. Lu和Paul J. Steinhardt才证明了它们与彭罗斯瓷砖有许多共同的数学性质。

3. Girih Tiles, Used By Islamic Architects for Hundreds of Years, Are Mathematically Similar to Penrose Tiling, Discovered in the 1970s
Penrose tiling was named after mathematician and physicist Sir Roger Penrose, who experimented with a set of five differently shaped tiles in the 1970s to create patterns with special geometric properties. Islamic architects created Girih tiles over five centuries ago, but it wasn't until 2007 that physicists Peter J. Lu and Paul J. Steinhardt demonstrated they share many mathematical properties with Penrose tiling.


4、乐高用于制作特殊的砖石建筑

当乐高创始人的儿子Godtfred Kirk Christiansen试图用乐高建出建筑的模型时,发现由于乐高的尺度问题,模型无法成型。这促成了1963年Modulex 的生成,它是一个尺度更小的砖,形体基于完美的立方体,不幸的是,这种小型砖块在20世纪70年代停产了。

4. LEGO Used to Make Special Bricks for Architects
When Godtfred Kirk Christiansen, son of the LEGO founder, tried to make a Lego model of the house he was building, it didn’t come out to scale, because Lego bricks have a 5:6 width-to-height ratio. This led to the creation of Modulex, a much smaller brick that was based on perfect cubes, in 1963. Unfortunately, the bricks were discontinued in the 1970s.


5、林璎(Maya Lin)是中国近代史上最著名的女建筑师的侄女

你未曾听过的13个奇特的建筑小故事第4张图片

Image via Wikimedia in public domain

林徽因是现代中国第一位女建筑师。在丈夫梁思成的帮助下,她在沈阳东北大学建筑系工作。林徽因的侄女林璎(Maya Lin)设计了华盛顿越战纪念碑。

5. Maya Lin Is the Niece of One of the Most Famous Female Architects in Modern Chinese History
Lin Huiyin is considered the first female architect in modern China. Alongside her husband, Liang Sicheng, she helped launch the architecture department at Northeastern University in Shenyang. Maya Lin, who designed the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington DC, is Huiyin's niece.


6、纽约库柏联盟大楼在现代电梯尚未发明之时,就设置有电梯井

1852年,Elisha Otis在伦敦第一次展示了他的安全电梯,并于1857年在E V Haughwout大楼安装了第一座乘客电梯。然而,此时的电梯都并不包含现代电梯井,为了防止故障的方式,它们都直接开敞着。1859年,Peter Cooper对电梯技术充满信心,他在库柏联盟大楼里设置有一个圆柱形的轴,后来则安装了Otis电梯。

6. The Cooper Union Foundation Building in NYC Included an Elevator Shaft, Even Though Modern Elevators Hadn't Been Invented Yet
Elisha Otis first demonstrated his safety elevator in 1852 in London, and installed the first successful passenger elevator in the 5-story E V Haughwout Building in 1857. However, neither of these developments included a modern shaft; they were left open in case of failure. Putting his faith in elevator technology, in 1859 Peter Cooper had a cylindrical shaft included in the Cooper Union Foundation Building, with a custom-made elevator later added by Otis.


7、一个法国邮递员花了33年的时间,用他每天收集的石头建造了“理想宫殿”

你未曾听过的13个奇特的建筑小故事第5张图片

Image © Wikimedia user Otourly licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

法国的邮递员Ferdinand Cheval花了33年时间,在送件的过程中收集各式各样的石头,但不是什么石头都收集,都是一些形态特殊的硬砂岩。利用这些石头,他在Hauterives建造了一座奇特的建筑Le Palais Idéal。这座建筑极具艺术性,并于1969年被指定为文化地标。

7. A French Postman Spent 33 Years Building the "Ideal Palace" With Stones He Collected During His Daily Round
French postman Ferdinand Cheval spent 33 years picking up stones while delivering mail—not just any stones, mind you, a special type of hardened sandstone molded by time and water into wondrous shapes. With these stones he built the fantastical Le Palais Idéal, in Hauterives. The building is considered a prime example of naïve art, and in 1969 was designated a cultural landmark.


8、“模拟人生”最初是作为一个建筑模拟器而设计


2000年初推出的“模拟人生”是当最受欢迎的电子游戏之一。它就像一个生活的模拟器,原概念的游戏更像是模拟城市:玩家会设计一座房子,以及各种性格特质的人物。

8. "The Sims" Was Originally Designed as an Architecture Simulator
The Sims, which debuted in 2000, is one of the most popular video games around. But before it became a life simulator, the original concept had the game working more like SimCity: players would design a house, and autonomous characters would test the design's success.


9、帝国大厦因观景台获得的收入超过了85层的办公楼

你未曾听过的13个奇特的建筑小故事第6张图片

Image © Flickr user jiuguangw licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

帝国大厦可能是世界上最著名的办公大楼,但其观景平台才是真正的摇钱树。2013年,该大厦的所有者帝国地产信托公司成为一家上市公司,这意味着他们的季度和年度盈利报告将被公开。2014年,该大楼的两个观景台产生了1亿1100万美元(占总收入的40%)的收入,其办公空间租赁仅净赚1亿400万美元(占总收入的37%)。

9. The Empire State Building Generates More Revenue from its Observation Decks than from its 85 Floors of Office Space
The Empire State Building might be the most famous office landlord in the world, but it's the view from the 102-story skyscraper that's the real moneymaker. In 2013, the building's owner Empire State Realty Trust became a publicly-traded company, meaning that their quarterly and yearly earnings reports are a matter of public record. In 2014, while the building's two observation decks generated $111 million (40% of total revenue), its office space leases netted just $104 million (37% of total revenue).


10、911世界贸易中心恐怖事件的其中一位领导人是一名建筑师


Mohammed Atta驾驶着第一架飞机撞击世界贸易中心北楼,他有着建筑与城市规划的学历。他认为在开罗和其他古代中东城市建造高层建筑是西方国家的无耻行为,因为这会毁掉当地的特征。

10. One of the Leaders of the 9/11 World Trade Center Attack Was an Architect
Mohammed Atta, who crashed the first plane into the North Tower of the World Trade Center, had degrees in architecture and urban planning. He considered the construction of high-rises in Cairo and other ancient Middle Eastern cities a shameless embrace of the West that would destroy their character.


11、辛辛那提俄亥俄市有一个从未使用过的废弃地铁系统

你未曾听过的13个奇特的建筑小故事第7张图片

Image © Wikimedia user Jonathan Warren licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

隐藏在辛辛那提街道下面的是美国最大的废弃隧道和车站。这里最初是城市有轨电车的升级系统,但该项目在第一次世界大战中断了,后来因为通货膨胀和政治内斗而放弃使用。

11. The City of Cincinnati, Ohio Has an Abandoned Subway System Which Was Never Used
Hidden beneath the streets of Cincinnati is the largest abandoned tangle of tunnels and stations in the United States. Proposed in the 1910s as an upgrade of the city's streetcar system, the project was interrupted by World War I and later abandoned because of inflation and political infighting.



12、碟仙占卜板公司主管从自己建造的屋顶上摔下身亡


19世纪出现了许多类似于碟仙占卜板的设计作品,这个设计的名字与专利都归属于Kennard Novelty公司。这家公司的主管William Fuld在占卜板的销售过程中发了财,并且开了许多新工厂,1927年,Fuld从他自己的工厂的屋顶上摔下身亡。

12. The Supervisor of the Ouija Board Company Fell to His Death From the Roof of a Factory that the Board Told Him to Build
While many designs for Ouija-style boards emerged in the 19th century, the most popular design, and the name, was patented by Kennard Novelty Company. The company's supervisor William Fuld made his fortune selling the boards, and opened up a number of new factories; in 1927 one of these factories, which Fuld claimed the board told him to build, was the scene of the business magnate's death when he fell from its roof.


13、中国长城的建设时间比基督教的兴起时间更长

你未曾听过的13个奇特的建筑小故事第8张图片

Image © Flickr user travelourplanet licensed under CC BY 2.0

中国的第一个皇帝秦始皇(公元前221年—206年)为了防止侵略者,于3世纪开始修建长城,直至8世纪,整个建设工程持续到了1878年,这意味着,从原来的防御工事开始计算,长城的建造时间已经超过2600年了。

13. More Time Passed Between the Start and End of Construction on the Great Wall of China than Between the Start of Christianity and Today
The idea of a single, unified wall to protect China from invaders began when Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China (221–206 BC) connected various fortifications built between the 8th and 3rd centuries. Construction continued through 1878, meaning that, including the original fortifications, the wall was under construction for over 2,600 years.


出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。
        
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