网站地图关于我们

查看相册 View Gallery
社会动荡难以解决?森之精灵也将带来和平第1张图片


学生项目-干燥森林都市主义- Ishaan Kumar
Student Project | Dryfo (Dry Forest) Urbanism | Ishaan Kumar

由专筑网pilewyj,李韧编译

“干燥森林都市主义”(Dryfo Urbanism)这一项目改变了哥伦比亚卡塔赫纳(Cartagena)地区的混乱现状,当地有许多非正式聚落居民,建筑师通过设计的方式让该地区形成以景观为主的有组织体系。设计方案中,建筑师并没有强行添加主观的现代主义或独立住宅的观点,而是充分聆听了居民的真正所需。现有的牧地植被的分区和人类的发展是城市化的首要目的,另外,系统化的干燥森林种植方式不仅仅能够保留未来的流线畅通,还能建立居民的自豪感,并且强化曾经被人们所忽视的生态系统。这个提议设想了未来卡塔赫纳地区的发展,届时,森林是人们的瑰宝,并且也将成为社区互动和集体记忆的主要组成部分。

Dryfo Urbanism transforms the sprawling patchwork of informal settlement in Cartagena, Colombia for an organized system where the landscape is the protagonist. Instead of imposing the modernist visions of individuals or isolated social housing projects over the expansion zone of the city, this proposal reveals both the voice of the territory and its inhabitants. The lines of existing vegetation of the grazing land once used to separate lots and people are leveraged as the departure point of urbanization. Coupled with this structure is a systematic planting of the dry forest to not only reserve future mobility corridors but establish a sense of pride and appropriation with an undervalued ecosystem. This proposal imagines a future Cartagena where the dry forest is treasured and celebrated as the main component of communal interaction and collective memory.

社会动荡难以解决?森之精灵也将带来和平第2张图片


而在近年来,卡塔赫纳(Cartagena)地区的规划者并没有经过长远的考虑。许多人仅仅着眼于埃尔森特罗(El Centro)历史城市及其海滩所能带来的经济效益,发展投资忽视了社会现状,即这是一个由70%非正式群落组成的城市。考虑到城市正面临着不断上升的海平面和稳定的人口增长率(1.2%)等诸多问题,卡塔赫纳地区在未来30年内人口数量便能够翻一番。虽然当前的规划认为,Ciénega De La Virgen东部区域的牧场是未来的城市发展区,但是这样的“远见”并非有迹可循。“干燥森林都市主义”方案则充分利用现有的植被,精心策划的种植形式,从而形成形态各异的绿植空间。展望未来,景观是公共领域的重要组成部分,这一提议为公民的荫凉空间和视觉享受都奠定了基础。

当代哥伦比亚作家William Ospina认为这片区域有些支离破碎,并称之为“没有任何一根线能将这些分散的珍珠串成一条项链”。几十年来,除了土著人和住在山地和沿海地区的居民,迄今为止,哥伦比亚的人们还没有意识到自己是世界上第二大生物多样性国家,这里的生物多样性不仅仅包含植物和动物,还包括丰富的自然文化。

Cartagena has suffered from a great deal of short-sightedness. Focused solely on its economic engine of the historic city of El Centro and its beaches, the investment of the city have blatantly ignored the harsh realities of a city that is composed of 70% informal settlements. Combining the displacement of a city facing alarming sea level projections and a steady population growth rate of 1.2%, Cartagena will eventually have to accommodate a population that will double in a span of only 30 years. Although current plans designate the grazing land of the eastern part of the Ciénega De La Virgen as the urban expansion zone, there are no rules, codes or timetables for such implementation. Dryfo Urbanism proposes to structure the territory through a leveraging of the existing vegetation, interweaving an orchestrated planting of the dry forest providing the framework for informal and formal infill. Projecting a future where the landscape is an integral part of the public realm, this proposal establishes the grounds for citizens to enjoy the benefits of shade and undeniable beauty.
Reflecting on a historically fragmented nation, contemporary Colombian writer William Ospina defines it as “dispersed pearls which no thread has managed to transform into a necklace.” From decades of casting aside the indigenous people and polarizing mountainous and coastal citizens, Colombia has yet to achieve a self-acknowledgement of what it means to be the second most biodiverse country in the world. Biodiversity does not consist of just flora and fauna but encompasses both nature and the plethora of culture enriching it.

社会动荡难以解决?森之精灵也将带来和平第3张图片


卡塔赫纳地区也具有哥伦比亚不断分裂的趋势。为了整合城市的分散部分,我们需要通过四个步骤来达到目标。首先,卡塔赫纳人重视他们的树木,因为大多数非正式住房从后院发展到街道的过程中,不可缺少的第一个元素便是树,这一行为显示了加勒比海炎热气候的稳定。通过谷歌地球环绕视角,人们可以很快地识别建筑之间的植被,与其他没有绿植的街道形成鲜明对比。如果没有政府的帮助,那些曾经的私人场所便永远无法共享。

当地政府还希望能够增加地区发展的规模,因为他们想以此来增加树木覆盖面积。在2017年二月,卡塔赫纳市的城市林业规划(Urban Forestry Plan)公布了一个计划,指出树木的比例为每17人才只有一棵树。这些统计数字大大低于每人拥有4-6棵树的考量。为了满足基本的每人一树,每人必须种植至少16棵树。

在卡塔赫纳地区,当地第三种“珍珠”则来自于干燥森林。作为一个生态系统,在美洲已经有66%的土地转化为其他土地用途,卡塔赫纳可以对不同的威胁和挑战做出不同的反应。通过对其进行有关全球价值和审美的适当教育与科普,卡塔赫纳地区可以通过将干燥的森林融入到其市民的日常生活中,从而扭转当地林地逐渐减少的趋势。

Cartagena shares the repetitive trend of Colombian fragmentation. Seeking the dispersed pearls of the city itself, we can identify four elements crying for a larger agenda and vision. To start, people in Cartagena value their trees as most informal housing develops from the backyard to the street with the first element being a tree. This simple act shows a valorization of shade in the hot Caribbean climate. Roaming around Google Earth, one can quickly identify the vegetation between houses with stark contrast with the streets where barely any is present. Without any governmental assistance, what gets prized in individual households is never translated into the public realm.
Adding to this local scale initiative is governmental desire to increase the tree canopy. In February of 2017, The Urban Forestry Plan for the City of Cartagena published a plan identifying the lack of trees with a ratio of only 1 tree per 17 people. These statistics fall significantly short of the recommended range of 4-6 trees per person. To obtain even a basic 1 to 1 ratio, a daunting 16 trees would have to be planted per person without accounting for current population projections.
A third pearl evident in the city of Cartagena is the predominant presence of the dry forest. As an ecosystem that has already suffered a 66% conversion into other land uses throughout the Americas, Cartagena can respond differently to the same threats and challenges. With proper education on its global value and beauty, Cartagena could reverse the trend of its traditional depletion through integrating the dry forest into the daily lives of its citizens.

社会动荡难以解决?森之精灵也将带来和平第4张图片


在它的最后一颗珍珠中,卡塔赫纳必须学会承认它的多样性。哥伦比亚是世界上流浪者第二多的国家,而卡塔赫纳则排名第五,这一现象也造成了严重的社会冲突,哥伦比亚人之间有时并不存在平等,他们在争取进步,挑起种族隔离争端以及各种竞争,这些社会现象都困扰着社区发展。如果卡塔赫纳能够评估其流浪者数量,深究其原因,人们会发现,这些人的技能在城市环境中不易展示,但在个体中则能够很好地表达。考虑到只有部分城市具有较高的移民模式,而那些流离失所的人们可以拥有农业、林业甚至手工工艺技能。只有提供这些技能和知识财富共享的空间,管理者们才可以真正推动具有社会影响力的项目。

In its final pearl, Cartagena must learn to recognize its diversity of people. Already a nation with the world’s 2nd highest population of internally displaced persons, (IDP) Cartagena ranks 5th in displaced population, creating severe socio-economic conflicts between citizens. Instead of seeing one another as equals and Colombians striving for progress, segregation, competition, and even homicide plague these communities. If Cartagena could learn to value its displaced population digging deeper into their origins, they’d find that they come with skills not readily accessible in urban contexts which could be shared and leveraged as a single collective. Considering only the cities of the Bolivar department with high migration patterns, displaced people can have skills ranging from agriculture, forestry and even artisanal craftwork. Providing the space for these skills and wealth of knowledge to be shared, one could truly direct social impact projects.

社会动荡难以解决?森之精灵也将带来和平第5张图片


“干燥森林都市主义”建议把这些分散的珍珠串成一条项链,把干枯的森林作为未来发展的主角。并选择三个家庭进行试点,来加强和扩展现有的从牧场延伸出去的植被空间。被选中的Bombacaceae家族旨在通过树的纯粹性来表达公民的伟大和自豪感。Arecaceae家族种植棕榈树,树叶形态各异,形成精致的阴影和图案。最后,Fabaceae家族在该项目中种植规模最大,展示了森林广泛的色彩和纹理。

Dryfo Urbanism proposes to make of these dispersed pearls a necklace by placing the dry forest as the protagonist of future development. A selection of three families is used to strengthen and extend the existing lines of vegetation from the grazing territory. The Bombacaceae family is chosen to instil a sense of grandeur and pride in citizens through the sheer monumentality of its trees. The Arecaceae family is planted for its range of palm trees with varying leaf structure creating elaborate shadows and patterns. Finally, the Fabaceae family is featured for its status as the largest family of the dry forest, displaying its wide range of color and textures.

社会动荡难以解决?森之精灵也将带来和平第6张图片


两侧走廊形成了一系列的广场,同时作为每个家庭入口的密集岛屿。随着干旱地区和水体的设计和控制程度的降低,这些空间的演变可以将当地的需求和自身技能相互融合。为了利用这些设施储备土地,政府可以与当地领导人合作,把木树作为土地银行系统,在城市扩张时为建筑和家具材料做准备。而未来取代这些空间的可能是网络社区中心、学校和农业领域,这些区域将成为城市节点,同时成为广场和公园的宝贵的资产。

Flanking each corridor could be a series of plazas acting as dense islands of each family. With a diminishing degree of design and control approaching the arroyos and bodies of water, the evolution of these spaces could integrate government and local needs and skill sets. To reserve the land for these amenities, the government could work with local leaders to plant wood trees as a land bank system, chopping them down for future construction and furniture material as the city expands. Replacing these patches could be network community centers, schools and agricultural fields generating urban nodes while serving as stewards over these invaluable assets of plazas and parks.

社会动荡难以解决?森之精灵也将带来和平第7张图片


社会动荡难以解决?森之精灵也将带来和平第8张图片


为了获得更高层次森林廊道的特征,Bombacaceae家族主要表达了Macondo树木的文化特征。哥伦比亚的杰出作家Gabriel Garcia Marquez认为Macondo树是“虚构的城市”。但是,如果人们不知道Macondo这个名字指的是一棵树,那也许这就意味着孤独。“干燥森林都市主义”则希望在Bombacaceae家族的森林廊道中表达这一特征,从而增强人们的认知,因此政府需要将此类树木与人们的日常生活相结合,长达50米的行道树将每天见证者人与车的来来回回,而升高的基座则有效地提升了Macondo树的存在感,设计者将其与木棉的波状基础相结合,广场和公园的设计可以无缝集成,表达不同树木的不同特点。

To achieve a higher degree of resolution on the character of the corridors, the Bombacaceae family is selected for the cultural association of the Macondo tree. Globally recognized as Colombia’s most distinguished author, Gabriel Garcia Marquez named Macondo the location of his fictional city in the infamous 100 Years of Solitude. Unfortunately, without the knowledge that Macondo was a tree, the tree has since become inevitably tied to solitude. Dryfo Urbanism hopes to reverse this reality by featuring the Macondo in the Bombacaceae corridors. By integrating Macondo trees into the daily lives of commuters, the 50 meter tree becomes emblematic of flows, movement and most importantly, unwavering unity. Raised platforms could even elevate the Macondo to not only be placed on a symbolic and poetic pedestal but feature its elephant-like base at eye level. Pairing it with the undulating base of the Ceiba, the design of the plazas and parks could be seamlessly integrated, responding to the varying characteristics of the individual trees.

社会动荡难以解决?森之精灵也将带来和平第9张图片


社会动荡难以解决?森之精灵也将带来和平第10张图片


社会动荡难以解决?森之精灵也将带来和平第11张图片


社会动荡难以解决?森之精灵也将带来和平第12张图片


社会动荡难以解决?森之精灵也将带来和平第13张图片


社会动荡难以解决?森之精灵也将带来和平第14张图片


“干燥森林都市主义”不是传统的城市设计,而是对城市现状与解决方式的表达,它只是单纯地强调已经存在的事物。通过保留森林廊道和公共空间,该项目方案能为那些为社会所忽视的群体带来希望。非正式的居所将不可避免地继续蔓延,但人们的需求也许能够得到改变,这便是设计的初衷。把干燥的森林带到每一个人的日常生活中,卡塔赫纳将能够把自然和文化融为一体,两者之间不再是对立的风景,而是和谐的交响乐。

Dryfo Urbanism isn’t the traditional urban design of imposition over a territory, but a projective and responsive framework that simply highlights what is already there. By guaranteeing shade in mobility corridors and public space, Dryfo Urbanism provides a framework for those who are forgotten and cast aside. Informal settlement will inevitably continue to sprawl, but providing the critical needs every human is entitled to, is proactive design.  Bringing the dry forest to the daily lives of each and every individual, Cartagena has the opportunity to blend nature and culture into one seamless landscape. A landscape where the two are no longer seen in opposition with one another, but in symphonic harmony.

社会动荡难以解决?森之精灵也将带来和平第15张图片


社会动荡难以解决?森之精灵也将带来和平第16张图片


项目名称|“干燥森林都市主义”
项目地址|哥伦比亚,卡塔赫纳
学生|2017年景观设计专业毕业生Ishaan Kumar
学校|宾夕法尼亚大学
指导教师|David Gouverneur、Maria Altagracia Villalobos
图片和文章版权|Ishaan Kumar

Project|Dryfo (Dry Forest) Urbanism
Location|Cartagena, Colombia
Student|Ishaan Kumar, Landscape Architecture Graduate 2017
School|University of Pennsylvania
Professors|David Gouverneur and Maria Altagracia Villalobos
Image + Text Credits|Ishaan Kumar

【专筑网版权与免责声明】:本网站注明“来源:专筑网”的所有内容版权属专筑网所有,如需转载,请注明出处

专于设计,筑就未来

无论您身在何方;无论您作品规模大小;无论您是否已在设计等相关领域小有名气;无论您是否已成功求学、步入职业设计师队伍;只要你有想法、有创意、有能力,专筑网都愿为您提供一个展示自己的舞台

投稿邮箱:submit@iarch.cn         如何向专筑投稿?

扫描二维码即可订阅『专筑

微信号:iarch-cn

登录专筑网  |  社交账号登录:

 匿名

没有了...
评论加载中,请稍后!

景观 (436 articles)


城市景观 (21 articles)


景观都市主义 (3 articles)


哥伦比亚 (45 articles)


2017 (761 articles)


宾夕法尼亚大学 (6 articles)