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传统四合院如何改建?这个示例很好第1张图片

北京当代砖混四合院
Peach House is a contemporary brick-clad courtyard house in Beijing

由专筑网王帅,李韧编译

建筑师 Frederic Schnee对北京的一座传统房屋进行了现代化改建,他将庭院移至一楼,其沿街部分用作商店。

该建筑最初是自建的住宅,几十年来,为适应居住者不断变化的需求,建筑经历了多次改造。

在开始对建筑进行现代化改造之前,Schnee全面分析了该建筑的演变和北京的乡土建筑。

Architect Frederic Schnee has modernised and extended a traditional house in Beijing by moving the courtyard onto the first floor so a shop can be accommodated at street level.
The original building is a typical example of a self-built residence that had undergone multiple adaptations over several decades in response to the changing needs of its occupants.
Schnee conducted a comprehensive analysis of the building's evolution and the general history of Beijing's vernacular architecture before setting about the process of modernising the site.

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研究表明,1959年,场地中的建筑简单传统,所建的两个房间分布在公共空间的两侧。在随后的几十年里,主要建筑经历了两次拆除和重建。

建筑的扩建部分逐渐将院子围合起来,让人联想到北京胡同里常见的四合院。

The research showed that, in 1959, the site was occupied by a simple house constructed in the traditional way with two rooms arranged on either side of a common central space. This main building was demolished and rebuilt twice in the subsequent decades.
A series of extensions and new additions erected in the yard gradually transformed the property into a courtyard house reminiscent of a Siheyuan typology that is common in Beijing's hutong districts.

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Schnee将院子里的各种建筑都拆除,仅剩下重建于1997年的主楼。

建筑扩建部分沿用了典型的庭院形式,但在上部楼层,中央开放空间的周围围绕着功能用房。

Schnee's project began with the removal of the various structures from the courtyard. This left just the main hall, which was last reconstructed in 1997.
The new extension replicates the typical courtyard format, but elevates this combination of open space and surrounding rooms onto the upper storey.

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Schnee解释说:“庭院住宅最重要的特点是它可以灵活地适应各种变化。”

“设计目标是将中庭和房间放置在二楼,同时将一层用作商业场所。”

建筑师将一层地坪降低,并在现有建筑内浇筑了全新的混凝土屋面,从而形成又一层空间。

"One of the most important characteristics of the courtyard house is its flexibility in accommodating growth and change," explained Schnee.
"The objective was to build a new courtyard house, by lifting the courtyard and creating a space for a convenience store on the ground floor."
The ground-floor level was lowered and a new concrete slab was poured inside the existing building to create an additional storey.

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工人在院子里挖了地基,来支撑上部两层钢筋混凝土框架结构,一楼主要用于商业,而二楼则用于居住。

新建的房屋拥有规律的柱网,其间填充着砖块,柱字的排列依据房间的布局和风水学原理。

Foundations were excavated in the courtyard to support the reinforced-concrete frame of a two-storey extension containing the store on the ground floor and accommodation above.
A typical grid of columns forms the structure, which was then filled in with brick before the facade was added. The columns are arranged according to traditional room layouts and the principles of Feng Shui.

传统四合院如何改建?这个示例很好第6张图片

旧的主楼坐北朝南,其上层直接面对着光线充足的高架庭院。

室外空间使用了砖砌面,窗户和门窗较为宽敞,而内部的U形布局确保了隐私,可以有效地遮挡周边的无关视线。

外墙结合了北京传统建筑常用的灰砖和当代项目中的典型红砖,红砖表面也有着不同色调的印记,在统一中形成巧妙的微差。

摄影:Frederic Schnee

The existing main building faces south and its new upper floor now opens directly onto the light-filled, elevated courtyard.
The outdoor space is lined with simple brick-clad volumes containing large openings. The introverted U-shaped layout ensures privacy and prevents overlooking from neighbouring properties.
The facades combine the grey bricks traditionally used for construction in Beijing with red bricks more typically found in contemporary projects. These red bricks feature scorched surfaces resulting from their manufacture, which help unify the different tones.
Photography is by Frederic Schnee.

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传统四合院如何改建?这个示例很好第8张图片

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项目信息:
建筑设计:Frederic Schnee
主创建筑师:Frederic Schnee
其他合作设计人员:Wang Ruijun, Feng Shu, Mintong

Project credits:
Architecture: Frederic Schnee
Lead architect: Frederic Schnee
Other participants: Wang Ruijun, Feng Shu, Mintong

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