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道路景观设计的新形式第1张图片


景观为宪法大道带来了新生
Landscape Architecture Brings New Life to Constitution Avenue

由专筑网孙佳,杨帆编译

文章描述了由Jane Irwin景观设计公司, Hill Thalis建筑事务所以及堪培拉的MEC公司设计的 Maria Giovanna Drago 宪法大道。宪法大道是澳大利亚堪培拉的一条重要街道。事实上,它与英联邦和国王大道一起构成了1900年代发展堪培拉的城市几何基本设计准则。它位于一个热闹的街区,毗邻住宅和商业建筑,还提供娱乐和文化活动。经过四年的建设,Jane Irwin景观设计公司在2016年完成了项目的更新工作。这一革新为这条路的轴线带来了现代感,重新建立了它在城市中的地位。我们可以说宪法大道受到巴黎香榭丽舍大街或巴塞罗那兰布拉大道等西部大道的影响。Walter B. Griffin是一位美国的建筑师和景观设计师,于1912年赢得了新首都城市设计的国际竞赛。他和他的妻子Marion制定了一项计划,并共同经营一家建筑公司。“我有一个理想城市的设计方案,这并不是世界上任何一个政府都可以接受的理想城市,但却是符合我对未来城市设想的理想城市”Griffin说。

Article by Maria Giovanna Drago Constitution Avenue by Jane Irwin Landscape Architecture along with Hill Thalis Architecture + Urban Projects, and MEC in Canberra, Australia. Constitution Avenue is a key street in Canberra, Australia. In fact, along with Commonwealth and Kings Avenues, it forms the city’s basic geometric design guidelines that developed Canberra in the 1900s. Situated in a lively area, it’s adjacent to residential and commercial buildings, but also recreational and cultural activities. In 2016, Jane Irwin Landscape Architecture completed the renewal project after four years of construction. The renovation brought modernity to this roadside axis, rewriting its role in the city. We can say that Constitution Avenue was influenced by great western avenues like the Champs-élysées in Paris or La Rambla in Barcelona. The City Design Walter B. Griffin was an American architect and landscape architect who won the international competition for the design of the new capital city in 1912. He and his wife, Marion, developed a plan and ran an architecture firm together. “I have planned it not in a way that I expected any government authorities in the world would accept. I have planned an ideal city – a city that meets my ideal of the city of the future,” said Griffin.

道路景观设计的新形式第2张图片

Walter B. Griffin和Marion M. Griffin的堪培拉设计计划,设计灵感来自于埃比尼泽霍华德的花园城市运动。图片来源:澳大利亚国家档案馆/Canberra Design Plan by Walter B. Griffin and Marion M. Griffin took inspiration from Ebenezer Howard’s Garden city movement. Credit: National Archives of Australia

三条大道构成了这个国家的三角周边,这是城市的中心,有公共和行政大楼以及旅游中心。它的边缘分别连接着国会大厦,澳大利亚国防部和城市公园。这座城市整齐地建立在两个正交的轴线上,这些轴线富有想象力地穿过由国家资本管理局管理的国家三角中心。 Griffin在度蜜月时第一次听说澳大利亚的景观竞赛,他们一回到家就开始投入其中。Marion M. Griffin负责给陪审团留下深刻印象的漂亮效果图,而Walter负责设计。他们的项目击败了137个参赛作品,这让他们声名大噪并获得了公众认可。

Three avenues form the perimeter of the National Triangle, which is the heart of the city with public and administrative buildings as well as a tourist center. It hosts the Parliament House, the Australian Department of Defense, and the City Hill Park respectively in each of its extremities. The city neatly established around two orthogonal axes that imaginatively cross the center of the National Triangle, which is managed by the National Capital Authority. The Australian Landscape The Griffin’s first heard about the competition while on their honeymoon and pursued it once they returned home. Marion M. Griffin was responsible for the beautiful renderings that impressed the jury, while Walter was responsible for the design. Their project beat out 137 entries and brought them instant notoriety and public recognition.

道路景观设计的新形式第3张图片

作品来源于堪培拉的安斯利山高峰,Marion Griffin,1911年。图片来源:澳大利亚国家档案馆/Rendering from the Summit of Mount Ainslie in Canberra by Marion Griffin, 1911. Credit: National Archives of Australia

在Walter第一次到澳大利亚旅行期间,他对自然景观非常着迷,他将植物融入了大道,公园和社区,如花萼圆,香水花和帝王花公园等。他的设计源于他的魅力,这个概念的特点是营造一种开放的氛围。长长的大道两侧是大型的落叶乔木,建筑物坐落在郁郁葱葱的草地上,由连绵起伏的丘陵中的狭窄小路组成,代表着乡村。大宪法大道从西北向东南延伸近3公里(1.9英里),与伯利格里芬湖海岸线几乎平行。城市山脉和国防部位于其边缘,与中心的澳新军团大道相交。以前的大道是一条双车道双向道路,西侧设有停车场,新设计侧重于用户的使用性,为行人提供空间,并改善公共和私人车辆的移动性。

During Walter’s first trip to Australia he was so fascinated by the natural landscape that he gave plant names to avenues, parks, and neighborhoods such as Clienthus Circle, Blandfordia, and Telopea Park. Ultimately, his design stemmed from his fascination and the concept was characterized by an open atmosphere. Long avenues were flanked with large deciduous trees and the buildings were set in lush, grassy meadows composed of narrow paths amidst rolling hills to represent the countryside. The Avenue Constitution Avenue extends almost 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) from the northwest to southeast and it’s nearly parallel to the Burley Griffin Lake coastline. The City Hill and The Department of Defense are located at its edges and intersect with the Anzac Parade artery in its center. Previously a two-lane, two-way road with parking on the west side, its new design focuses on users, devoting space to pedestrians, and improving the mobility of public and private vehicles.

道路景观设计的新形式第4张图片

宪法大道由Jane Irwin景观公司设计/Constitution Avenue designed by Jane Irwin Landscape Architecture. Credit: John Gollings

道路景观设计的新形式第5张图片

西北向的宪法大道/Constitution Avenue facing northwest. Credit: John Gollings

道路景观设计的新形式第6张图片

宪法大道的重新设计赢得了堪培拉奖章以及ACT的城市设计最高奖项/The redesign of Constitution Avenue won the Canberra Medallion as well as the ACT’s top award for urban design. Credit: John Gollings


更新后的设计有一个多方向的双车道公路,由一个1米宽的交通环岛隔开,环岛绿树成荫,并种植着小灌木。为了更好的组织和规划,人行道较以前更宽,新的道路产生。原先的道路设计是糟糕的,行人被迫以“锯齿”的形态走路或进入狭窄的走廊。现在有一条线性和连续的人行道,受到绿化带的保护。西侧的人行道由几排树木,人行道和配有座位的休息场所组成。此外,驾驶者可以在平行式停车位停车,这些停车位沿着道路间隔设置,还有专用的公共汽车站区域。

Today there are multi-direction, double-lane roadways separated by a one-meter wide traffic island, which is tree-lined and planted with small shrubs. Due to better organization and planning, the sidewalks are now wider and the previous paths have been eliminated. They were so badly designed that pedestrians were forced to walk in “zig-zags” or into narrow corridors. Now there’s a linear and continuous pedestrian pathway, which is protected by a greenbelt. The sidewalk on the west side is comprised of several rows of trees, a pedestrian walkway, and resting places equipped with seating. Additionally, motorists can park in parallel parking spaces, which are located at intervals along the road, that also feature dedicated areas for bus stops.

道路景观设计的新形式第7张图片

宪法大道/Constitution Avenue. Credit: John Gollings

街道设施来自于澳大利亚家具,由Hill Thalis建筑事务所设计。整个城市大道上都有各种木制家具,包括带与不带靠背的线性长椅,C形座椅和方桌。也许最令人印象深刻的细节是黄铜扶手。

The Furniture Street Furniture Australia manufactured the street furniture, while Hill Thalis Architecture + Urban Projects designed it. Throughout the urban boulevard, various wooden furniture styles dot the site including linear benches with and without backrests, C-shaped seats, and squared tables. Perhaps the most impressive detail are the brass armrests.

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宪法大道上的家具/Furniture on Constitution Avenue. Credit: John Gollings

多年以来植物群现有的一半橡树因状况不佳而被移除,取而代之的是英国橡树,意大利柏树和紫薇。这些树木按品种有序地排列。唯一的常青树是意大利柏树,而紫薇是七月到九月间带有粉红色花朵的唯一会开花的树。

The Flora Over the years, half of the existing oak trees have been removed because of their poor condition and replaced with English and pin oaks, Italian cypresses, and crepe myrtles. Trees are arranged in ordered rows and organized by variety. The only evergreen is the Italian cypress, while the crepe myrtle is the lone blooming tree with pink flowers from July to September.

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沿宪法大道盛开的紫薇/Crepe myrtles in bloom along Constitution Avenue. Credit: John Gollings

Jane Irwin景观设计公司是一家中型公司,拥有熟练的设计模式。他们的优势在于保持一群才华横溢的景观设计师和园艺师,他们对深入分析其基本特征特别感兴趣。他们专注于景观构成,历史文化影响和地理演变的元素。我们描述了两种不同的道路设计方法,但我们并不是在这里确定哪一种更好。你能建议任何其他选择吗?

宪法大道的完整项目信息:
景观设计:Jane Irwin景观设计公司
合作:Hill Thalis建筑事务所,MEC城市设计公司
设计:Hill Thalis建筑事务所
制造:澳大利亚街道家具
树供应商:成立树木移植和苗圃
地点:澳大利亚堪培拉
项目年份:2012-2016
成本:3300万美元
客户:ACT政府

特色图片:宪法大道|澳大利亚堪培拉|John Gollings |2016

The Design Firm Jane Irwin Landscape Architecture is a midsize firm with an intimate approach to design. Their strength lies in maintaining a talented group of landscape architects and horticulturalists with a specific interest in deeply analyzing the fundamental characteristics. They focus on elements that make a landscape, cultural influences across history, and geographic evolution. We described two different approaches to a road design, but we’re not here to determine which one is better. Can you suggest any additional options? Full Project Credits Constitution Avenue: Landscape Architect: Jane Irwin Landscape Architecture Collaborators: Hill Thalis Architecture + Urban Projects, MEC Urban Equipment: Design: Hill Thalis Architecture + Urban Projects, Manufacturing: Street Furniture Australia Tree Supplier: Established Tree Transplanters & Nurseries Location: Canberra, Australia Project Years: 2012-2016 Cost: $33 million USD Client: Roads ACT for ACT
Featured image: Constitution Avenue|Canberra, Australia|John Gollings|2016

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