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五种有趣的排水解决方案展示了它们是如何在景观项目中发挥作用,来看看吧。第1张图片


5种明智的排水系统
5 of the Smartest Drainage Systems

由专筑网孙佳,王帅编译

我们从Maria Giovanna Drago的文章中选出五种有趣的排水解决方案来展示它们是如何在景观项目中发挥作用的。您是否计划设计公园或翻新家庭花园?虽然你可能已经了解了植被,户外家具,铺路和照明,但许多人面临的最令人不安的问题就是过量的雨水。太多的雨水让花园或公园迅速变成沼泽。一旦土壤水分饱和,昆虫就开始迅速繁殖,其中甚至会有携带病菌的寄生虫。此外,过量的雨水导致人们穿行困难,同时也不可避免地伤害到建筑和其它结构。为避免糟糕的设计,就不要依赖平庸的设计系统。糟糕的设计没有艺术性,也缺乏实用性,更为恐怖的是它使房产价值下降15%。征询专家的意见并回避自己的方式总是明智的。

Article by Maria Giovanna Drago We have selected five of the most interesting drainage solutions to show you how their impact could be implemented in the landscape. Are you planning on designing a park or renovating your home garden? While you may already have knowledge of vegetation, outdoor furniture, paving, and lighting—a troubling issue that many are faced with is an excess of water. If it rains too much a garden or park could quickly become a swamp. Once the soil becomes saturated insects start to proliferate in the water, some of which are bearers of diseases. Additionally, overflow water can make moving through a space difficult as well as damage buildings or other structures. Avoid a Bad Design Do not rely on mediocre designed systems. A poor design decreases property value up to 15 percent, without mentioning the aesthetics and usability. It’s always wise to consult an expert and shy away from do-it-yourself methods.

五种有趣的排水解决方案展示了它们是如何在景观项目中发挥作用,来看看吧。第2张图片

位于波兰的华沙大学图书馆花园/Warsaw University Library Garden located in Poland. Credit: Maria Giovanna Drago

事实上,我们有必要结合土壤的吸收能力来分析模拟参考区域的年降雨量和降雪量,同时考虑到风暴的风险。例如,成分主要为粘土的土壤排水能力很差,因此可以将其与沙子或堆肥混合。考虑过滤基层也很重要。最终就可以确定排水量,排水系统的尺寸和路线,以及水箱和检查井的正确位置。在寻找替代品时需要正确的指南,从而确保基地不仅具有视觉吸引力,而且环保并节水、节能。作为补充建议,可以将水收集在罐中并重新用于灌溉或洗涤家具。这样,最初被视为问题的东西就变成了有价值的资源。我们相信,排水系统多种多样,作为景观设计师并不意味着安装管道,而是能够找到合适的解决方案。

In fact, it’s necessary to simulate the annual rainfall and snowfall of the referenced territory, considering the risk of storms, in coordination with an analysis of the soil absorption capacity. For example, soil that is predominantly made of clay does not allow water to drain as it should, so it can be mixed with sand or compost. It’s also important to consider the layers of a filtering substrate. Ultimately, you could determine the flow to be drained, the sizing and route of the drainage system, and the correct position of the tanks and inspection wells. Look for Alternatives You need the right guide to make sure a site is not only visually appealing, but also environmentally friendly and attentive to the waste of water and energy. As an additional suggestion, water can be collected in a tank and reused for irrigation purposes or for washing furnishings. This way what was first seen as a problem becomes a valuable resource. There are different types of drainage systems and we’re convinced that being a landscape architect does not mean installing pipes, but finding the proper solution that leads to a successful result.

五种有趣的排水解决方案展示了它们是如何在景观项目中发挥作用,来看看吧。第3张图片

华沙大学图书馆/Warsaw University Library. Credit: Maria Giovanna Drago

1. 植物修复

它是一个将效率、实用性与溪流、小湖泊系统相结合的例子。在这种情况下,水被利用而不是隐藏,因为它被用作景观中的元素。从观赏性来讲,它将水流经到各个区域,并用于娱乐或灌溉。水在植物之间缓慢流动,植物与砾石材料组合在一起,形成了生物过滤器,通过模拟自然过程来净化水。例如,漂浮植物是吸收重金属的理想选择。雨水经过清洁就可以重复用于灌溉或冲厕所。

2. 分散式综合绿铺系统

它使用的网格铺设或间隔铺设是一种适用于行人和车辆区域的有趣方法。该方法遵循基于扩散雨水的自然循环。所以,在防水表面上取消或是减少间隔开的检修孔。一位优秀的景观设计师知道如何以一种合理的方式将绿化与地面融为一体,在解决排水的同时,还能达到很好的景观效果。

1. Phytoremediation
Herbal purification is an example that incorporates efficiency and practicality with a system of streams and small lakes. In this case, water is revealed and not hidden, since it’s used as a characteristic feature in the landscape. It’s conveyed from the various areas in an ornamental drainage stream for recreation or irrigation. The water flows slowly between plants, which act as a biological filter and together with the combined action of the gravel material, they purify it by simulating a natural process. For example, floating plants are ideal to assimilate heavy metals. Once cleansed, it can be reused to water cultivated areas or for toilet discharge.

2.A Decentralized, Integrated Green-Paving System
The use of grid pavement or spaced dry laying is an interesting technique suitable for both pedestrian and vehicular paved areas. This method follows the natural cycle of rainwater based on diffusion. As a result, the manholes spaced out on waterproof surfaces disappear or diminish. A good landscape architect knows how to integrate greenery with flooring modules in a harmonious way so as not to reveal the drainage purpose, but focus on an attractive aesthetic.

五种有趣的排水解决方案展示了它们是如何在景观项目中发挥作用,来看看吧。第4张图片

嵌草路面/Grass pavement. Credit: Immanuel Giel via CC BY 2.0

3. 排水、混凝土铺路

你可以选择透水混凝土,这种混凝土通常用于连续的表面,如停车场。这也有利于雨水的广泛吸收,它使用硅酸盐水泥混合物、,粗骨料,水和添加剂混合制成。

由多孔结构组成的细部可以完全忽略。与吸热而不排水地板不同,它透气渗水,助于形成更有利的天然小气候。

3. A Draining, Concrete Paving
You can opt for pervious concrete, which is commonly used in continuous surfaces such as parking areas. This also facilitates the widespread absorption of water and it’s characterized by a mixture of Portland cement, coarse aggregates, water, and additives. The very low or total absence of fine parts comprises its porous structure, which allows an easy flow of water and air. Unlike non-draining floors that absorb daytime heat, this drainage system contributes to a more favorable natural microclimate.

五种有趣的排水解决方案展示了它们是如何在景观项目中发挥作用,来看看吧。第5张图片

Kaseman Beckman Advanced Strategies和Buro Happold设计的弗吉尼亚州五角大楼纪念馆/Pentagon Memorial in Arlington, Virginia by Kaseman Beckman Advanced Strategies and Buro Happold. Credit: Brien Aho via CC BY 2.0

4. 装饰性小格栅

如果你更喜欢传统或者需要使用普通格栅,请不要忘记带有几何图案或花卉图型的格栅,通常它们由铸铁,不锈钢或聚丙烯制成。为制造出更好的景观效果,你可以尝试选用细条形的小格栅。如果要保持表面的连续性,这种方法是产生最小视觉冲击的理想选择。通道将收集水,并将水引导到虹吸井和收集罐。

4. Decorative and Minimal Grids
If you prefer tradition or you really need to use the common grid, don’t forget there are grids available with geometric or floral patterns, usually made of cast iron, stainless steel, or polypropylene. Or you can specify a minimal style with a narrow linear grid for a more pleasing appearance. This approach is ideal if you want to give continuity to the surface, allowing a minimal visual impact. The channels will collect water and it will be directed to siphoned wells and collection tanks.

五种有趣的排水解决方案展示了它们是如何在景观项目中发挥作用,来看看吧。第6张图片

Landscape Projects和Gehl建筑事务所设计的位于英国布莱顿霍夫市的新路/New Road located in the city of Brighton & Hove, UK designed by Landscape Projects and Gehl Architects. Credit: Gehl Architects

5. 法国方法

你听说过法国排水吗?该系统于19世纪首次出现在法国。它由铺满砾石和穿孔的地下管道组成,用来改变水的方向。有趣的是,它的功能类似于传统的井,但看起来更加乡村和自然。事实上,它可以沿着大道或花坛无缝放置。这是保护特别敏感区域的完美选择。

图片:衢州鹿鸣公园| 中国浙江省衢州市| Turenscape  | 2016

5. The French Method
Have you ever heard of French drainage? This system first appeared in France in the 1800s. It’s made of a long-limbed path filled with gravel and a perforated underground pipe to redirect water. Interestingly, it functions like a traditional well, but looks more rural and natural. In fact, it can be placed seamlessly along avenues or defining flowerbeds. This is a perfect choice for safeguarding particularly sensitive areas.

Featured image: Quzhou Luming Park | Quzhou, Zhejiang, China | Turenscape | 2016

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