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大开眼界,城市也能进行针灸疗法?第1张图片


口袋公园是城市的针灸疗法
Pocket Parks as Urban Acupuncture

由专筑网孙佳,李韧编译

在传统中医治疗中,针灸是指将细针插入人体的特定部位,用于治疗相关的症状。同样的原理,城市针灸是指通过改变小规模的城市肌理来影响整个社会环境。在本文中,我们将了解口袋公园的城市针灸作用。


城市针灸

“城市针灸”这个词首先由西班牙建筑师兼城市规划师ManueldeSolà提出,后来由芬兰建筑师Marco Casagrande推广。这个理论的关键是将城市理解为一个整体,同时更像是一个生物,而不是各种现象的集合。城市针灸理论的提出,可以通过在特定局部地点进行小规模的调整,从而解决城市内部问题。

通过数据采集、社区参与和场地分析的综合方法,最终选定了项目场地。场地一旦选定,那么城市针灸的设计和实施将对整座城市的周边地区以及更广阔的地区产生大范围影响。关于城市针灸的一种常见误解在于,场地与解决方案需要小一些。Arup的Tiago Olivera认为,城市针灸的最重要的特点是快速实施,并迅速缓解城市压力。

城市针灸的另一个特点是它应该遵循“自下而上”的策略。许多大规模策略的实施需要花费较长的时间,同时占用大量土地,并且花费大量资金。当地居民常常认为这些项目属于强制实施。Heatherwick工作室对伦敦花园桥计划的反对表明,自上而下的规划方式可能带来的反面的效果。

口袋公园

口袋公园是小型公园或花园,可以为当地居民提供绿色空间,并且临近他们居住或工作的地方。口袋公园的主要特点为小规模、社区焦点和场地。因此场地对于口袋公园的设计十分重要。理想情况下,居民会在5-10分钟到达最近的口袋公园,因此它们也应该位于节点空间,将公共交通枢纽、道路、人行道、绿道以及商店等当地服务汇集在一起​​。

In traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture refers to the insertion of fine needles into specific parts of the human body with the aim of treating a range of symptoms. In a similar way, urban acupuncture refers to the theory of manipulating the urban fabric on a small scale to affect greater socio-environmental impacts. In this article, we look at how pocket parks might be used as an urban acupuncture tool.

Urban acupuncture
The phrase ‘urban acupuncture’ was first coined by the Spanish architect and city planner Manuel de Solà, and was later popularised by Finnish architect Marco Casagrande. Key to the theory is understanding the city as a holistic whole, more like a living being than a collection of dissident phenomena. Urban acupuncture theory proposes that problems within the city can be alleviated through small interventions at specific localised sites.
Sites are selected through an integrated approach of data gathering, community involvement, and site analysis. Once selected, interventions are designed and implemented to enable greater impacts on the surrounding areas and wider afield throughout the city. One common misapprehension about urban acupuncture is that sites and interventions must always be small. Tiago Olivera of Arup argues that one of the most important features of urban acupuncture is that the intervention should be swift. Quick to implement, and quick to alleviate the stresses on the city.
Another important feature of urban acupuncture is that it should follow a ‘bottom-up’ approach. Many larger-scale interventions take a long time to implement, take up vast swathes of land, and cost great sums. Often local residents can feel that these grand plans are forced upon them. The opposition to the proposed garden bridge in London by Heatherwick Studios demonstrates the level of hostility a top-down approach to planning can bring.

Pocket parks
Pocket parks are small-scale parks or gardens that provide green space for local residents, close to where they live or work. Key features of pocket parks include their small scale, community focus, and location (check out Land8’s 7 Top Pocket Parks: Small Spaces With a Huge Impact for examples). Location is of the utmost importance to the success of pocket parks. Ideally, residents shouldn’t have to walk more than 5-10 minutes to reach their nearest pocket park. They should also be located at nodal spaces, where local public transport links, roads, footpaths and greenways, and local services such as shops come together.

大开眼界,城市也能进行针灸疗法?第2张图片

Paley Park New York by Aleksandr Zykov CC2.0

口袋公园是城市的针灸疗法

口袋公园因其规模和相对较低的安装成本而成为了城市的针灸策略。对于政府而言,提供大型绿色休闲空间代价太高。然而,口袋公园可以利用废弃的土地,并且只花费150000美元就能达到同样的目的。而且经常有一些资助机构可以帮助当地社区建成一座口袋公园。

废弃土地的绿化可以为居民的社会和文化福祉带来很深的影响。宾夕法尼亚大学的研究显示,把空置地块进行绿化处理,低收入社区居民的心情都有所好转,并胆固醇水平降低。这项研究甚至指出,口袋花园周围地区的枪支犯罪率也大幅下降。在这些情况下,口袋花园的花费也相对较少,通常只是清理地块并铺设草地,平均成本为1500美元。

当作为城市针灸时,口袋公园可以促使地区的投资和再生。建筑师Jamie Lerner指出,口袋公园的快速实施可以证明其他处理措施是否能实施,他指出纽约Paley公园就是口袋公园的成功案例,同时促进了城市的再生。他还指出,口袋公园可以改变当地规划的进程,促进其他处理措施的实施,包括投资诸如城市绿道等绿色基础设施。

Casagrande实验室的Cicada于台北市中心的一片空地上,也是一座口袋公园,其中包括开放草地和一个长达34米(112英尺)的编织竹茧。设计方案旨在促进现代人、台北城市与自然现实之间的对话。尽管这种设计符合小型且聚焦于局部的场地,但设计的成功关键在于项目的流动性。场地和结构可用于许多社区的活动,最显着的就是当地大学生的休息场所。

Pocket parks as urban acupuncture

Pocket parks offer opportunities for urban acupuncture due to their scale and relatively low installation costs. Providing large green recreational spaces can be expensive for a local authority. However, pocket parks that utilize derelict land can cost as little $150,000. There are often a number of funding bodies that can help a local community realize a pocket park.
The greening of derelict land can have impressive results for the social and cultural well-being of residents. Research from the University of Pennsylvania revealed that when vacant plots were greened, residents in low-income neighbourhoods reported “significant decreases” in feelings of depression, and lower cholesterol levels. The study even noted a significant reduction in gun crime in the area surrounding the interventions. In these cases, the interventions were minimal, often just cleaning up the lot and laying it to grass at an average cost of $1,500.
When considered as urban acupuncture, pocket parks can lead to investment and regeneration in an area. Architect Jamie Lerner notes that quick (and even temporary) interventions such as pocket parks can demonstrate how other interventions can be implemented. He points to Paley Park in New York City as an example of how a well-implemented pocket park can lead to urban regeneration. He also notes that pocket parks can alter the course of local planning, often stimulating other interventions including investment in green infrastructure such as urban greenways.

Sitting on an empty lot in central Taipei, Cicada by Casagrande Laboratory is an urban acupuncture intervention that comprises a grassy open space with a woven bamboo cocoon measuring 34 meters (112 feet) long. The intervention intends to create a conversation between modern man, the city of Taipei, and the reality of nature. Although the intervention ticks the boxes of being small and locally focused, the real key to the success of interventions such as this is the fluidity of the program. The site and structure can be used for a number of community activities, most notably as a lounge for the local university students.

大开眼界,城市也能进行针灸疗法?第3张图片

Cicada_night_interior_Marco_Casagrande_by

口袋公园和城市更新

有几项研究表明,口袋公园的实施对房产的价值产生了积极影响。例如,1973年的一项研究指出,紧邻公园的房产均价比街区之外的房价高出23%。最近的研究表明公园质量对提高房产售价的重要性。

当前存在对城市针灸疗法的口袋花园的批判可能就是城市再生的发展可能导致中产阶级化,中产阶级主要用于描述低收入居民的收入逐步增高的现象。随着房产价格的增加,租金也会增加,这通常与城市更新有关,亦或是曾经的经济适用房变得更高品质,曼哈顿的高线公园已经证明了这一点。

Pocket parks and urban regeneration
There have been several studies suggesting that the implementation of pocket parks has positive effects on property values. For example, one 1973 study noted that properties immediately facing a park had on average a 23% greater value than that one block away. More recent studies point to the importance of the quality of the park in increasing property value.
One possible criticism of using pocket parks as urban acupuncture could be that the urban regeneration it fosters can contribute to gentrification. Gentrification is the term used to describe the displacement of low-income residents by those of higher income. With an increase in property values comes an increase in rents. This is often associated with urban regeneration, or where previously affordable, but less desirable areas become more fashionable. This has been evidenced in areas of Manhattan facing the High Line.

大开眼界,城市也能进行针灸疗法?第4张图片

High Line Park – New York City – July 09 by David Berkowitz CC2.0

平衡口袋公园和城市更新

口袋公园是城市针灸疗法的理想工具,实施快捷且低价,可以对当地居民的健康和幸福产生积极影响,同时鼓励企业家通过弹出式商店、服务来对房产价格产生积极的影响。它们成功的关键在于仔细结合了场地与功能,以及社区参与“自下而上”的方法。这是城市针灸疗法中的重要原理。看起来成功的项目并非需要引人注目,规模小、实施迅速、成本低,但却具有高价值的项目同样能够获得成功。

Balancing pocket parks and urban regeneration
Pocket parks are an ideal tool to consider in urban acupuncture. Quick and cheap to implement, they can have positive effects on the health and well-being of the local residents, encourage entrepreneurship through pop-up shops and services, and have positive effects on property values. Key to their success seems to be in the careful consideration of their placement and use, and a community participatory ‘bottom-up’ approach. This is one of the tenets of good urban acupuncture. It seems successful projects are not the headline-grabbing big scale or expensive projects, but the small-scale, quick to implement, projects of low cost but high value.

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