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无障碍建筑与设计
Architecture & Design for the disabled people

由专筑网朱王倩,韩平编译

建筑设计
   
大家对于残疾是怎样理解的?残疾不仅仅是某些人生理上的缺陷,实际上它是人类生活的一部分,每个人在某些时候都会暂时或永久地体验残疾。你可能会好奇无障碍与建筑创造有什么共同点,但这不是关于人类心情慰藉的建筑?那么无障碍建筑设计又代表什么?

建筑是创建的是使用者所需的环境,让他们去体验它。全世界建筑师已经为不同类的残疾人做了许多项目。“联合国残疾人权利公约”旨在促进,保护和确保他们的平等权利与尊重。但是,我们多少次注意过残疾人的无障碍设施,我们是否考虑过无障碍设施以及他们通行的便利性?

不同国家关于公共交通均有发展,例如在芬兰赫尔辛基等,其现有的电车系统在车辆低层的停靠点上设置了破道。中国北京和印度新德里的低层巴士增加了残疾人士的移动便利。
   
建筑师一直提到关于残疾的意识。在2013年发生一个这样的事件,像Zaha Hadid建筑事务所、Adjaye、AMODELS,还有更多的人在“微型建筑”拍卖会上进行慈善募捐,他们发布了自己设计的小屋。这些建筑师每天处理庞大规模的建筑设计之余,还能聚集在一起,投入时间来设计残疾人的微型规模,这是值得赞扬,现在也可以与“Doll住宅建筑”新风格相联系。

Architecture & Design
What do we understand by disability? Disability is not just limitations for a few people, actually it is a part of human life which everyone would experience at some point, temporarily or permanently. You might wonder what disabilities have in common with architectural writing, but isn’t architecture about human comfort? And what does Architecture & Design for the disabled stand for?
Architecture is about the creating environment for the user, for them to experience it. There have been projects done by architects worldwide for differently (dis)abled people. The United Nations Convention to the Rights of persons with Disability aims to promote, protect and ensure their equal rights and also their respect. But how many times have we noticed the accessibility for a disabled, have we thought about the accessibility or their ease of travel?
There have been developments in different countries related to public transportation such as in Helsinki, Finland, where the existing tram system was made accessible by incorporating short ramps on stops which are on same level as the low floors of the vehicles. Beijing, China and New Delhi, India with their low floor buses increased the ease of travel for the disabled users.
Architects have been pitching in creating awareness regarding disability. One such event took place in 2013 where architects such as Zaha Hadid architects, Adjaye associates, AMODELS, and many more participated in raising charity at an auction of ‘Miniature Buildings’, where they presented tiny homes designed by them. These architects dealing with vast scales every day, coming together and devoting their time in designing miniature scale for the development of the disabled is commendable and now can also be associated with a new type of style as“Doll House Architecture.”
   
你说你的人生不完美,建筑师说我会全力为你打造个完美的新世界第2张图片

Courtesy of Make Architects.

已有许多建筑为残疾人士进行了无障碍设计。其中一件是由建筑师弗兰克•劳埃德•赖特于1952年设计的住宅——Laurent住宅,它比任何列出的残疾人士标准还早几十年。 虽然这是建筑师为残疾人建造的唯一一座建筑,但单层的Usonian住宅即将成为一座博物馆。

There have been many architectural structures supporting the disabled. One such piece is a residence designed by architect Frank Lloyd Wright in 1952, decades ahead of any listed standards for disability –  Laurent House . Though it was the only building made by the architect for a disabled, the single story Usonian home is soon to be turned into a museum.
   
你说你的人生不完美,建筑师说我会全力为你打造个完美的新世界第3张图片

Courtesy of Frank Lloyd Wright Trust.

此外,近年来,各种建筑聚焦于健康理疗中心到学校或住宅——基本每种类型的建筑都有涉及到。有这样一座有趣的住宅,建于弗兰克•劳埃德的Laurent住宅四十年后,是由Rem Koolhaas设计的住宅,名为Maison Bordeaux。无论是在设计中使用的多层次,还是拥有鸟瞰城市的基地山丘上,这个项目都是让人惊讶的。
   
“与你所期望的相反,我不想要一栋简单的房子。我想要一个复杂的住宅,因为它会决定我的世界。“—— Jean Francois Lemoine,客户说道。

Also, in recent years, there have been all kinds of constructions focusing on health care centres to schools or residences – basically every type of building. One such interesting residence, constructed four decades after Frank Lloyd’s Laurent House, was a residence by Rem Koolhaas, titled Maison Bordeaux. Be it the multi-levels used in design or the site on a hill with panoramic view over the city, the project is mind gasping.
“Contrary to what you might expect, I do not want a simple house. I want a complicated house because it will determine my world.”
– Jean Francois Lemoine, The client
   
你说你的人生不完美,建筑师说我会全力为你打造个完美的新世界第4张图片

Courtesy of OMA.

Koolhaas迎接挑战,惊奇于传统设计之外的细节。此外,轮椅的移动在房屋的三层都很容易,通过结合一个像房间一样大的电梯平台,这实际上也是一个设备齐全的办公室。这座住宅也是一个名为Houselife的建筑纪录片的主题,由别墅的长期管家叙述。
   
这些设计不仅限于住宅。我们都知道残奥会,不仅训练场地,还有辅助设施,都需要无障碍环境。2012年,Baldinger建筑工作室为残疾人设计了一座面积达45000平方英尺的体育健身中心。它是美国西部的最大体育中心之一。这个概念是不言而喻的,校园设计是建立在提供完全自由的“全面环境”的基础之上的。

Koolhaas rose up to the challenge and amazed with details which were apart from conventional design. Also, the movement for a wheelchair was easy throughout the three levels in the house, by incorporating an elevator platform as big as a room, which is also actually a well – equipped office by itself. The house is also the topic of an architectural documentary entitled Houselife, narrated by the longtime housekeeper of the mansion.
These designs are not limited to just residences. We all know about the Paralympic Games, and a need for barrier free environment is required to not only train but to maintain health. In 2012, Baldinger Architectural Studio designed a Sports & fitness centre for disabled people in an area of 45000 square feet. It is one of a kind sports centre in western United States. The concept was self-explanatory, and the campus design was based on achieving a “total environment” that is providing complete freedom of movement.Koolhaas
   
你说你的人生不完美,建筑师说我会全力为你打造个完美的新世界第5张图片

Courtesy of Raul Garcia.

良好的设计不只是提供简单的空间,而是通过使用不同种类的材料来展现不同的纹理。Glasgow学校的形式可以算是是一个成功的例子。Glasgow建筑师设计的Hazelwood学校是一所双重感觉障碍儿童学校。

Good design doesn’t offer simple space, but plays with different textures through use of different kind of materials. A successful example can be noticed in the form of a school at Glasgow. Hazelwood School by Glasgow Architects is a school for children, who are dual sensory impaired.
   
你说你的人生不完美,建筑师说我会全力为你打造个完美的新世界第6张图片

Courtesy of Alan Dunlop Architects.

“我决心创建一座学校,以满足孩子的需要和父母的愿望,一个安全和具有抱负的地方,可以释放老师,并激励孩子。”——Alan Dunlop说道。

一个孩子可以从体验中学到更多的东西。学校的设计是基于嗅觉,味觉和触觉等基本感觉,创造出环境意识以培养独立性。

我一直期待着普遍的设计,无论是正常人还是残疾人,所有人都是可以接触的。这个例子由Cubo&Force4建筑事务所以丹麦“残疾人之家”组织的形式提供。该组织一直致力于创建世界上最容易接近的办公楼。他们认为这些标准确实提供了设计空间的大小,但是我们需要更多地关注残疾人的需要。当我们做出通用的设计,它是平等的空间,可以扩大我们新的视野,超越知识本身和不仅仅限于标准。

“I was determined to create a school which would support the needs of the children and the aspirations of their parents, a place of safety and ambition that would free the teacher and inspire the child. ”
– Alan Dunlop
A child learns more from experience. The design of the school being based on the essential senses such as smell, taste and touch creates the awareness of the surroundings promoting independence.
I have always looked forward to an universal design which is accessible to all, be it an abled body or a disabled. Such an example is offered by Cubo & Force4 architects in form of a House of Disable People’s organization, Denmark. The organization sustained all efforts to create the world’s most accessible office building. They believed that the standards do provide the size of the spaces to be designed, but we need to focus more on the need of a disabled person. When we make a universal design, that is an equally accessible space, it enables to widen our scope for new knowledge, the knowledge which is beyond and not just restricted to standards.
   
你说你的人生不完美,建筑师说我会全力为你打造个完美的新世界第7张图片

Courtesy of Martin Schubert.

“事实上,我们有道德义务消除参与的障碍,并投入足够的资金和专门知识来解除残疾人的巨大潜力。”——霍金教授说道。

“In fact we have a moral duty to remove the barriers to participation, and to invest sufficient funding and expertise to unlock the vast potential of people with disabilities.”
– Professor Stephen Hawking.

你说你的人生不完美,建筑师说我会全力为你打造个完美的新世界第8张图片

Courtesy of OMA.

不能否认所有的努力,但是现在是时候在一起并相互支持,不管是正常人或是残疾人,为了促进和融合各种使用者,更多地为通用设计而努力,残疾人也有机会做不同的事情。
   
作者:Sanjana Malhotra

There is no denial of all the efforts, but it is time to come together and support each other despite being or not disabled, in order to promote and blend in all kinds of users and work more towards universal design and strrieve towards equality, as disability is the opportunity to do things differently.
By : Sanjana Malhotra
   
你说你的人生不完美,建筑师说我会全力为你打造个完美的新世界第9张图片

Courtesy of Alan Dunlop Architects.


出处:本文译自www.arch2o.com/,转载请注明出处。

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