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别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第1张图片


OMA - OFFICE OF METROPOLITAN ARCHITECTURE
MILSTEIN HALL

由专筑网缕夕,李韧编译

米尔斯坦厅是纽约伊萨卡康奈尔大学建筑艺术与规划学院(AAP)100多年来的第一座新建筑。新建的大楼位于康奈尔历史悠久的“Arts Quad”和自然瀑布峡谷之间,主入口设在了校园的北端。

Milstein Hall is the first new building in over 100 years for the renowned College of Architecture, Art and Planning (AAP) at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. The new building is situated between Cornell’s historic Arts Quad and the natural Falls Creek Gorge redefining the entry for the northern end of the campus.

别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第2张图片

© IWAN BAAN. COURTESY OF OMA

现有的AAP占据了四种风格不同,但类型相似的建筑,米尔斯坦大厅并不是一个独立的建筑,它是一个附属空间,将AAP的建筑形成一个统一的综合体,让建筑在空间上得以相连。米尔斯坦大厅为AAP提供了额外47000平方英尺(约4366平方米)的空间,这里有工作室、画廊空间,交流空间以及拥有253个座位的礼堂。这些空间为学院的总体规划创造了非凡的新空间关系。

The existing AAP was housed in four separate buildings, distinct in architectural style and programmatic use but similar in typology. Rather than creating a new free-standing building Milstein Hall is an addition to the AAP buildings creating a unified complex with continuous levels of indoor and outdoor interconnected spaces. Milstein Hall provides 47,000 additional square feet for the AAP, adding much-needed space for studios, gallery space, critique space and a 253-seat auditorium. The additional space enabled a new master plan of the College’s facilities creating extraordinary new spatial relationships between internal programmatic elements.

别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第3张图片

© IWAN BAAN. COURTESY OF OMA

一个悬挑的盒子位于道路上方,将AAP的Sibley Hall和Rand Hall的二层部分相连接,并形成25000平方英尺(2322平方米)的工作室空间,人们在这里可以欣赏到周围环境的全景。巨大的悬臂空间由落地玻璃、41个天窗和屋顶绿化组成,向外悬挑约50英尺(约15米),与AAP的第三个建筑相连,混合桁架系统让内部空间变得开敞,它甚至能够随着时间的推移灵活使用。

暴露的混合桁架结构与悬臂梁相结合,共同形成了大跨度开放空间,定制设计的灯具搭配冷色光源,与结构和机械系统密切协调,使用隐性功能元素来定义天花板平面。照明设备通过一个高度可定制的高效日光传感器来平衡日光与人造光线。

A large horizontal plate is lifted off the ground and connected to the second levels of the AAP’s Sibley Hall and Rand Hall to provide 25,000 square feet of studio space with panoramic views of the surrounding environment. Enclosed by floor-to-ceiling glass and a green roof with 41 skylights, this “upper plate” cantilevers almost 50 feet over University Avenue to establish a relationship with the Foundry, a third existing AAP facility. The wide-open expanse of the plate — structurally supported by a hybrid truss system — stimulates interaction and allows flexible use over time.
The exposed hybrid trusses were designed to balance structural efficiency at the cantilevers and maintain open circulation within the large open plan. A field of custom designed lights and chilled beams were carefully coordinated with the structural and mechanical systems using normally hidden functional elements to define the ceiling plane. The lighting is programmed by a highly customizable and efficient Lutron control system connected to daylight sensors to maintain constant light levels that balance the daylight with artificial light.

别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第4张图片

© IWAN BAAN. COURTESY OF OMA

别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第5张图片

© IWAN BAAN. COURTESY OF OMA

该工作室舒适的环境来自天花板的冷却梁从而降低室内温度,利用当地的湖泊源冷却水,减少了大型传统暖通空调机械系统的运用。建筑采用了地板式辐射加热,外幕墙使用高性能中空LOW-E玻璃,建筑充分运用了高效的机械系统和自然采光,预计该建筑有望获得LEED银牌认证,甚至是金牌认证。

工作室的东南部悬臂区域被认为是上层板中独特的空间,很明显可以看出从人行道到艺术广场的下方,以及人们可以从东大街看到与工作室楼层大致相同的高度。考虑到东部和南部的实际情况,建筑需要一个缓和日光的具体策略。OMA事务所的建筑师为这座建筑突出的角落设计了一个独特的幕墙,建筑师保留了从工作室到Arts Quad的通道,从而保证自然光线的渗透,并且避免眩光,再让建筑的东北入口形成一个引人注目的形象。幕墙的设计概念来源于荷兰艺术家/建筑师Hans Vredeman de Vries(1527-1607)的设计作品,建筑师运用了白色乙烯网上,并透过孔洞可以看到后面的东西。

The studio comfort environment is maintained by the ceiling’s chilled beams that provide cooling by utilizing local lake source chilled water, reducing the need for large traditional HVAC mechanical systems. The heating is distributed through the concrete radiant heated slab. The efficient mechanical systems and abundance of natural daylight are possible through the use of high performance insulated glass units with Low-E coating on all the exterior glass walls. The building is expected to receive a Silver LEED certification with the possibility of achieving Gold.
The south-east cantilevered area of the studios is considered a unique space within the upper plate as it is most visible from the pedestrian walkways to and from the Arts Quad beneath as well as the transparency seen from East Avenue that is approximately the same elevation as the studio floor. Given the east and south exposure a specific solution to moderate the daylight was required. OMA looked to Petra Blaisse and her firm, Inside Outside, to design a custom curtain for this prominent corner of the building. The goal was to preserve views out from the studios towards the Arts Quad, maintain natural daylight without the glare and present a striking image at this northeast entry to the Quad. Inside Outside’s concept for this curtain is considered together with the auditorium curtain design using architectural drawings from the Dutch artist/ architect Hans Vredeman de Vries (1527-1607) to suggest another space outside of the Milstein Hall. The enlarged perspectival drawings are digitally printed onto white vinyl mesh and perforated with holes along the perspective lines.

别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第6张图片

© IWAN BAAN. COURTESY OF OMA

楼板外观与建筑材质相呼应。26000平方英尺的屋顶覆盖着植被,被北面的天窗所划分,天窗尺寸由外向内呈渐变趋势,两种不同类型的元素创造了渐变图案,由南向北逐渐过渡。连续十二英尺高的玻璃幕墙工作室内部情形在外面能看的一清二楚。玻璃上简单的土耳其大理石薄条标志着各层楼板的位置,灰色和白色垂直带以独特的尺度和视觉效果充实了外部,尽管在这一地区的建筑风格各异,但整体的视觉感受却十分统一,垂直取向的大理石纹理对于实现石材的连续水平条带具有重要意义,同时这种手法也强调了上部显著的流动特性。

The exterior of the upper plate responds with different materials to the performative demands of their position on the building. The 26,000 square foot roof is a sedum covered green roof punctuated by a cluster of northern facing skylights which gradually increase in size towards the darker center of the plate further from the exterior façade. Two different types of sedum create a gradient pattern of dots that transition from articulated small circles near the manmade Arts Quad on the south to a dense, larger pattern of dots towards the natural landscape of the gorge on the north.
The continuous twelve foot high band of glass façade makes the long hours of studio activity transparent to the public. Above and below the glass two simple thin bands of Turkish marble define the extents of the upper plate. The naturally occurring vertical bands of grey and white enrich the exterior with a specific scale and material that is unique and yet unites the different buildings despite the proliferation of architectural styles in this area of campus. The vertical oriented marble veining was significant in achieving the continuous horizontal bands of stone to emphasize the cantilevers and floating nature of the upper plate.

别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第7张图片

© IWAN BAAN. COURTESY OF OMA

自然的条纹大理石直接影响了建筑东立面的设计效果。建筑名称直接刻在下方的大理石面板上,并将其显示为独特的条形码。

天花板下方的穿孔铝板贯穿内外空间,以淡化内外空间的边界。金属板面向悬臂下方的人行通道。这种做法来自纽约传统的建筑立面策略。穿孔板上方的声学设计能够调整特定区域的噪音状况,从而改善大厅的内部音响效果,并减少噪音对邻近办公室、教室的影响。

The uniqueness of the naturally striated marble directly influenced 2x4, Inc.’s design of the custom Milstein Hall building ID located on the south cantilever’s east facade. The building name is engraved directly into the full height of the lower fascia marble panels in vertical bands that at once appear to dissolve into the stone yet reveal themselves as a distinct barcode of lettering.
Underneath the upper plate a continuous ceiling of custom stamped perforated aluminum panels extend through both the interior and exterior spaces deemphasizing the boundary between. The enlarged metal panels (4’ x 4’ x 41⁄2”) fabricated on an automotive stamping machine define a scale that is at once perceivable to the traffic passing under the cantilever along University Avenue as well as the pedestrians occupying the spaces below. The vernacular reference to New York stamped metal ceilings creates an urban room-like space below the upper plate surrounded by the existing historic facades of Rand, Sibley and the Foundry. Above the grid of perforated metal panels acoustic blankets tune specific zones such as the road area to absorb noises from passing vehicles, the auditorium to improve audible performance and the covered plaza to reduce noise transmittance to the adjacent offices, classrooms and auditorium.

别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第8张图片

© IWAN BAAN. COURTESY OF OMA

别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第9张图片

© IWAN BAAN. COURTESY OF OMA

别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第10张图片

© IWAN BAAN. COURTESY OF OMA

别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第11张图片

© IWAN BAAN. COURTESY OF OMA

下方地面层的主要功能是一个253个座位的礼堂和一个5000平方英尺(约464平方米)的圆形交流空间,均由现浇混凝土构成,与上层玻璃和钢形成对比。然而,两个空间都为AAP的教学平台提供了新的交流场所,让学生和教师产生新的互动。

屋顶是双层混凝土系统,其裸露的底面通过一个现浇结构板横跨屋顶下面的主要空间。圆顶使用两层3/8“胶合板和3/8”MDO板的精加工板形成,并在12小时内浇筑。屋顶下方装有带状灯带与电动喷淋系统,通过复杂的施工过程来形成明确的中心空间。在结构圆顶板上方,混凝土顶板形成圆顶的外表面。圆顶具有多种功能:它支撑着倾斜的礼堂座位,并成为通向上面工作室的楼梯,这是一个特殊定制的人造平面。

Beneath the hovering studio plate, the ground level accommodates major program elements including the 253-seat auditorium and a dome that encloses a 5,000 square foot circular critique space. The materiality of the lower level, constructed of exposed cast-in-place concrete, adds a contrast to the upper plate’s glass and steel character. However both spaces create frameworks of raw spaces to serve as a pedagogical platform for the AAP to generate new interaction driven by the students’ and faculty’s ambitions and explorations.
The dome is a double layered concrete system. The exposed underside is a cast-in-place structural slab spanning the main critique space beneath the dome. The dome was formed using two layers of 3/8” plywood with a finish layer of 3/8” MDO board and poured in a single 12 hour period. The strip light pockets were cast into the dome together with the electrical and sprinkler systems forming a clearly defined central space out of a complex construction process. Above the structural dome slab a concrete topping slab forms the exterior surface of the dome. The dome serves multiple functions: it supports the raked auditorium seating, it becomes the stairs leading up to the studio plate above, and it is the artificial ground for an array of exterior seating pods custom fabricated in Brooklyn, NY by Fabrice Covelli of Fproduct Inc.

别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第12张图片

© IWAN BAAN. COURTESY OF OMA

别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第13张图片

© IWAN BAAN. COURTESY OF OMA

别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第14张图片

© IWAN BAAN. COURTESY OF OMA

别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第15张图片

© IWAN BAAN. COURTESY OF OMA

人们从主入口处穿过圆顶空间跨过70英尺(约21米)的混凝土桥入礼堂,并沿着雕塑楼梯进去米尔斯坦厅的下部空间。结构混凝土桁架栏杆和楼梯支撑着大跨度结构。

电梯连接米尔斯坦厅的三层空间。这里具有足够大的空间,人们可以自如地在工作室和圆顶交流空间之间运输模型,其中还可以容纳椅子和阅读灯。这些家具由OMA定制,在魁北克市附近通过标准胶合板完全组装,并且在Ithaca现场拆除并重新组装。

米尔斯坦厅为AAP提供了一个礼堂和大型演讲厅。礼堂旨在发挥最大的灵活性,以便适应多种功能的使用。观众席分为两部分,固定部分在穹顶的倾斜部分,另一部分是水平段上的松散座位。当礼堂未满300人使用时,下层可以用于工作室和较小的会议。座椅均由OMA定制设计,由芬兰的Martela Oy开发和制造。他们独特的设计加强了礼堂的灵活性,因为悬臂式固定座椅靠背可折叠,形成连续的高架座椅。长翼面台也可用于展览和展示,或者在空闲的相邻座位之外形成侧桌。松散座椅为简单的矩形形式,座椅靠背可折叠平放,它们组合在一起可作为展示的桌子。

From the main entry, a concrete bridge spanning 70 feet across the dome space draws people into the auditorium or brings them down the sculptural stairs to the lower level of Milstein Hall. The bridge’s structural concrete truss railing and stair allow the bridge to span across the dome column free.
Connecting the three levels of Milstein Hall a vertical moving room (12’-3” x 6’-4”) serves as the elevator. Large enough to facilitate the transport of models between the studios and the dome critique space it can also accommodate a chair and reading lamp. Custom designed by OMA and fabricated by Global Tardif and Schindler, the moving room, built from standard plywood panels, was fully assembled near Quebec City, dismantled and reassembled on site in Ithaca.
Milstein Hall provides the AAP its first auditorium and large scale lecture hall within its own facilities. The auditorium was designed to provide maximum flexibility to allow a multiplicity of programs and functions to occur. The auditorium is divided into two halves of fixed seats on the raked section of the dome and loose seats on the level section. When the auditorium is not used at its full capacity of 300 people, the lower level can be used for studio critiques and smaller meetings. The fixed and loose seats were custom designed by OMA and developed and manufactured by Martela Oy of Finland. Their unique design reinforces the flexibility of the auditorium as the cantilevered fixed seat backs fold down to form a continuous bench for higher capacity seating. The bench configuration can also be used for exhibition and display, or create a side table out of unoccupied adjacent seat. The simple rectangular form of the loose seats with the seat backs folded flat and grouped together can serve as tables for models display or exhibitions.

别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第16张图片

© IWAN BAAN. COURTESY OF OMA

礼堂可以进一步改造成大学董事会的会议场所。会议室通过触摸按钮组装,该按钮将自动把它们从61个座位上的楼层部分提升为高架地板。OMA定制设计了将会议室整合到礼堂中的解决方案,由西班牙的Figueras国际开发和制造。 61个独立座位每一个都可以独立升高或降低,并与电源、超大型平板电脑和存储箱结合使用,这些座椅可以360度旋转,并每隔7.5度都能够锁定位置。

玻璃封闭的礼堂在学术空间和公众之间形成相互渗透的界限。当需要隐私或停电时,定制设计的窗帘以连续的形式从礼堂阳台上展开。表皮通过数字打印而形成,经典的传统柱式被米尔斯坦厅的现代设计所替代,暗示了建筑内外空间的古典景观。

在现有AAP建筑中新建的米尔斯坦厅重新定义了康奈尔大学校园的北面新格局,并与最近完成的约翰逊艺术博物馆共同形成区域的全新艺术长廊。

The auditorium can further be transformed into the Boardroom for University Trustee meetings. The Boardroom is assembled at the touch of a button which deploys 61 seats by automatically raising them from below the raised floor of the level floor section. OMA custom designed the solution to integrate the Boardroom into the auditorium and was developed and manufactured by Figueras International of Spain. Each of the 61 individual seats can be raised or lowered independently and is integrated with power, an oversized tablet, a storage bin and is attached to a post that allows 360 degree rotation with locking positions every 7.5 degrees.
The glass-enclosed auditorium provides a permeable boundary between academic space and the public. When privacy or blackout is required, a custom designed curtain unfurls from the auditorium balcony in one continuous form. The curtain is digitally printed on both surfaces with a different Hans Vredeman de Vries enlarged perspective print. Prints of classical columns are countered by the modern design of Milstein Hall suggesting a classical landscape on the interior and exterior of the building.
The insertion of Milstein Hall amongst the existing AAP buildings forms a new gateway for the northern end of Cornell’s campus and transforms together with the recently completed addition to the Johnson Arts Museum an underutilized area into a new corridor for the arts, planning and design.
                                 
别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第17张图片

© IWAN BAAN. COURTESY OF OMA

别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第18张图片

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别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第19张图片

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别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第20张图片

© IWAN BAAN. COURTESY OF OMA

别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第21张图片

© OMA - OFFICE OF METROPOLITAN ARCHITECTURE

别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第22张图片

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别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第23张图片

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别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第24张图片

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别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第25张图片

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别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第26张图片

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别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第27张图片

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别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第28张图片

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别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第29张图片

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别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第30张图片

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别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第31张图片

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别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第32张图片

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别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第33张图片

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别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第34张图片

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别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第35张图片

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别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第38张图片

© OMA - OFFICE OF METROPOLITAN ARCHITECTURE

别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第39张图片

© OMA - OFFICE OF METROPOLITAN ARCHITECTURE

别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第40张图片

© OMA - OFFICE OF METROPOLITAN ARCHITECTURE

别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第41张图片

© OMA - OFFICE OF METROPOLITAN ARCHITECTURE

别看建筑简单,其实它一点儿也不简单丨康奈尔大学米尔斯坦大厅第42张图片

© OMA - OFFICE OF METROPOLITAN ARCHITECTURE

地点:美国,伊萨卡
设计师:Oma - Office Of Metropolitan Architecture
年份:2016年
摄影:Iwan Baan

Location: United States - Ithaca
Designer: Oma - Office Of Metropolitan Architecture
Project Year: 2016
Photos By Iwan Baan


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