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秘鲁的神秘气息:10大经典的建筑遗址第1张图片

Cortesía de D

每个建筑师都应当参观的10处秘鲁考古遗址
10 Archaeological Sites That Every Architect Should Visit in Peru

由专筑网李韧,杨帆编译

作为建筑师的你也许并不了解秘鲁的千年历史,在这里有许多历史悠久的建筑遗址,确切地说有19903处考古遗址。秘鲁是一个充满着艺术灵感与历史传统的地方,当地的传统与建筑紧密相连,在探索的过程中,我们也许会发现许多令人费解的疑问,但我们仍然心之所向,这也许便是建筑的魅力。

如果你看完以下清单也许会惊奇地发现,对于建筑旅行者来说,秘鲁具有着独特的吸引力。

In Peru, you can not live without not knowing about or learning the lessons of the thousand-year-old architectural legacy of some of its many archaeological sites (19,903 to be exact). These places are full of inspiration, art, history, legends, and magic. Their stories are closely tied to their architecture and the ruins that hold mysteries that perhaps leave us with more questions than answers. But the sites' power to amaze us is something that every architect will appreciate.
This small list—rather than an invitation— is a provocation for the senses that lie within the architect-traveler’s soul.

秘鲁的神秘气息:10大经典的建筑遗址第2张图片

© Flickr User: Travel Aficionado. Licensed under Public Domain

马丘比丘

马丘比丘历史文化保护区坐落于古老的安第斯山脉,是秘鲁经典的自然生态保护区。它建于15世纪前,位于中央山脉东部斜坡的海岬地带,连接了马丘比丘和华纳比丘山脉。这里凝聚了古代劳动人民的智慧结晶,那些由阶梯、退台以及小径所形成的石制建筑是建筑史上一大杰作。许多科学家与建筑师都向往来到这里揭开其神秘的面纱。

马丘比丘,在当地也叫做“Old mountain”,坐落于秘鲁南部库斯科,乌鲁班巴河沿岸。

Machu Picchu
"Old mountain." Located in the South of Peru, in the Urubamba Valley. Machu Picchu, Cuzco.
The Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu is a cultural and ecological site that was an ancient Andean town (llaqta Incaica). It was built before the fifteenth century on the rocky promontory that connects the Machu Picchu and Huayna Picchu mountains on the eastern slope of the Central Cordillera. It is widely regarded as a masterpiece of architecture and engineering for its magnificent stone buildings that make up steps, terraces and paths of a fortress that is wisely placed in this landscape. Throughout its existence it has enjoyed a veil of mystery.

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© Wikipedia User: glenngould. Licensed under CC BY 2.0

卡罗尔

卡罗尔坐落于利马北部的秀珀河谷地区。

历史超过5000年的卡罗尔是秘鲁最古老的城市,也是美洲最古老的文化中心。其独特的金字塔、住宅以及环形广场闻名海外。这里独特的空间设计概念和复杂的建筑要素让人印象深刻,石材与生土所制成的巨型平台和环形庭院更是让人心之所向。

Caral
Located in the sacred city of Caral, north of Lima, in the valley of the Supe River.
Caral is the oldest city in Peru—more than 5000 years old—making it the oldest center of civilization in the Americas. It is known as the city of pyramids, with residential complexes and circular plazas. The conception and complexity of its architectural and spatial elements are what make it impressive: monumental platforms of stone and earth, as well as for the low circular courtyards.

秘鲁的神秘气息:10大经典的建筑遗址第4张图片

© Wikipedia User: No machine-readable source provided. Licensed under CC BY 2.5

利马

被称为“地球的灵魂”的Pachacámac位于利马南部的Lurín山谷。

这座历史超过1500年的考古遗址建于印加时期,是秘鲁中部海岸最重要的政治宗教中心。这里的宗教文化渊远流长,来自各个城市的朝圣者会定期来这里参加宗教仪式。

Pachacámac     
"Soul of the Earth." South of Lima, in the Lurín valley.
This archaeological complex was the most important religious-ceremonial center of the central coast of Peru for more than 1500 years, during the pre-Inca and Inca period. Its prestige was mainly due to its oracle, as ancient settlers on long pilgrimages from all over the country took part in a great Andean ritual.

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© Wikipedia User: Charles Gadbois. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

Puruchuco

被称作“Feather Hat”的Puruchuco位于利马北岸的Ate地区。

Puruchuco是印加时期的行政文化中心。在这里可以发现许多来自不同文化时期的建筑表达形式,例如其特有的金字塔斜坡,是中央海岸地区最大的印加墓地,还有印加时期的宫殿也是其主要的文化遗址。

Puruchuco
"Feather Hat." Located on the Northern coast of Lima, in the District of Ate.
Puruchuco was an administrative center during the Inca period. Here, you can find a range of architectural expressions that date from different cultural periods: pyramids with ramps, one of the largest Inca cemeteries on the central coast;, and a palace that would have belonged to a curaca (Chief) of the Inca elite.

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© Flickr User: Véronique Debord-Lazaro. Licensed under Public Domain

昌昌

秘鲁昌昌也被称为“灿烂的阳光”,位于秘鲁北侧海岸、Trujillo的西北部地区。

昌昌是美洲最大的土坯建筑城市,也是世界第二大城市。它由9个小城市共同组成,展示了奇穆王国以及奇穆文化的奇妙。

Chan Chan
"Resplendent Sun." Located on the northern coast of Peru, northwest of Trujillo.
It is largest adobe-built city in the Americas and the second largest in the world. It is formed by nine citadels (small walled cities). The whole complex was the capital of the Chimor Kingdom and the Chimú culture.

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Sacsayhuamán

Sacsayhuamán是“猎鹰的狂欢场所”,坐落于库斯科北侧。

Sacsayhuamán要塞的巨石墙体是印加时期的又一大经典建筑工程。根据历史的记载,当地要塞周围有着独特的风景,库斯科城便是很好的例子。

Sacsayhuamán
"The place where the falcon is satiated." Located north of the city of Cuzco.
The Sacsayhuamán "ceremonial fortress" with its megalithic walls is the greatest architectonic work of the Incas during their apogee. According to the Inca mestizo chronicler Garcilaso de la Vega, the fortress had a singular panoramic view of the surroundings, including the city of Cuzco.

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© Wikipedia User: AgainErick. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

Pikillacta

Pikillacta被誉为“Town of Fleas”,位于库斯科东南部的Lucre区。

Pikillacta是由建于前西班牙时期的古代秘鲁城市的遗迹所组成,“Town of Fleas”占地约50公顷,位于维坎纳塔河沿岸的Lucre河谷地区。在公元六世纪至九世纪,这里是瓦里文化最重要的政治文化中心,是瓦里城市的杰出代表。到目前为止,当地仍然保留有传统的瓦里图腾。

Pikillacta
"Town of Fleas." Located in the district of Lucre, southeast of the city of Cuzco
Made up of the remains of a city in Ancient Peru from the pre-Hispanic era, the "Town of Fleas" covers an area of approximately 50 hectares in the Lucre river basin and along the course of the Vilcanota river. Between the VI to IX centuries, it was one of the most important administrative-cultist centers of the Wari culture, representing the planned wari urbanism par excellence. There are remnants of the kanchas, a typology that formed a whole modular system based on wari textiles.

秘鲁的神秘气息:10大经典的建筑遗址第9张图片

© Flickr User: jipe7. Licensed under Public Domain

查文

查文坐落于利马西北部,位于Ancash的Chavín de Huántar地区。

这里是查文文化的宗教行政中心。其建筑是由石头与粘土建造而成的金字塔形态,是古代传统建筑的杰出代表。当地的建筑完成度很高,尤其是石头上的雕塑与图腾,都展现了当地古代劳动人民精湛的技艺,在这里有大量的石砌步道与展览区域。

Chavín
Northwest of Lima, in the district of Chavín de Huántar, Ancash.
The administrative and religious centre of the Chavín culture was built and occupied approximately between the years 1500 and 300. Its truncated pyramid-shaped structures made of stone and clay are an outstanding example of the construction styles of the ancient settlers. They demonstrate a high degree of engineering perfection, particularly in the carving and polishing of stones and in the litho-sculpture associated with its architecture. Chavín is a complex network of interior stone paths and galleries.

秘鲁的神秘气息:10大经典的建筑遗址第10张图片

Wikipedia User: PhilippeS13. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

Huaca de la Luna

Huaca de la Luna位于秘鲁北岸的拉利伯塔德,靠近Huaca del Sol。

这里是传统莫奇卡文化的代表,城市由大量土坯墙建造而成的平台和广场组成。建造于不同时期的墙体连接了不同的功能区域。壁画中的浮雕是当地建筑最突出的部分,五彩斑斓的壁画显示了莫齐卡文化的独特特征。

Huaca de la Luna
Located on the northern coast of Peru, in La Libertad. It is located near the Huaca del Sol, the city between the two huacas.
Built by the Moche culture, the city is comprised of platforms and plazas surrounded by large adobe walls. The walls serve as interconnected areas that are superimposed and built in different periods. The most outstanding components of the building are the reliefs in their mural paintings. The murals use five colours that represent the characteristics and attributes of the Moche divinity called Ai Apaec.

秘鲁的神秘气息:10大经典的建筑遗址第11张图片

© Wikipedia User: Martin St-Amant. Licensed under CC BY 3.0

Kuélap

Kuélap位于秘鲁北部亚马逊平原的Luya省。

Kuélap同样也是前印加遗址,是查查波亚斯文化的代表。它由许多巨型体量的石块组成,坐落在石灰岩区域的顶部。其城墙系统十分完善,内部空间同样齐全,这说明当时的城市发展受到良好的规划组织,其中包括行政区、宗教礼仪区以及居民住宅区。

Kuélap
Located Northeast of Peru, in the Province of Luya, Amazonas.
Kuélap is a pre-Inca site that was built by the Chachapoyas culture. It is part of a group of large stone structures characterized by its monumental scale, with a large artificial platform seated on the crest of calcareous rock on the top of the hill. Its colossal walls and its intricate interior architecture are evidence of its function as a well-organized society, which includes administrative, religious, ceremonial and permanent residential areas.

秘鲁的神秘气息:10大经典的建筑遗址第12张图片

© Wikipedia User: Diego Delso. Licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

Nazca Lines

Nazca Lines位于伊卡Nazca沙漠的Jumana Pampas地区。

Nazca Lines (Líneas de Nazca)是由成百上千的古物所组成的古典地理风貌,它们由简单的点线面构成,从而在地球表面形成特殊的几何图案。

Nazca Lines
Located in the Jumana Pampas, Nazca Desert in Ica.
The Nazca Lines (Líneas de Nazca) are ancient geoglyphs composed of several hundred figures that range from simple designs such as lines, to complex zoomorphic, phytomorphic and geometric figures that appear traced on the earth's surface.

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© Wikipedia User: Enrique Jara. Licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

事实上,这里有11个建筑遗址。这些作品值得每一位建筑师从各个角度细细品鉴。

虽然有一些文化遗址并没有位列其中,例如印加文化之路和库斯科市,这些也是值得参观的地点。但是,单就这份清单来说,人们已经能够感受到世界之大。如果人们要探索古代文化,建筑遗址也许是当地的最好代表。同时,对于历史传统的浏览也将让人们构思出更加富有内涵的现代建筑。

Okay so maybe there were more than 10. ;) The hummingbird or any other of the iconographies of the Nazca lines are fundamental sites that must be visited by every architect, appreciated fully from the air, from a bird's eye view, that flies high and always keeps an open perspective.

It's worth mentioning that there are many worthy sites are not on this list, like the Inca road or the entire city of Cuzco (which deserves its own article). In short, the list will always feel small or questionable. The only real truth is that if we have living testimonies of ancient architecture today,  and it is fundamental that we give them their place and listen and interpret (or at least observe) what they tell us about the past. This will help us conceive contemporary architecture that is consistent and harmonious.
        
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© Wikiimages

秘鲁的神秘气息:10大经典的建筑遗址第15张图片

© Wikipedia User: Diego Delso. Licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

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© Wikipedia User: Mathias Ripp. Licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

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© Flickr User: miperu. Licensed under Public Domain

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© Wikipedia User: Diego Delso. Licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

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© Wikipedia User: Antonio Velasco. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

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© Lizardo Tavera

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© Wikipedia User: Ed88. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

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© Wikiimages

秘鲁的神秘气息:10大经典的建筑遗址第23张图片

© Wikipedia User: Martin St-Amant. Licensed under CC BY 3.0

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© Wikiimages

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© Wikiimages

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© pixabay



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