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如今多元社会中,该如何通过新兴策略来表达宗教建筑?第1张图片

索尔兹伯里大教堂/Salisbury Cathedral. Image© Flickr user JackPeasePhotography licensed under CC BY 2.0

我们今天的宗教建筑跟宗教是否还有相关性?
Is Religious Architecture Still Relevant?

由专筑网缕夕,李韧编译

历史上伟大的宗教建筑作品通常是为了建立精神世界从而推动宗教的发展。随着人们愈发倾向于世俗无神论,近年来的宗教建筑似乎没有曾经那么流行。碍于敬畏沉默和奉献精神的影响,路易斯康的“无量”和柯布西耶的 “不可言说”是否已经成为了过去式?

2018年威尼斯双年展的梵蒂冈展馆表达了“既是宗教,又是世俗”的神圣感,换句话说,宗教空间就是通过将各个宗教元素组合起来,从而模糊公共空间的形态,让其带有特殊的精神色彩。

那么这是什么意思?人的内在精神在建筑中是否仍然起着关键作用?是否有可能为不同信仰的人和没有信仰的人创造空间?那么是什么让一个空间具有“精神”?

Some of the greatest architectural works throughout history have been the result of religion, driven by the need to construct spaces where humanity could be one step closer to a higher power. With more people choosing a secular lifestyle than ever before, are the effects that these buildings convey—timelessness, awe, silence and devotion, what Louis Kahn called the “immeasurable” and Le Corbusier called the “ineffable”—no longer relevant?
With the Vatican’s proposal for the 2018 Venice Biennale, described as “a sort of pilgrimage that is not only religious but also secular,” it is clear that the role of "religious" spaces is changing from the iconography of organized religion to ambiguous spaces that reflect the idea of "spirituality" as a whole.
So what does this mean? Is there still a key role for spirituality in architecture? Is it possible to create spaces for those of different faiths and those without faith at all? And what makes a space "spiritual" in the first place?

如今多元社会中,该如何通过新兴策略来表达宗教建筑?第2张图片

科尔多瓦大清真寺/Mosque-Cathedral of Cordoba. Image© Wikimedia user Meisam licensed under CC BY 2.0

有趣的是,在大多数宗教建筑中,敬拜空间没有固定的形式。虽然人们印象中会有伊斯兰教和天主教哥特式教堂的尖塔,但长久以来,那些宗教建筑的敬拜空间总是随着宗教的变幻而变化,这仅仅是取决于宗教权力的转换。例如,万神殿(The Pantheon)拆除了异教徒的神像,取而代之的是基督教的形象,而建筑本身却保持不变,空间扮演着同样的角色。圣经遗址上的建筑已经从教堂改成清真寺,亦或是犹太教会堂。神圣的空间,不论宗教,往往有着非常相似的特征,光线和空间尺度渲染出敬畏和虔诚的气氛。

It is interesting to note that there is no fundamental or essential form for worship spaces in most major religions. Although we think of minarets for Islam and Gothic cathedrals for Catholicism, throughout history many sacred spaces were easily switched from one religion to another depending on those in power. For example, the Pantheon was stripped of its sculptures of Pagan gods and replaced with Christian imagery while the architecture itself stayed the same and played the same role. Buildings erected on Biblical sites have changed from churches to mosques to synagogues. Built sacred spaces, no matter the religion, often share very similar typologies, with the use of light and scale to evoke a sense of awe and piety.

如今多元社会中,该如何通过新兴策略来表达宗教建筑?第3张图片

万神庙/The Pantheon. Image© Flickr user Jun licensed under CC BY SA-2.0

然而,历史建筑很少有容纳不同宗教的空间,更多的是单一的宗教空间。有一个例外的案例是阿姆利则金庙(Golden Temple in Amritsar )(1577年),四方的入口代表寺庙愿意为各行各业的人敞开大门。但是,不同的信仰体系是不断变化的,俄罗斯为所有宗教而设的神殿(Temple of All Religions)(1992年)解决了这一建筑问题,通过将希腊东正教与俄罗斯的尖塔和圆顶组合,让建筑看上去如同犹太教堂或清真寺。目前在柏林建造有三教合一教堂(2015年),这座建筑将基督教、犹太教和伊斯兰教三教结合。

However, historical architecture has very rarely built spaces with the purpose to house multiple religions. An exception is the Golden Temple in Amritsar (1577), where entrances on all four sides represent the temple's willingness to open its doors for people from all walks of life and religions. But the historic desire to clearly separate the architecture of different faiths is changing, with the Temple of All Religions in Russia (1992) tackling the architectural problem by juxtaposing Greek Orthodox domes with Russian minarets and ornamental flourishes that would be at home in a Jewish synagogue or Islamic mosque. And currently being built in Berlin is the House of One (2015), where a church, synagogue, and mosque will exist under the same roof.

如今多元社会中,该如何通过新兴策略来表达宗教建筑?第4张图片

俄罗斯世界宗教神庙/Temple of All Religions, Russia. Image© Flickr user Maarten licensed under CC BY 2.0

另一个有趣的方式则是将仪式感融入各种不同的空间中,例如购物中心、机场、医院、监狱、学校和政府大楼。这些多信仰的空间往往无法直接看见,通常只是呈现出空旷的白墙房间,教徒们在等待航班等空闲时可以来到这里进行祈祷。利物普大学建筑学院院长Andrew Crompton,他将此类空间描述为“没有光环的世俗空间”,他解释说道:“为了以恰当的方式来表达神圣感,建筑师采用了平凡的材料,避免传统的秩序和规律。”[ 1 ],而不是将不同宗教的元素各取一瓢,最后形成大杂烩似的万能宗教空间,那些多信仰空间往往具有统一性,在人们需要时出现,不需要时它就是一个空白场所。

Another interesting way this issue has been explored is through "multifaith" rooms that exist in airports, shopping centers, hospitals, prisons, schools, and government buildings. These multifaith rooms, often invisible if one does not look for them, are typically simply an empty, white-walled room tucked in somewhere without any input by architects, where people of different faiths can come in to worship while waiting for a plane or a discharged patient. Andrew Crompton, Head of the School of Architecture at the University of Liverpool, explores the phenomenon of multifaith spaces and describes them as “mundane spaces without an aura,” explaining that “in order not to be meaningful in an inappropriate way, they use banal materials, avoid order and regularity, and are the architectural equivalent of ambient noise.” [1] Rather than attempting to promote unity through inclusion, using the Temple of All Religions' approach of a strange eclectic mix of everything, these multifaith rooms attempt to promote unity by stripping away anything that evokes the sacred, leaving us with nothing.

如今多元社会中,该如何通过新兴策略来表达宗教建筑?第5张图片

位于香港国际机场的祈祷室/Multifaith Prayer Room, Hong Kong International Airport. Image© Wikimedia Commons user Chongkian licensed under CC BY SA-3.0

但是当宗教信仰的过热时期迅速冷却下来的时候,“精神”或“多信仰”空间是否会更快来临?事实上,这些空间相当重要。Julio Bermudez的散文集《Transcending Architecture: Contemporary Views on Sacred Space》中描述了“我们的当代文明如何产生空虚无意义的感觉”,并且这与人们对“精神”空间的需求紧密相关。[2]随着消费主义和多元化发展,人们不断受到不同的影像和信息的困扰,对空间的反思、内心的冥想在此时看来愈发重要。通过这种方式,建筑中的灵性可能会与有组织的宗教完全分离,从而产生奇妙、令人反思的空间。

But are "spiritual" or "multifaith" spaces even relevant in a time where rates of religiosity are declining rapidly? In fact, they may be more important than ever. Julio Bermudez’s collection of essays, Transcending Architecture: Contemporary Views on Sacred Space describes how “our contemporary civilization has exacerbated the feelings of existential emptiness and meaninglessness” and that the need for "spiritual" or "transcendent" space could not be more relevant. [2] With consumerism and hyper-connectivity, where we are continually besieged by constant images, noise, and information, the need for spaces to reflect, to meditate and to feel silence is crucial. In this way, spirituality in architecture can be completely disconnected from organized religion and take on a new role—with architecture that creates a sense of wonder, a space for reflection, and a glimpse into clarity.

如今多元社会中,该如何通过新兴策略来表达宗教建筑?第6张图片

© Fernando Guerra | FG+SG

创造这些建筑条件的方法可以从过去的经验中学习,重新创造没有宗教性的自我反思和敬畏氛围。通过形式、空间、规模、材质、光和精神空间的作用,可以开始形成一种新的类型。路易斯·康认为,精神空间可以通过沉默和光明创造出来,在他的项目中得到证明,例如美国加州萨尔克生物研究所(The Salk Institute),宗教崇拜对于神性空间的创造并非必不可少。他在建筑作品中巧妙地结合了光明和黑暗,并说道:“必须足够黑暗才能显得神秘。”[3]在萨尔克生物研究所(The Salk Institute)项目中,实验室下方的阴暗回廊和广场上的明亮质感形成了鲜明的对比,增强了空间中的戏剧性。在Robert McCarter所总结的路易斯康作品中,他说这个广场的设计并非传统,但它“仍然是有史以来最强大、最能感动人的空间”。[4]

The ways to create these architectural conditions can be learned from the structures of the past, to recreate the atmosphere of self-reflection and awe without the necessity of religion. Through form, space, scale, materiality, and light, the role of spiritual spaces can begin to form a new typology, one that today’s society can benefit from. Louis Kahn believed that spiritual spaces could be created through silence and light, evidenced in his projects such as the Salk Institute, where a program of religious worship was not essential to the creation of a sacred place. He described his use of light and dark in his architectural work as pertaining to the philosophy that “even a space intended to be dark should have just enough light from some mysterious opening to tell us how dark it really is.” [3] In the Salk Institute, the stark difference between the shadowy cloisters beneath the laboratories and the open brightness of the plaza emphasizes the qualities of light in each of those spaces, heightening the sense of drama and emotion. In Robert McCarter’s tome on Louis Kahn, he describes that although this plaza does not have a formal program, it “remains one of the most powerful and deeply moving spaces ever built.” [4]

如今多元社会中,该如何通过新兴策略来表达宗教建筑?第7张图片

萨尔克生物研究所/The Salk Institute. Image© Flickr user Jason Taellius licensed under CC BY SA-2.0

建筑师的另一种处理、创造精神空间的方法是通过使用自然元素。例如运用一棵古树的树枝制造斑驳的影子,海水轻轻拍打着海岸线,这些来自自然的瞬间创造出一种宁静的感觉,能够提升人类的精神层次。在路易斯康的萨尔克生物研究所(The Salk Institute)和卡洛•斯卡帕的布里昂家族墓地(Brion Cemetery)项目中,建筑师同样都运用了流水来表达了时间,其精确性和简单性创造了绝对清晰的短暂时刻。在彼得•卒姆托的瓦尔斯温泉浴场(Therme Vals )中,水也是必不可少的部分,它与石墙形成对比,创建了一个超现实的冥想空间。这些例子很好地说明了建造精神空间的各种方式,也证明了人们可以在特定的空间中创造宗教感。

Another way in which architects have tackled the question of how to create spiritual spaces is through the use of nature. The dappled shadows cast by the branches of an ancient tree, or the way the ocean laps gently against the shore, are all moments in nature that create a sense of tranquillity, working to uplift the human spirit. In the Salk Institute and Carlo Scarpa’s Brion Cemetery, the use of water flowing through the site acts as a moment of calm, its precision and simplicity creating a brief moment of absolute clarity. In Peter Zumthor’s Therme Vals water is an essential part of the program and, paired with the materiality of the quartz stone walls, it creates a surreal and meditative space. These examples give a hint to how these new spiritual spaces can be built, where the emphasis moves from specific religions to a space for all that is necessary for all.

如今多元社会中,该如何通过新兴策略来表达宗教建筑?第8张图片

布里昂家族墓/Brion Cemetery. Image© Flickr user seier+seier licensed under CC BY 2.0

人们对教堂、清真寺和庙宇的钻研,表明了宗教建筑的持续性。虽然人们不一定具有宗教信仰,但这些建筑所产生的空间影响,意味着一种全新建筑形式的诞生,这在当今的世界中必不可少。

“就像我们围着这座城墙走了好几个世纪一样,大教堂也围绕着沉默而生长。”——Max Picard《沉默的世界(The World of Silence)》

Our ongoing architectural fascination with cathedrals, mosques, and temples points to the continuing relevance of religious architecture. Although we may not all follow the traditions and beliefs of organized religion, the effects that these buildings create suggests a new type of architecture that can be relevant and even essential in our current world.
“Just as ivy grows round a wall for centuries, so the cathedrals have grown around the silence. They are built around the silence.
—Max Picard, The World of Silence”



参考书籍:
  • Crompton, Andrew——《The Architecture of Multifaith Spaces: God Leaves the Building》, 《建筑学报》第4期第18部分(2013年)
  • Bermudez,Julio——《Transcending Architecture: Contemporary Views on Sacred Space》, 美国天主教大学出版社(2015年)
  • Kahn, Louis、Vassella、Alessandro(2013年)《静谧与光明(Silence and light)》, Zurich: Park Books(2013年)
  • McCarter, Robert(2005年), 路易斯·康(Louis I. Khan), London:Phaidon(2009年)

References
  • Crompton, Andrew. “The Architecture of Multifaith Spaces: God Leaves the Building.” The Journal of Architecture, Volume 18 Issue 4 (2013).
  • Bermudez, Julio. “Transcending Architecture: Contemporary Views on Sacred Space.” The Catholic University of America Press (2015).
  • Kahn, Louis. and Vassella, Alessandro. (2013). Silence and light. Zurich: Park Books (2013)
  • McCarter, Robert. (2005). Louis I. Khan. London: Phaidon (2009)


出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。

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