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展览|南斯拉夫曾经的辉煌第1张图片


现代艺术博物馆展览的南斯拉夫建筑
MoMA's Toward a Concrete Utopia exhibition presents the architecture of Yugoslavia

由专筑网缕夕,王帅编译

纽约现代艺术博物馆最近展览了主题为令人印象深刻的纪念碑、充满野心的总体规划和社会主义前南斯拉夫建筑师未实现的愿景。

展览名称为:走向具体的乌托邦,1948年至1980年在南斯拉夫的建筑探索了建筑和城市规划的使用,在45年期间为该国创造国际化的辨识。

The impressive monuments, ambitious masterplans and unrealised visions of architects across socialist former Yugoslavia are the subject of an exhibition at New York's Museum of Modern Art.
Toward a Concrete Utopia: Architecture in Yugoslavia, 1948-1980 explores the use of building and urban planning to create a national identity for the country during its 45-year existence.

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现代艺术博物馆展览了南斯拉夫45年来的建筑,包括为纪念第二次世界大战而建造的许多纪念碑/MoMA's exhibition presents the architecture created during Yugoslavia's 45 years of existence, including the many monuments built to commemorate the second world war

博物馆三层的罗伯特·门斯节画廊(Robert Menschel Galleries),拥有超过400幅图画、模型、照片和电影胶片展示了南斯拉夫建筑环境的演变,而究其原因是南斯拉夫在政治和意识形态上脱离苏联和西方。

现代艺术博物馆在一份声明说到:“展览调查了建筑在高度多样化、多民族社会中建立共享公民空间和共同历史的能力。”

Spread across the The Robert Menschel Galleries on the museum's third floor, more than 400 drawings, models, photographs, and film reels present the evolution of Yugoslavia's built environment as it politically and ideologically positioned itself away from both the Soviet Union and the West.
"The exhibition investigates architecture's capacity to produce a shared civic space and common history in a highly diverse, multiethnic society," said a statement from MoMA.

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展览展出了400多幅图纸、模型、照片和电影胶片/Toward a Concrete Utopia includes more than 400 drawings, models, photographs, and film reels

第二次世界大战后,南斯拉夫独立后,加入了东南欧巴尔干半岛的几个社会主义共和国和省份。

然而,其领导人Josip Broz Tito于1980年去世后,该国随之瓦解,并在1991年至2001年期间遭受血腥的战争。其领土现已归属到克罗地亚、塞尔维亚、波斯尼亚、黑塞哥维那、马其顿、斯洛文尼亚等国,以及仍然存在争议的科索沃。

Yugoslavia was formed in its entirety after the second world war, joining several socialist republics and provinces across the Balkans peninsula in southeastern Europe.
However, following the death of its leader Josip Broz Tito in 1980, the country broke up and subsequently endured bloody wars from 1991 to 2001. The region is now spilt into the nations of Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Slovenia, and Montenegro, plus the still-disputed territory of Kosovo.

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展览中较小的房间主要用于介绍该国最重要的建筑师,包括BogdanBogdanović和Juraj Nedhardt/Smaller rooms across the exhibition focus on the country's most important architects, including Bogdan Bogdanović and Juraj Nedhardt

现代艺术博物馆的展览重点为南斯拉夫鼎盛时期。南斯拉夫的部分地区在第二次世界大战期间受到严重破坏,因此需要主要建筑项目来协调重建工作,用以巩固新国家的实力和打造理想的基础。

展览的第一部分展示了该国的现代化,以及用于改善社会标准的建筑是如何从国际风格发展到野兽派艺术的。

MoMA's exhibition focuses on the period of advancement during Yugoslavia's heyday. Parts of the region were heavily damaged during the second world war, so concerted rebuilding efforts were required, along with major construction projects to assert the new nation's prowess and ideals.
The first part of the exhibition investigates modernisation in the country, and how this led to structural expressionism that spanned from the International Style to brutalism, for buildings intended to improve social standards.

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A区专门展览了南斯拉夫的工业设计/A section is dedicated to Yugoslavia's industrial design output

像体育馆、博物馆、图书馆和教育设施这样的大型公共建筑,以及酒店和办公楼等私人企业,随着混凝土技术的进步,这些建筑以大胆的形式在南斯拉夫全国范围内迅速增加。

现代艺术博物馆的声明说:“现代建筑肩负着在“自我管理”的基础上建设社会主义社会的任务,它们是实现永久性出现状态的乌托邦愿景的关键工具;许多具有远见卓识的项目和建筑实践,都体现了建筑的理想角色,建筑同时担任了设计和社会影响作用。”

Grand public structures like stadia, museums, libraries and educational facilities – as well as private ventures such as hotels and office towers – went up across the country, all with daring forms made possible by advances in concrete construction techniques.
"Tasked with constructing a socialist society based on 'self-management', modern architecture was a key instrument in the implementation of a utopian vision in a perpetual state of emergence; many of the featured visionary projects and executed buildings speak to architecture's aspirational role in terms of both design and social impact," said MoMA's statement.

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展览突出的项目有Vjenceslav Richter在布鲁塞尔举办的58届世博会南斯拉夫馆/Projects highlighted in Toward a Concrete Utopia include Vjenceslav Richter's Yugoslav Pavilion for Expo 58 in Brussels

展览的各个部分突出了具体的大型项目,包括新联邦首都新贝尔格莱德(New Belgrade)的建立,其中涉及多个住宅区和城市建筑的设计建成。

其中一个展区为重建斯科普里,该地区于1963年遭受地震的破坏。日本现代主义建筑师丹下健三为斯科普里制定了一个积极的总体规划,其中包括一个巨大的城门和城墙,但他的大多数设计最终未能建成。

Sections of the exhibition highlight specific large-scale projects, including the creation of the new federal capital, New Belgrade, which involved producing multiple housing blocks and civic buildings.
One area is dedicated to the reconstruction of Skopje, which was devastated by an earthquake in 1963. Japanese modernist architect Kenzo Tangecame up with a radical masterplan for the city, which included a vast City Gate and City Wall, although the majority of his was never built.

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IvanVitić在克罗地亚萨格勒布的公寓楼/Ivan Vitić's apartment building in Zagreb, Croatia, is one of several housing schemes presented

然而,野兽派建筑的几个重要例子确实在马其顿首都完成。 其中包括Janko Konstantinov的电信中心,Georgi Konstantinovki的GoceDelčev学生宿舍,以及MarkoMušič的Ss Cyril和Methodius大学校园。

展览的另一部分展示了重建扎达尔的计划,扎达尔在第二次世界大战期间遭到严重轰炸。 更多的这一现代派的愿景得以实现,包括博物馆建筑和克罗地亚城市滨水区的住房。

However, several important examples of brutalist architecture did make it to completion in the Macedonian capital. Among them are Janko Konstantinov's Telecommunications Center, Georgi Konstantinovki's Goce Delčev Student Dormitory, and Marko Mušič's Ss Cyril and Methodius University Campus.
Another part of the exhibition shows the plans for rebuilding Zadar, which was heavily bombed during the second world war. Much more of this modernist vision came to fruition, including museum buildings and housing along the Croatian city's waterfront.

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在这次展览的档案作品中,有一本书名为《波斯尼亚建筑和现代之路》,由DušanGrabrijan和Juraj Neidhardt于1957年撰写/Among archival works sourced for the exhibition is this cover of a book titled Architecture of Bosnia and the Way to Modernity, written by Dušan Grabrijan and Juraj Neidhardt in 1957

在博物馆里较小的展厅中,展示了该地区当时最重要的建筑师,如受到超现实主义影响的BogdanBogdanović和Juraj Nedhardt,他们的目的是创建一个基于奥斯曼当地风格的现代主义区域设计。

展览的最后一部分是为纪念第二次世界大战的受害者,在20世纪50年代和60年代建立的巨型雕塑纪念碑。

其中包括雕塑家MiodragŽivković在波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那的Sutjeska战役纪念碑,其外形为一对彼此展开的巨大锯齿状,还有MarkoMušič的切面屋顶纪念和文化中心,以及黑山的市政厅。

Smaller rooms focus on the region's most important architects of the time, such as Bogdan Bogdanović – who was heavily influenced by surrealism – and Juraj Nedhardt, who aimed to create a regional version of modernism based on the Ottoman vernacular.
Toward a Concrete Utopia's final section is dedicated to the giant sculptural monuments erected across the region in the 1950s and 1960s to commemorate the victims of the second world war.
These include sculptor Miodrag Živković's Monument to the Battle of Sutjeska in Bosnia and Herzegovina, comprising a pair of huge jagged forms the splay away from each other, and Marko Mušič's faceted-roofed Memorial and Cultural Centre, and Town Hall in Montenegro.

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这张1984年建筑师Janko Konstantinov回顾展的海报展示了他的设想项目/This poster for a 1984 retrospective exhibition of work by architect Janko Konstantinov illustrates his visionary projects

在整个展览期间,Valentin Jeck特别委托烧毁的照片与原始建筑图纸一起展出。

这些历史见证证明许多项目已经实现,而不是像脑海中幻想一样,并且今天可以为人亲眼目睹。

Throughout the exhibition, specially commissioned photographs by Valentin Jeck are blown up and displayed alongside original architectural drawings.
These prove that many of the projects were realised, rather than remaining as pie-in-the-sky visions, and are possible to visit today.

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1951年贝尔格莱德的总体规划体现了该国一些城市规划的规模/The scale of some of the country's urban-planning ambitions is exemplified by this 1951 masterplan for Belgrade

展览由MoMA的建筑与设计首席策展人Martino Stierli,佛罗里达大西洋大学副教授VladimirKulić和现代艺术博物馆馆长助理Anna Kats组织。

该展览于2018年7月15日向公众开放,一直持续到2019年1月13日。目前在博物馆展出的还有雕塑家Bodys Isek Kingelez的奇幻建筑模型回顾展。

它最近的展览有标志性时装设计历史的调查,以及建筑师弗兰克•劳莱德•赖特的重要作品展示。

Toward a Concrete Utopia is organised by MoMA's chief curator of architecture and design Martino Stierli, Florida Atlantic University associate professor Vladimir Kulić, and MoMA curatorial assistant Anna Kats.
The exhibition opens to the public 15 July 2018 and runs until 13 January 2019. Also currently on show at the museum is a retrospective of fantastical architectural models by late Congolese sculptor Bodys Isek Kingelez.
Its previous recent exhibitions have included an investigation into the history of iconic fashion designs, and a major showcase of work by architect Frank Lloyd Wright.

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