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© Planbim

在建筑办公中实施BIM的关键
Keys to Implement BIM in Your Architecture Office

由专筑网邢子,王帅编译

David Miller Architects(DMA)在注意到自己的流程中存在效率低下和脱节(设计,建模和文档都单独工作)之后,决定在2008年在他的公司实施BIM(建筑信息模型)。尽管他们取得了成功,但这种尝试和走弯路的经验还是给了他们一系列的教训,在重新思考建筑设计时,我们必须考虑这些问题。

David Miller说:“BIM让我们让我们以更结构化和组织的方式重新实践。然后,它让我们取得更有效的质量管理,并且更有条理也更彻底,这对于尝试小型实践非常重要。而且真切的增加了我们一些客户的信心。”

2018年6月,我们在智利圣地亚哥举行的一次会议上与英国建筑师进行了交谈,其中包括由Planbim组织的“为什么要在2020年实施BIM”研讨会。该研讨会确定了7个关键点,可以促进建筑办公中实施这一范式。

After noticing a huge inefficiency and disarticulation in their processes (working separately in design, modeling, and documentation), David Miller Architects (DMA) decided to immerse his company into the BIM (Building Information Modeling) world in 2008. Despite their success, this experience of trial and error gave them a series of lessons that are important to consider when rethinking the way we do architecture.
“BIM gave us an opportunity to reimagine the practice, in a much more structured and organized way. Then, it allowed us to have more quality control, and be more organized and thorough, which is really important for a small practice trying to grow. And that really increased the confidence in some of our clients, says David Miller.”
We spoke with the British architect at a conference in June 2018 in Santiago, Chile, which included the seminar "Why Implement BIM in 2020" organized by Planbim. This seminar identified 7 key points that can facilitate the implementation of this paradigm in an architecture office.


1.你的办公室越小,实施BIM就越容易

根据David Miller的说法,实施BIM与软件本身无关,而是改变了你的工作方式。出于这个原因,当在一个小组中处理这种转变时,更容易面对这一过程:

我们有一支年轻的队伍;他们对技术和新的工作方式非常满意。在接下来的10年里,我们提高了自己的素质,并且该团队围绕BIM增加了自己的能力。

2.意识到你将经历不同的阶段

在BIM实施起初阶段,Miller解释说要经历一系列“成熟化”阶段是正常的。第一个是所谓的“孤独”阶段(你的工作室使用BIM,但与你合作的公司没有),然后是“非正式”阶段(当你已经实施了BIM,但它没有标准化或制度化),最后,“规定化”阶段(当超过60%的办公室项目实施BIM时)。在这些阶段,其效率回报得到反映,并与成本呈反指数增长。

1. The smaller your office is, the easier it is to implement BIM
According to David Miller, implementing BIM has little to do with the software itself, but rather, with changing the way you work. For this reason, it's much easier to face this process when the transformation is managed in a small group of workers:
We had quite a young team; they were very comfortable with technology, comfortable with new ways of working. In the following 10 years, we grew our capability and we grew our ability around BIM with that team.

2. Be aware that you will go through different stages
When starting the BIM implementation, Miller explains that it's normal to go through a series of "maturation" stages. The first is the so-called "Lonely" stage (where your office uses BIM, but the companies you work with don't), then the "Informal" (when you have already implemented BIM but it's not formalized or institutionalized), and lastly, "Contractual" (when BIM implementation is mandatory in more than 60% of the projects of the office). In these stages, its efficiency reward is reflected, which increases exponentially against costs.

使用BIM的七个实用建议第2张图片

via Revit 2018 Architectural Course For Beginner With Project / Udemy.com

3.改变您的工作环境

调整工作环境以适应协作式工作结构是至关重要的,始终附加必要的数据以便快速共享和工作。此外,工作环境必须具备即时通信的属性:

BIM能让年轻人在职业生涯早期就被赋予更多责任感,这有助于他们增加信心并帮助他们成长。这对他们和业务都有利;这对留下员工以及办公室的氛围都有好处。

4.投资培训和工具

根据Miller的经验,实施BIM的投资分为硬件(20%),软件(30%)和员工培训(50%)。人力成本不仅意味着培训,还需要付出很多努力来留下受训人员:

虽然培训消耗了约一半成本,但这对你的团队来说实际上是一件好事。这关系到团队能否建立牢固的关系;优秀的员工很难找,所以如果找到了好的员工,就好好培训他们并让他们留下来,从而随着实践而成长。

3. Modify your work environment
It's essential to adapt your work environment to a collaborative work structure, always attaching the necessary data to share and work quickly. Also, the work environment must be designed for immediate communication:
BIM allows you to give younger people more responsibility earlier in their career, which helps their confidence and helps them grow. This is good for them and it's good for the business; it's good for staff retention and it's good for the atmosphere in the office.

4. Invest in training and tools
In Miller's experience, the investment in implementing BIM is divided into hardware (20%), software (30%), and staff training (50%). The human cost doesn't only imply training, but requires a lot of effort to keep the person you trained:
Perhaps half of the cost was training, and that's actually a good thing to be doing with your team. It's about developing a strong relationship with your team; it's hard to find good staff so if you have found a good staff it's good to train them and hope that they stay and grow with the practice.

使用BIM的七个实用建议第3张图片

via AS122882: Creating Intelligent Details in Revit / Autodesk.com

5.不要以项目的大小来限制自己:BIM适用于所有规模

建筑办公中使用BIM时没有大规模项目的限制,也不要求只针对“从头开始”的项目:

事实上,我们发现BIM在翻新项目和历史项目中的表现非常出色,而且规模也不是障碍。我们在小型项目上使用了与大型项目相同的技术。BIM能够以更好地实施流程完成任务。

6.仅通过使用BIM的方式协调所有工作

建议仅使用一种方式(或至少相同的规则)来指导整个工作分析系统,并确保所有级别的信息标准相同。在David Miller建筑事务所,他们遵循官方英语标准,充分利用当地法规和机会。

5. Don't restrict yourself by the size of the projects: BIM works on all scales
It's not necessary for your architecture office to develop large-scale assignments to work with BIM, nor is it a requirement that for only projects that "start from scratch:"
We found, in fact, that BIM works incredibly well in refurbishment projects and historic projects, and also the size isn't a barrier. We use the same techniques on smaller projects as we do on larger projects. It's about implementing the processes to do things better.

6. Coordinate all work through a single way of using BIM
It's advisable to use a single manual (or, at least, the same rules) to guide the overall work analysis system and ensure the same standard of information at all levels. At David Miller Architects they are guided by the official English standard, taking advantage of local regulations and opportunities.

使用BIM的七个实用建议第4张图片

via 3ds Max: Revit Integration / Lynda.com

7.使用BIM并不一定反对创造力

在David Miller 建筑事务所办公室,建筑师们将不同类别的创建不同的库,然后通过适应特定项目的模块进行设计,识别现有环境中的机会。还需要对此上下文进行建模以获得更丰富的模型,并通过单个模型协调所有专业。通过这种方式,从模块进行设计与生成重复或同类设计不同,因为它允许通过提供完整信息为每个项目生成各种适当的类型:

相反,这种“数字工具包”可以让我们更有效率,并为我们提供更多时间来研究创意部分。

7. Using BIM is not necessarily against creativity
In the David Miller Architects offices, the architects create different libraries by typology and then design through modules that adapt to the particular project, identifying opportunities in the existing context. It's also necessary to model this context to obtain richer models and coordinate all the specialties through a single model. In this way, designing from modules is not the same as generating repetitive or homogeneous designs, since it allows for generating diverse and appropriate typologies for each project by having the complete information:
On the contrary, this 'digital kit of pieces' allows us to be much more efficient and gives us more time to develop the creative part of the process.

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