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BIM技术初体验——学习BIM首先要了解什么?第1张图片


Top Tips for BIM Beginners

由专筑网李韧,王雪纯编译

当你开始考虑应用BIM(建筑信息建模)技术时,无论是独立的专业人员还是施工公司,都必须考虑以下三个方面,即技术、过程、人员配置。下文我们会就这三个方面进行讨论,带你更好地理解BIM技术。

技术

如何选用建模工具

BIM的应用代表着从CAD到BIM软件的转变,因此我们需要了解硬件和软件的需求。随着BIM技术愈发普及,建筑师所要做的东西也越来越多。

目前市面上比较流行的两个软件是Autodesk公司的Revit和Graphisoft公司的ArchiCAD。每个软件都有各自的优缺点,但是总体来说,它们都能够完成项目的设计与绘制过程。因此在选择使用哪一个软件时,可以考虑项目其他参与者,以及设计过程的其他软件和项目特征等等元素。

选择Revit 还是 ArchiCAD?

另外一个需要考虑的因素是电脑的操作系统,因为Revit只能运行于Windows操作系统,而ArchiCAD在Windows或MAC系统中都可以运行,另外,还要注意软件的版本,因为Revit无法双向兼容,也就是说Revit 2018不能打开由Revit 2019绘制的文件,如果你和合作方使用的软件版本不一样,那么协作起来就很麻烦。

就硬件而言,建模软件需要大量的RAM内存,因此电脑的容量越大,软件运行就越流畅。可以到Revit或ArchiCAD的网站中查看了解每个软件的硬件要求。

When you start to consider implementing the BIM (Building Information Modeling) methodology, whether as an independent professional or as a construction firm, it's necessary to take into account three key aspects: the technology, the process, and the people who bring it all together. In this article, we will address the key points in every one of these three aspects in order to give you insight into how to best start using BIM.

Technology
What modelling tools should I use?
When implementing BIM, it's necessary to keep in mind the hardware and software requirements as you transition from CAD to BIM. As the use of BIM grows, so does the range of services that we are able to offer as architects.
Currently, two of the most popular and utilized modeling tools on the market are Autodesk Revit and Graphisoft's ArchiCAD. Although each one has its own advantages and disadvantages, in general, both are capable of tackling whatever project you decide to take on. When deciding what tools to use, it's necessary to consider the rest of the project's participants and elements; verifying what other tools will be used in the design process, as well as the project's calculations and specialties.

Revit or ArchiCAD?
Along with the software, it's important to consider the operating system that you plan on using, as Revit only runs on Windows operating systems while ArchiCAD can run with either Windows or MAC. More so, pay attention to the version of the software, since Revit is not bidirectionally compatible. This means that Revit 2018 cannot open a Revit 2019 file, which can cause hang-ups in a project if you and your associates are each working with different versions.
Regarding hardware, modeling software tend to consume a great deal of RAM memory, so the more you have to use, the better. To get an idea about the recommended minimum hardware requirements for each software program, check with the Revit or ArchiCAD technical sites.

BIM技术初体验——学习BIM首先要了解什么?第2张图片


过程

BIM的逐步实施

如果要在项目中应用BIM技术,首先应该明确目标,因为这会涉及到不同的公司和人员的合作。因此这是个逐步推进的过程,并不能一蹴而就,最好与专门的BIM顾问进行合作。

一旦确定了目标,你就需要了解其对于生产力的影响,因为需要时间去培训和学习软件。

优化学习曲线

优化学习曲线的关键点在于将所学到的东西真正应用到项目之中,而这个项目最好属于专业开发类型。其目标是先应用BIM技术,并且成为构成内容、工作流、检测项目弱项的起点。测试项目同样也是个好起点,可以形成公司希望的需求与模型标准的内部文件。

总的来说,记住这些内容能够加速BIM技术的集成与项目开发的过程,同时也能减少具体施工时的问题。

Processes
Gradually Implementing BIM
Applying BIM to projects and workflow in architecture starts by establishing the objectives that you hope to fulfill with its implementation, especially because these tend to vary based on the company or the person. There are many levels of implementation and this is a gradual process that needs to be done with patience and as much organization as possible, preferably with the help of a BIM consultant or professional.
Once you have established the goals of the implementation, you will need to then look at its impact on productivity. This generally includes the time needed for training as well as the learning curves of the software.

Optimizing the 'Learning Curve'
One of the keys to optimizing the learning curve is by adopting or implementing it into a 'beta' project, which should fall into the profile of a professional or company development project. The objective is to serve as a starting point to generate the content, flow, and to detect the program's weak spots before applying the BIM methodology to the rest of your projects. This beta project is also a good starting point to create internal documentation of the requirements and modeling standards that the company wants to establish and uphold.
Overall, keeping in mind these aspects will speed up the process of integrating BIM methodology and project development and will also lessen the headaches that come with implementation.

BIM技术初体验——学习BIM首先要了解什么?第3张图片


人员

你设计的是哪一类项目?项目发起者是谁?

无论你是一名应用BIM技术的建筑师,还是专业的BIM公司,亦或是独立的专业人员,技术的应用过程首先要先了解BIM技术对于项目的影响。

因此你可以先搞清楚自己负责的是哪一类项目,毕竟不同类型的项目需要不同的工具和BIM技术。

另外还需要考虑的是人员的配置。举例来说,开发建筑项目的专业人员相比起管理与审查项目的专业人员来说,就有着不同的学习经历,并不是团队的所有成员都需要学习同样的工具,或是应用同样的技术,并且他们的程度也各不相同。

因此学习过程与使用BIM技术的项目类型直接相关。

图片:Cortesía de Academia BIM

People
What types of projects do you design and who develops them?
Whether you want to use BIM as an architectural or construction firm or as an independent professional, the adoption process starts with understanding what these technologies involve and how they affect, for better or worse, the process of project development.
With this in mind, it's also a good idea to ask yourself the following question: what kind of projects do we and will we undertake? After all, different types of projects call for different tools and BIM methodologies.
It's also necessary to consider the profile of the people who will use the technology. For example, a professional who develops architectural projects will have a different learning experience than a professional who manages and reviews them (an auditor or a client representative). Not all team members need to learn to use the same tools or to the same degree as each other.  
The learning/training process is very much related to the BIM tools/technology that you will use to develop projects under this methodology.

BIM技术初体验——学习BIM首先要了解什么?第4张图片


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