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现代遗产:废墟改造项目回顾
modern relics: a retrospective of ruin interventions

由专筑网李佳琪,李韧编译

废墟和破旧的建筑常受赞美,因为除了怀旧价值,随着时间的推移,其自然的破败本身也具有一种雕塑美学。这一现象因其时代性而独树一帜。通常情况下,在修复这些建筑时,建筑师们会采用简洁、现代的材料与其中破败的元素形成对比,从而以这种方式表达对原本结构的尊重,突出其受损的部位。而在其他情况下,建筑师也会用一种更传统的理念来进行改造,尊重或再造原有的结构。

Designboom回顾了旧时的废墟修复项目和其改造措施,来探究不同的设计方式。

Ruins and dilapidated structures are often celebrated because, apart from nostalgic value, the natural dilapidation itself over time may offer a sculptural aesthetic to the structure. This phenomenon is unique due to its temporality. Often, in restoring these structures, architects incorporate crisp, contemporary materials to contrast the ruinous elements. Celebrating the original structure in this way serves to highlight the ragged edges and deterioration. In other instances architects have approached the task of renovation with a more traditionalist philosophy, respecting or replicating the archaic materiality.
Designboom revisits the ruin renovations and interventions covered in the past to investigate these different approaches.


HyperSity 建筑工作室 :黄土高原的窑洞改造

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Image courtesy of HyperSity Architects

来自中国 HyperSity建筑工作室的项目“窑洞住宅”是对山西地区一处废弃的传统窑洞进行的改造。建筑用夯土建造,使用者是当地的网络红人。原建筑包括一个巨大的圆管拱形凹槽、一个大型前院,以及西南侧三个小型住宅群。建筑师们拆除了辅助空间,完全开放了庭院,并从场地的基本核心元素开始着手设计,即巨大的窑洞空间和开放的前厅。

HyperSity Architects renovates cave house in Loess Plateau
‘The cave house’ by Chinese Studio HyperSity Architects is a renovation of a derelict traditional cave dwelling in the Shanxi region of China. The home is made of rammed earth for a local internet star. The site consists of a large barrel vaulted recess in the the earth with a large front courtyard that contained a cluster of three smaller dwelling along the southwest side. The architects began by demolishing this auxiliary volume to open the courtyard entirely and begin from the basic core elements of the site: a large cavernous space and an open forecourt.


DecaArchitecture工作室:拥有农业石材挡土墙的Aloni住宅

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image by Erieta Attali, ed Reeve, Julia Klimi

希腊DecaArchitecture工作室让干石墙拥有了新用途,这种石材原本常用于希腊Antiparos岛上的农业用地。而建筑师将其用在Aloni住宅之中。过去,这些人为干预景观的功能仅仅是把陡峭的场地改造为一系列可耕种的高原。而如今,Cycladic岛上充斥着许多度假建筑,因此,建筑师们对这些破败石墙加以利用,创造出人工景观,将农业用地和住宅一同规划。当建筑的水平屋顶形成天然桥体时,倾斜的场地也建筑室内空间相互融合在一起。

DecaArchitecture designs ‘Aloni’ residence from repurposed agricultural stone retaining walls
Greek firm DecaArchitecture repurposes dry-rubble stone walls used to domesticate agricultural land on the Greek island of Antiparos. The result is a residential project entitled ‘Aloni.’ In the past, these prominent man-made interventions in the landscape served to transform a steep topography into a series of arable plateaus. Today, the Cycladic islands are being reshaped by a very different force: the demand for holiday homes. DecaArchitecture preserves and utilizes these ruinous stone retaining walls to create an artificial landscape that is programatically both agricultural and residential. While the horizontal roof of the house bridges a natural saddle, apertures allow the sloping land to bleed into the conditioned interior space.


Ferran Vizoso建筑工作室:西班牙废弃教堂

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image © Jose Hevia

Ferran Vizoso建筑工作室对西班牙Tarragona附近的 Corbera d’Ebre教堂进行了修复,原建筑的屋顶结构已经完全被破坏。建筑是城镇的象征,同时是西班牙内战时期遗留下来的遗迹,因此建筑师的目标是恢复砖石结构,将其还原的同时挖掘新特征,建筑师运用了开放平面,让阳光进入室内空间,鸟儿飞越中殿,植物环绕着墙体向上攀爬。

Ferran Vizoso preserves a derelict church in spain
Architect Ferran Vizoso restores the church of Corbera d’Ebre near Tarragona, Spain, whose roof structure was entirely non-existent. As an icon of the town and a relic from the Spanish Civil War, Vizoso aimed to restore the masonry structure to return it to its community, and at the same time preserve its new-found character: an open plan where the sun’s rays flood the previously interior space, birds fly across the nave and vegetation subtly creeps in through the windows and over the walls.


Marià Castelló Martínez建筑工作室:地中海18世纪塔楼修复项目

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image by Marià Castelló

在地中海的一个岛屿上,MariPECastellLIMartellL建筑工作室修复了一座两层高的塔楼,这座建筑的历史可以追溯至18世纪中叶。‘pi des Català’塔楼建于1763年,是西班牙Balearic(巴利阿里群岛)Formentera海岸的防御性瞭望塔。这座直径约12.5米的地标建筑,现已重新装修,可方便公众参观。整个项目中,建筑师使用了统一的材料色调,使其呼应原有特质。

Marià Castelló Martínez restores landmark 18th century tower on a Mediterranean island
On an island in the Mediterranean, Architect Marià Castelló Martínez has restored a two-storey monument that dates back to the mid-18th century. Completed in 1763, the ‘pi des Català’ Tower is one of four defensive lookout structures on the coast of Formentera, the smallest of Spain’s Balearic Islands. The landmark structure, which measures approximately 12.5 meters in diameter, has now been sensitively renovated and is able to facilitate public visits. Throughout the project, Marià Castelló Martínez has used a limited palette of materials that each relate closely in tone to their original counterparts.


三文建筑/何崴工作室:木制书店改造项目

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Image by Zhou Meng

中国三文建筑/何崴工作室将历史悠久的上坪村废弃建筑改造成了宜人的教育空间。该项目经过对该村进行改造,使其成为旅游景点,来展示其宏大的历史。设计目标包括一系列废弃的农业建筑,例如牛棚和谷仓,这些建筑经设计改造为书店,游客可以在这里寻找村庄的历史和文化。在新空间的设计中,建筑师划分了“动”区和“静”区。“动”区是相对活跃的书店,而“静”区用于阅读和冥想。

3andwich maintains rubble from Chinese barn and transforms it into wooden bookstore
China-based Studio 3andwich transforms ancient, derelict structures of the historical Shang ping village into welcoming educational spaces. The goal of the project was to elevate the village to a touristic site to unveil its great history. The design includes a series of abandoned agricultural buildings, including cowsheds and barns which are reprogrammed into a bookstore where tourists might discover the history and culture of the village. In the design of the new spaces, 3andwich designates a ‘live’ zone and a ‘calm’ zone. ‘Live’ is the relatively active bookshop while ‘calm’ is programmed solely for reading and meditation.


MAP Architects工作室:中世纪丹麦废墟中的观测楼梯

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image by David a. Garcia

总部位于哥本哈根的MAP Architects工作室在一座有着700年历史的中世纪废墟中建造了观察楼梯,这是几个世纪以来建筑首次向公众开放。这种设计方式为游客提供了全新的空间体验,人们可以进入、并且登上这座Kalø城堡,这里距离丹麦城市奥胡斯只有20公里。

MAP Architects installs an observational staircase inside a medieval Danish ruin
Copenhagen-based firm MAP Architects has installed an observational staircase within a 700 year-old medieval ruin, making it fully accessible to the public for the first time in centuries. Offering a completely new spatial experience, the intervention allows visitors to enter and climb ‘Kalø Castle’, a historical set of ruins in eastern Jutland, 20 kilometers from the Danish city of Aarhus.


Estudio Castillo Oli:废弃建筑中的la Ruina居住场所

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image © ángel Baltanás

在西班牙北部的Palencia(帕伦西亚),Estudio Castillo Oli建筑工作室将一座破旧的建筑改造成为当代的居住空间,项目名为“la Ruina Habitada”。项目的委托人希望工作室在乡村区域建造一座全新的建筑,而场地上有一座废弃已久的砖石住宅。老房子没有任何出众的特征,但仍然吸引了建筑师的注意,他们将其视为一次改造,来探索新旧空间之间的关系,希望在保留场地记忆的同时,创造全新的、适合居住的改造空间。

Estudio Castillo Oli builds la Ruina habitada within derelict structure
In the rural setting of Palencia in northern Spain, Estudio Castillo Oli has renovated a dilapidated structure into a contemporary living space entitled ‘la Ruina Habitada’ — the inhabited ruin. The project began with a client who commissioned a new home to be built on a site located in the countryside which had on it the masonry shell of a long-abandoned dwelling. Although lacking in any particularly outstanding architectural expression, the structure quickly caught the eye of the architect as an opportunity to treat the project as an intervention exploring the relationship between new and old, preserving the memory of the site while creating a new one — the inhabitable ruin.


皇家Astley城堡的砖石复兴

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All images courtesy of the Landmark Trust

Astley城堡在二战期间被改造成旅馆,这里曾是皇室三代的设防庄园。在遗弃多年之后,建筑保护慈善机构Landmark Trust决定将这座建筑进行修复,为此他们举办了竞赛,邀请建筑师构思住宅和周围花园的改造方案。

总部位于伦敦的Witherford Watson Mann Architects工作室从竞赛中脱颖而出,他们为这座古老的建筑注入了新生命。考虑到项目的规模,建筑师提出了新旧关系的概念,即如何在不破坏历史形象的前提下,为老建筑增添新结构,从而尽可能多地保留空间的原始氛围。

The historic royal family’s Astley Castle sees a renovation in brick
Astley Castle originally served as the royal family’s fortified manor for three generations before being turned into a hotel during the Second World War. After years of abandon, it became a ruined curiosity for those who knew of its location until the Landmark Trust — a building preservation charity — proposed to restore the structure. A competition took place for which architects were invited to submit proposals for the renovation of the residence and surrounding gardens.
London-based Studio Witherford Watson Mann Architects was chosen to carry out the project, breathing a new life into the ancient construction. Given a project of this scale, the studio questioned relationship between the old and new — how the new structure might fortify the collapsing ruin without stripping it of its historical image. To retain as much of the original feel of the space as possible.


Aleaolea工作室:西班牙哥特式Vilanova del la Barca教堂改造项目

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all images by Adriá Goula

13世纪西班牙Vilanova de la Barca哥特式教堂因内战期间的一场爆炸而损毁,自那以后,教堂便不再使用,但是其后殿、部分正厅和部分西立面仍然得以保留。在对这座教堂进行翻修时,巴塞罗那的Aleaolea工作室希望在保留这座古老建筑原貌的同时,将旧建筑改造成全新的多功能大厅。因此,该项目在新与旧、过去与现在之间建立了联系。

Aleaolea restores Spanish gothic ruins of the church of Vilanova del la Barca
The 13th century Spanish gothic church of Vilanova de la Barca was partially demolished in 1936 as a result of bombings during the Spanish Civil War. The church had been in a state of ruin since then, with only its apse, some fragments of the naves and the west façade remaining. In their renovation of this church, Barcelona-based studio Aleaolea aimed to retain the original appearance of the ancient building while transforming the old structure into a new multi-purpose hall. The project establishes a dialogue between the old parts and the new elements, between the past and the present.

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