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简约又粗野的混凝土,它该如何应用呢?第1张图片

© via Flickr Fernando Stankuns  Licença CC BY-NC-SA 2.0. ImageFAUUSP / Vilanova Artigas

建筑设计中混凝土的使用技巧
Tips For Using Concrete in Architecture

由专筑网李韧,吴静雅编译

建筑师看来,混凝土甚至成为了一种信仰,当前这种材料在建筑工程中广泛应用,从基础设施到住宅建筑,混凝土为建筑师带来了极大的发挥空间。在本文中,我们将展示混凝土的基本结构,及其变形缝的作用,然后介绍关于混凝土的使用技巧。

In the eyes of an architect, concrete is practically a fetish. Currently, it's used in a wide range of projects and buildings, from infrastructure to residential, and offers an architect a great deal of freedom in generating eye-catching results. To start, we will show you how to pre-dimension concrete structures and understand what cracks in concrete structures mean. Continue reading to get our tips on how to use concrete and get the best result possible.

简约又粗野的混凝土,它该如何应用呢?第2张图片

Casa Concreto / Grupo MM. Image © Iván Casillas

将其作为清水元素

混凝土其实就是“物美价廉”的代名词,因为这种材料并不需要额外的衬托,但是,它仍然需要一定程度的维护,尤其是当混凝土直接暴露于空气之中的时候。因此在设计时,应当一开始就考虑天气及当地气候因素,另外也可以考虑一些混合物的制作,因为这样会形成最优化的工作成果,以及形成一些小孔隙材料。

Consider its Level of Exposure to the Elements
It's true that concrete is synonymous with "economic" since the structure doesn't require any additional lining. However, a certain degree of care is essential in undergoing the process, especially since your concrete will be directly exposed to all kinds of weather. It's fundamental that you consider these weather factors from the very beginning and the impact that they will have on your finished product. Furthermore, it's necessary to specify the composition of the mix that you will use, allowing for optimal workability and minimal pores and crevices in the structure.

简约又粗野的混凝土,它该如何应用呢?第3张图片

Centro Roberto Garza Sada / Tadao Ando. Image Cortesia de Agencia EFE

为了防止污染物的感染,在使用混凝土之前应该先经过灭菌杀毒的过程。而细部的设计在整体结构中也同样重要,例如在檐口中,工人可以通过防潮来防止日后出现的各种问题。

特殊处理的树脂和清漆

因为混凝土是多孔材料,因此需要结合特殊处理的树脂、清漆,以及防水材料,这样才能够防止材料被腐蚀。而市面上有许多的材料可以进行选择,同时,设计时也可以咨询专业人员。因为有的材料可能对某种混凝土并没有多大作用,而有的材料却有可能增加其亮度或增加其强度,有些清漆和树脂具有防水性能,另外的密封胶则能有效防止酸雨等其他有害物质的腐蚀。

In the case of possible leakage and/or mold infestations and other pathogens, the preemptive use of fungicides, anti-bacterials, and sealants are indispensable. The design details will also play a part in the structure's defense against the elements. For example, the use of eaves prevents humidity and the various problems that it causes.

Specify the Resin and Varnish
Because concrete is a porous material, it's important to be specific about the resin, varnish, and water-proofing that you will use to protect your work against the wear of time and harsh bactericides. There are many different products available for your specific needs, and enlisting the help of a technical consultant can be invaluable for an optimal result. Some products have little to no effect on concrete once they are applied while others can add brightness or intensify its tonality. Certain varnishes and resins only protect against water damage, while other sealants protect against acid rain, other corrosive agents in the air, and mold.

简约又粗野的混凝土,它该如何应用呢?第4张图片

MUBE / Paulo Mendes da Rocha. Image © FLAGRANTE

保护金属构件

一般来说,如果直接让金属构件直接暴露在空气当中或者与水直接接触,会导致这些构件的生锈或严重损坏,因此在设计时除了结构计算预先确定的尺寸外,可以考虑添加混凝土层,或者通过混凝土制作模具,来达到保护金属构件的作用。

Protect the Metalwork

Never allow the structure's metal and ironwork to be exposed as contact with water and other outside elements can cause seriously compromise the structure. It is recommended that, along with the dimensions predetermined by the structural calculations, you consider an additional layer of concrete over the structure to prevent water and mold from reaching the metalwork.

简约又粗野的混凝土,它该如何应用呢?第5张图片

Casa Xieira II / A2 + Arquitectos. Image © Fernando Guerra | FG+SG

为项目选择合适的结构框架

结构框架由混凝土、沙子、水混合制作而成,而混凝土通过干燥之后,可以依据使用者的需求进行模具的塑造。而结构框架也可以由多种材料制作而成,从而形成不同的肌理与效果。

木材框架的应用较为广泛,它由单独的模板或木板组成,对于前者,你可以应用木材之中的自然肌理,亦或是进行平整处理。而木板也可以通过加工而形成最为适应的形态,同时拥有自然匀称的外观形态,如果维护得当,木材还是一种可以重复利用的材料(这是一种节省项目费用的简便方法)。

Choose the Adequate Framework for Your Project
The framework supports the mixture of cement, sand, and water up until it dries. Once dry, the concrete will take the shape of the mold according to the desired look by the architect and the client. The framework can consist of a variety of materials, yielding a diverse array of textures and appearances.
Wooden frameworks are widely used and are made up of individual boards or planks. In the case of the former, you can take advantage of the natural knots found in the wood or go for a smoother finish. The boards can be resined for optimal adaptability or laminated for a smoother and more uniform appearance. If adequate precautions are taken, wood can be reused (an easy way to save money on a project).

简约又粗野的混凝土,它该如何应用呢?第6张图片

Galeria Leme / METRO Arquitetos + Paulo Mendes da Rocha. Image © Leonardo Finotti

相较于木材,金属框架可以提供最佳效益,因为这种材料同样满足再利用需求,同时也有很好的强度,建造起来也十分迅速。另外,金属也有着匀称的肌理,因此适用于大型项目,因为它在更短时间内具有很高的生产率。

Metal frameworks provide optimal benefits when compared to wood since they allow for complete reutilization, better resistance, and a faster set up time. Metal also provides a smoother texture, recommended for bigger projects as it allows for optimal productivity in a shorter amount of time.

简约又粗野的混凝土,它该如何应用呢?第7张图片

Lamas House / moarqs + OTTOLENGHI architects. Image © Albano Garcia

记住那些适用于不同项目的不同材料框架

在运用混凝土进行施工时,请始终牢记成品的特质,以及结构框架对于其的影响方式,因为这不仅仅意味着技术策略,还影响着视觉效果。在大多数项目中,木材常常横向排列,但建筑师仍然会添加许多肌理效果。然而,正如前文所述,不要忘记暴露在空气当中的材料,因为水蒸气容易通过模具的间隙而渗透。在Casa das Histórias Paula Rego项目之中,Souto de Moura在金字塔体量的上部进行了对角线式的排列,因此随着时间的流逝,最终的成品形成了树状。

Keep in Mind the Frameworks That Match the Qualities of Your Project
As you build with concrete, always keep in mind the end product's quality and how the framework will impact it. This means thinking not only in the technical aspects of the work, but the visual as well. In the majority of projects, it's common to find molds arranged in the horizontal direction of the wood, but nothing can stop the architect from deciding on different patterns. However, as stated before, don't forget to consider your work's exposure to the elements, especially since water tends to drip in through the cracks of a mold's design. In Casa das Histórias Paula Rego, Souto de Moura arranged the forms diagonally in the upper part of the pyramidal volumes, so that with the passage of time, a pattern was formed in the shape of a tree.

简约又粗野的混凝土,它该如何应用呢?第8张图片

Casa das Histórias Paula Rego / Eduardo Souto de Moura. Image © Pedro Kok

灰色混凝土还是彩色混凝土?

混凝土的自然色调便是灰色,但是近年来颜料的运用也愈发普遍,诸如红色、黄色、绿色、黑色、蓝色等色彩层出不穷,而防水涂层也愈发流行,多亏于此色彩也能够让某个项目脱颖而出。

在不影响混凝土物理特性的前提下,可以在干混凝土中加入色彩添加剂,每公斤混凝土的添加比例约为2-5%。

Grey or Pigmented Concrete?
Even though concrete gives off grey tones in its natural state, the use of pigment for coloration is becoming increasingly common. With a variety of reds, yellows, greens, blacks, and cobalt blue tones, water-resistant coloring is becoming increasingly popular on the market. Thanks to this, it's easier than ever to make your work stand out.
Without impacting the physical characteristics of the concrete, these new color additives maintain their quality when incorporated into the dry concrete mix. It is best to use 2-5% pigment per kilo of mix.

简约又粗野的混凝土,它该如何应用呢?第9张图片

Casa Terra / Bernardes Arquitetura. Image © Leonardo Finotti

矫正瑕疵

最后,你可以采取一些特殊的措施来维护混凝土的质量,如果混凝土的表面出现了一些瑕疵,那么你可以通过粉刷进行修正,例如运用混凝土、丙烯酸添加剂、水、金属泥刀等混合物,让其表面更加光滑。

Correcting Imperfections
Finally, special precautions you should take to assure the final quality of the concrete. In the event of defects in the concrete, it's necessary to undergo a stuccoing process that will fill in the pores and create a smooth surface using a mixture of cement, acrylic additive, water, and a metal trowel. This will correct any imperfections.

简约又粗野的混凝土,它该如何应用呢?第10张图片

Lamas House / moarqs + OTTOLENGHI architects. Image © Albano Garcia

项目的每一个特殊细节

在项目的技术规划阶段,设计团队应该仔细审查每一个施工细节,例如铁制工艺、混凝土混合物各成分含量,亦或是预先测量屋檐、排水沟、变形缝等细部尺寸,这能够在未来的施工与使用中避免许多问题。

Specify Every Detail of the Project
During the technical planning stage of the project, it's important that your team reviews every detail of the construction process: the ironwork, measuring the contents of the concrete mixture, pre-dimensioning the structure along with its eaves, gutters, expansion joints, as well as other aspects that will allow you to avoid future problems with the proposed design.

简约又粗野的混凝土,它该如何应用呢?第11张图片

Casa Reduz / Studio MK27. Image © Fernando Guerra | FG+SG

挑战多样性

事实上,除了立面与墙体,混凝土同样可以应用于家具系统。

Bet on Versatility
Along with being used for facades or interior walls, concrete can be used for other systems, such as furniture.

简约又粗野的混凝土,它该如何应用呢?第12张图片

Pavilhão / METRO Arquitetos. Image © Leonardo Finotti

简约又粗野的混凝土,它该如何应用呢?第13张图片

Casa en Cassà / Ricard Galiana + Yago Oliva. Image © Nani Pujol

简约又粗野的混凝土,它该如何应用呢?第14张图片

Wabi House / Tadao Ando. Image © Edmund Summer


参考
AECweb. Como especificar fôrmas para concreto? Conheça os principais critérios. Disponível em: <https://www.aecweb.com.br/cont/m/rev/como-especificar-formas-para-concreto-conheca-os-principais-criterios_16627_39_0>. Acesso em 28 de Julho 2018.
Cuidados para a execução do concreto aparente. Disponível em:<http://www.mapadaobra.com.br/capacitacao/cuidados-para-execucao-de-concreto-aparente/>. Acesso em 29 Julho 2018.
Metro Modular. Fôrmas para concreto aparente. Disponível em: <http://www.metromodular.com.br/forma-concreto-aparente>. Acesso em 28 Julho 2018.

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